Ask how the G.M. can control the boundaries of authority among managers in an organization. Chapter 3 (“Management and Supervision Skills for the G.M”) discusses the distribution of authority. It focuses on types of authority (advisory, line, functional) used by either staff- or line- managers. Defining the boundaries of authority closely relates to a management basic (“delegation”) discussed in Chapter 3.
When discussing examples of ways in which H.R. personnel assist in overall hotel operation, emphasize that the H.R. department works closely with ALL employees. It does not unilaterally develop policies and mandate “how things should be done” relative to employee management.
Clearly distinguish the definitions for a job description and job specification. Use a sample job description and job specification for a Human Resource Director (Figure 4.1). Discuss how the job description and job specification can be used as a tool for recruiting, selection, orientation, training, performance evaluation, etc. Question 3 in “Issues at Work” (Chapter 4) asks students to prepare the job description and job specification, following the pattern used in Chapter 4, for their first job.
Stress that the job specification must address only legitimate BOQs.
Question 4 in “Issues at Work” (Chapter 4) discusses the challenges of an H.R. director / G.M may confront when making decisions in support of a drug-free hotel. Use this question to facilitate discussion about drug-testing issues.
Define “zero tolerance” as total absence of behavior that is objectionable from discrimination or harassment perspectives.
Note exceptions of a minimum wage to be paid to employees - such as youthful employees being paid a training wage for the first 90 days of employment & some tipped employees. The text discusses laws related to taxes including income tax, Federal Insurance Contribution Act, Federal Unemployment Tax Act, Earned Income Credit, and Work Opportunity Tax Credit. Some hotels use a progressive discipline system: a process in which repeated infractions result in increasingly severe penalties. If wished, an instructor may revisit the steps in a progressive discipline process as discussed in Chapter 3 (“Management and Supervision Skills for the G.M.). Provide examples of unacceptable reasons for termination.
Note that it becomes more difficult to attract job applicants as unemployment rates decrease. Review advantages / disadvantages of each recruiting tactic, and of internal and external recruiting methods.
Note that human resources personnel often refer applicants to line department personnel for a second selection interview. Then the appropriate line managers can make a selection decision (final selection decision is made by appropriate line managers, not solely by H.R. staff).
To facilitate an effective orientation program, many hotels utilize an employee handbook (employee manual) that includes written policies and procedures related to employment at the hotel.
Chapter 3 (Figure 3.11) shows extensive lists for “train the trainer” tactics.
Discuss the importance of employee compensation in effective recruitment and retention of employees. The text discusses various responsibilities that an effective H.R. staff and G.M., perform to manage a benefits program including 1) determining objectives for the benefit program, 2) facilitating discussion with employees about the desired benefits desired, 3) communicating the “benefit” of benefits, and 4) monitoring costs Question 5 in “Issues at Work” (Chapter 4) asks about appropriate benefits for salaried staff vs. hourly-paid staff.
Continuous Quality Improvement relates to ongoing efforts within the hotel to better meet (or exceed) guest expectations and to define ways to perform work with better, less costly and faster methods.
Aspects of HR
Chapter 4: Human Resources
H.R. Department Roles H.R. is both line & staff function H.R. specialists Line managers <ul><ul><li>Helping line managers with H.R. related duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employee selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compensation </li></ul></ul>G.M. must define authority boundaries between line- & staff managers. Making final employee selection decision Providing departmental-specific orientation Initiating ongoing training Supervision activities (e.g., performance appraisal)
H.R. Department Roles (continued…) How H.R. personnel assist in hotel’s overall operation Implementing policies to effectively recruit, select, motivate, and retain the most qualified management and non-management staff Developing and delivering orientation, safety, security, supervisory, and some department-specific training programs Developing and communicating H.R. policies that are equitable and fair to all employees while protecting the rights of the hotel Interpreting, implementing, and enforcing the ever-increasing body of laws and regulations Helping to maintain appropriate standards of work life quality and ethical business policies and practices
Staffing the H.R. Department Job descriptions Job specifications Two staffing tools A list of tasks that an employee in a specific position must be able to perform effectively Statements about duties, responsibilities, working conditions & specific job activities Example: H.R. Director (recruitment, selection, evaluation, promotion) A list of personal qualities necessary for successful performance of the tasks required by the job description Statements about knowledge, skills, education, physical & personal characteristics Example: H.R. Director (considerable knowledge of principles & practices of H.R. management)
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Employee Selection Bonified Occupational Qualifications (BOQs): Qualifications to perform a job that are judged reasonably necessary to safely or adequately perform all tasks within that job Education or certification requirements Language skills Previous experience Minimum age (for jobs such as waitress or bartender) Physical attributes (amounts able to be lifted, carried etc.) Licensing Legitimate BOQs
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Employee Selection (continued…) Tools to screen employee applicants Employment applications Interviews Only provide info directly relating to the job Demographic info, employment history, educational background, criminal history, employment status, references, drug testing Testing Other Race, religion and physical traits should not be asked Age may be asked only for the purpose of legal requirements Follow strict state guidelines and requirements for pre-employment drug testing Obtain applicant’s permission in writing for background and reference checks
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Employee Selection (continued…) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: Employers cannot discriminate against employees on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Prohibits discrimination against job candidates with disabilities Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967) Protects individuals 40 yrs and older Immigration Reform & Control Act (1987) Prohibits hiring illegal immigrants Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) Protects young workers from employment interfering with education or that is detrimental to health
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Employment Relationships “ At-will” employment Employment agreement Employees can elect to work for the employer or terminate the work relationship anytime Employers can hire or terminate any employees with or without cause at any time Document specifying the terms of the employer – employee work relationship Indicates rights and obligations of both parties
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Workplace Laws Sexual harassment Family & Medical Leave (1993) One cannot ask favors of a subordinate in exchange for employment benefits; neither can one punish an employee if an offer is rejected. <ul><li>A G.M. should follow strict zero tolerance policy & procedures </li></ul><ul><li>issuing of appropriate policies </li></ul><ul><li>conducting applicable workshops </li></ul><ul><li>developing procedures to obtain relief </li></ul><ul><li>developing written protocols for reporting </li></ul><ul><li>investigating & resolving incidents & grievances </li></ul>Hotels (employing 50 or more staff) should provide up to 12 weeks of leave (unpaid) to an employee for a birth, adoption of a child or serious illness of immediate family members.
