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# Atomic structure and Bonding

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### Atomic structure and Bonding

1. 1. Atomic Structure and Bonding What We Will Cover: •Subatomic Particles •Atomic Number •Atomic Mass Unit Number and Calculations •Electron Arrangement •Bonding – Ionic and Covalent
2. 2. Sub Atomic Particles • Protons • Neutrons • Electrons
3. 3. Protons + + • • • • + Located in nucleus of atom Has a positive charge Number of Protons = Atomic Number Has 1 AMU in mass (Atomic Mass Unit)
4. 4. Neutrons • • • • Located in nucleus of atom Has NO electrical charge Has mass of 1 amu Number of neutrons usually is equal to number of protons
5. 5. Quiz – Subatomic Particles 1.The positive particle is the ___. 2.The negative particle is the ___. 3.The neutral particle is the ___. 4.The proton is the same as the __ number. 5.The two particles located inside the nucleus are the __ and the __. 6.Each of these particles have a mass of ___.
6. 6. Electrons • Located outside the nucleus of the atom • Housed in Electrical Clouds, Shells, Orbits • Has a negative charge • Does not have an amu because of tiny size • Moves around the nucleus in an orbit
7. 7. Hydrogen Atom Electron Cloud
8. 8. Quick Quiz – Subatomic Particles (continued) 7. The electron ___ around the nucleus. 8. The ___ electrons are the outer ___ electrons and are involved in ___ bonding. 9.To find the number of neutrons in an atom you subtract the __ number from the ___ number.
9. 9. Atomic Numbers • Number used to arrange the Periodic Table • Increase Left to Right • Same as number of Protons or Electrons in a neutral atom
10. 10. Atomic Mass • The sum of the Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus. • Also called Atomic Weight Protons +Neutrons Atomic Weight
11. 11. Electron Arrangement • Electrons orbit the nucleus in Energy levels • The first level (or cloud, or shell) contains up to 2 electrons • The second level contains up to 8 electrons • The third level contains up to 18 electrons • 4th 32; 5th 50; 6th 72 max in shell
12. 12. Electron Arrangement ctd. • The electrons in the outermost shell (if it is not completely full) are available for bonding • These electrons are called Valence Electrons • Bonding is the chemical combining of 2 or more atoms.
13. 13. Quick Quiz – Numbers, Electron Arrangement 10. The __ __ is used to arrange the periodic table as it increases from __ to __. 11. The atomic number is the same as the number of ___ . 12. The __ number is the sum of protons and neutrons inside the ___. 13. The outermost electrons are the __ electrons and they orbit the nucleus in __ levels. 14. Bonding is the ___________ combining of 2 or more ____________________
14. 14. Bonding • The process when 2 or more atoms combine chemically is known as Bonding • The 2 we are learning today are • Ionic Bonding • Covalent Bonding
15. 15. Ionic Bonding • Electrons are either gained or lost by atom • One atom is positive +, One is negative • Occurs between Metals and Nonmetals • Metals lose electrons • Nonmetals gain electrons • Very strong bond – usually solids - with high melting temperatures
16. 16. Sodium and Chlorine
17. 17. Sodium – a soft grey highly flammable metal + Chlorine – a highly poisonous green gas
18. 18. = (equals) Table Salt
19. 19. Lithium and Fluorine diagram shows Ionic Bonding in action
20. 20. Common Ionic Bonds • NaCl Sodium Chloride Table Salt • CuSo4 Copper Sulfate Kills algae • NaHCO3 Baking & Health Baking Soda
21. 21. Quiz – Bonding Ionic 15. In ionic bonding electrons are either _ or _. 16. __ lose electrons and ___ gain electrons. 17. A positive ions has __ electrons and a negative ion has __ electrons. 18. __ bonds are strong, usually solid, and have __ melting and boiling points. 19.The magic number of valence electrons needed by all but two atoms is ___. 20.Name two common ionic bonds.
22. 22. Covalent Bonding • Electrons are shared between atoms (co) • Neither atom has an electrical charge • Forces between atoms are weak – have low boiling or melting points • Usually are liquids or gasses • If a solid is usually a crystal
23. 23. Water Methane
24. 24. Common Covalent Bonds • H2O Water • CH4 Methane • C3H8 Propane
25. 25. Quick Quiz – Bonding Covalent 21. In a covalent bond, electrons are ___. 22. Neither atom has a ___. 23. Intermolecular forces __ __ are weak. 24. Covalent bonds have ___ melting and ___ points. 25. Covalent bonds are usually found in these two states of matter. 26. Two common covalent compounds are __ and __.
26. 26. Covalent – Share Electrons Ionic – Gain or Lose Electrons