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Workplace Laws (continued…) Compensation Employee performance Unemployment issues Unemployment insurance (allowing temporary financial benefits to employees who have lost jobs) Unemployment claim (asserting the worker is eligible for unemployment benefits) Employee evaluation (assuring work performance [nothing else] forms the basis for employee evaluations) Discipline (effectively communicating and consistently enforcing workplace rules and policies) Termination (preventing unacceptable termination of employee/s) The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) establishes minimum wage, overtime work rates, and equal pay regardless of gender.
Legal Aspects of H.R.: Workplace Laws (continued…) Employment records Selected employee records should be maintained. Examples of record keeping: <ul><li>Department of Labor records (e.g., employee’s name, address, gender, job </li></ul><ul><li>title, work schedule, hourly rate, regular and overtime earnings, wage </li></ul><ul><li>deductions and payday dates) </li></ul><ul><li>any deductions from wages for meals, uniforms, or lodging </li></ul><ul><li>amount of tips reported (for tipped employees) </li></ul><ul><li>covered leave and amount of leave for eligible employees </li></ul><ul><li>(Family & Medical Leave Act) </li></ul><ul><li>employment eligibility verification (Immigration Reform & Control Act) </li></ul><ul><li>personnel matters & benefit plans (Age Discrimination & Employment Act) </li></ul>
H.R. Department at Work: Recruitment Internal recruiting External recruiting Recruitment methods Focusing on internal applicants for vacant positions Focusing on internal applicants for vacant positions “ Promotion from within” Alerting friends and relatives of current employees Recruitment is not solely the job of H.R. department Current staff can impact hotel’s turnover rate Hiring from outside sources Newspaper and other media advertisements / job fairs / executive search firms / recruiting at schools / “help wanted” signs Attracting external candidates
H.R. Department at Work: Selection Selection: Evaluating job applicants to determine those more qualified (or potentially more qualified) for positions. Selection devices Employment interviews Employment tests Preliminary screening (reviewing application) Reference checks Drug tests
H.R. Department at Work: Orientation Orientation: Providing basic information about the hotel which must be known by all its employees. Goals Reducing anxiety Improving morale Reducing turnover Providing consistency Developing realistic expectations Contents Hotel overview (mission statement) Guest service / relations training Emphasis on teamwork Policies and procedures including handbook Compensation and benefits Guest safety & security Employee & union relations Property tour
H.R. Department at Work: Training Training is absolutely critical to the hotel’s success ! <ul><ul><li>Group training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized training </li></ul></ul>Effective when several (or more) staff must learn the same thing Use of a role-play (e.g., upselling training for front desk agents) One-to-one training method Mainly responsible for individualized line departments Improve knowledge or skills of staff New employees and experienced staff need training Ongoing professional development can motivate staff and help employees’ advancement opportunities Implement “train the trainer” program
H.R. Department at Work: Performance Evaluation Goals Determine where staff can improve performance Assess eligibility for pay raises and promotions Improve morale Assure legal compliance H.R. Dept. Roles Develop policies & procedures for property-wide system Communicate these policies & procedures to all staff Address and resolve employee concerns as they arise File performance evaluation results in employee records
H.R. Department at Work: Performance Evaluation (continued…) Steps of performance appraisal system Performance standards are established for each position Evaluation information is filed Policies (e.g., frequency of rating) are established Data is gathered about employee performance Raters must evaluate performance Discuss performance evaluation with employees
The H.R. Department at Work: Compensation Effective compensation programs should be: Establish pay for specific positions based on: What other employers attempting to attract the same applicants pay. What employees working on different jobs in the hotel are paid. What other employees working on same jobs within the hotel are paid. Legal / fair / balanced / cost effective / viewed as reasonable by staff Compensation: All financial & non-financial rewards given to managers & non-management staff in return for their work. Salary / wages Direct financial compensation Benefits (health insurance, paid vacations, etc.) Indirect financial compensation
H.R. Department at Work: Employee Safety & Health H.R. staff assistance for health related activities Work-related accidents & illnesses Working conditions e.g., greasy floors in kitchen Work to be done e.g., cooks using knives Developing and selecting programs to help employees cope with stress Developing procedures applicable to workplace violence Communicating updated info about HIV in the workplace Providing info about cumulative trauma disorders
H.R. Department at Work: Workforce & Work Quality Improvement Professional development Cultural diversity Continuous quality improvement Improving work quality TECHNIQUES