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  1. 1. 1 A STUDY ON ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT CENTRE (ADC) IN MADHYA GUJRAT VIJ COMPANY LTD TO Bachelors of Business Administration, Faculty of Commerce, M.S. University of Baroda GUIDE BY Ms. NEHA TIWARI PRITI HEMANT NASHIKKAR T.Y.B.B.A (H.R) Roll No: (H) 28
  2. 2. 2 PREFACE Many of the organization in today scenario are whether product manufacturer or service provider continuously faces competition. This competition at all levels; local, national, and global. Most of the organizations have a vision of achieving that vision, perhaps the most important components, is staff that does great work that is directed towards the mission and strategies of the organization. Thus, it is inevitable for every organization to ensure that these human assets are nurtured, groomed and developed in a manner that increases the likelihood of achievement of the organizational goal. It is in the context one has to look at the overall all growth. The employee development is no longer for the sake of annual routine formality. Assessment Development Centre is a very important tool in the hand of the Human Resource Professional to improve the quality of human resource in the organization. The assessment data can be used for promotion It can be also used for deciding training needs of the employees on the contrary, AssessmentDevelopment centre is perhaps, the process by which an organization can assess , appraise its human resources and take appropriate steps. This study presents the views and opinions of employees regarding Assessment Development Centre at Madhya Gujarat Vij Company Limited. It represents their opinions regarding the assessment which took place ,and development process is still going on in their organization and also its effectiveness.
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT There are times when words cannot express thankfulness. Though the gratitude to the individuals without whom my learning would not have been possible, cannot express in words. I have tried my best to thank all of them. I would like to thank Faculty of Commerce, BBA Programme for incorporating this Project study in course and giving me an opportunity to have experience of professional world through it. I take this opportunity to thank each and every one, who laid their contribution in the making of this thesis. It was an enriching experience from learning to conducting the research and to compile the work. First and foremost, I express my sincere gratitude to my guide Ms.Neha Tiwari for her valuable guidance has been fulfilling and enriching. Her constant motivation and faith in my work motivated me each day to endeavor for better. I truly appreciate for showing her patience towards me. Special thanks to all the respondents for cooperating during the collection of the data for this research. I would also like to extend my gratitude towardsDy G.M. HR P.R.Ranpara, Madhya Gujrat Vij Company Limited for granting me permission for collection of the data. I thank Executive (HR) D.C.Sheth, Jr.E H.G.Nashikkar for helping me to collect data I also acknowledge to Dr Pragnesh Shah( Programme Director, BBA) and Mrs Anshu Surve(Assistant Programme Director, BBA) as they have always extended help to me whenever I needed it. I am really thankful for their guidance and co-operation.
  4. 4. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS: Sr. No. Title Page no. 1 Preface 2 2 Acknowledgement 3 3 Review of Literature 5 4 Introduction of ADC 11 5 Assessment Centre 13 6 Development Centre 21 7 Competency 23 8 Company Profile 29 9 Process of ADC 32 10 Research methodology 51 11 Data Analysis 53 12 Findings 62 13 Recommendations 63 14 Conclusion 64 15 Questionnaire 65 16 Bibliography 68
  5. 5. 5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE (ROL) ASSESSMENT CENTERS An overview of the use of assessment centers to standardize the evaluation of potential employees. ASSESSMENT CENTERS RESEARCH PAPER BY JPWRITE Description: This paper studies the development and use of assessment centers to eliminate unfair and unequal employee selection procedures. The paper defines the purpose of assessment centers as providing a standardized evaluation of behavior based on multiple exercises and observations. The paper then provides a historical review of assessment centers, which reached large scale implementation for the first time in the military during World War II. Next, paper discusses the essential elements of an assessment center, explaining that it is multi-faceted and goes well beyond panel interviews or single techniques and assessors. The paper also examines how assessment centers aid employers in making decisions about candidates and how the use of these centers protects potential candidate from biased criteria. The paper concludes by discussing how assessment centers increase the validity and acceptance of the results From the Paper: "The first private sector use of assessment centers was seen in the Michigan Bell Telephone Company. They became the first company to establish an assessment center program for operational use, specifically to assess the qualifications of long-term, non-management employees for the purpose of moving into managerial positions. Companies to follow suit were Standard Oil of Ohio, IBM, Sears Roebuck, General Electric, and J. C. Penney (MacKinnon, 1975, p. 2-3). The first use of assessment centers in uniformed public service, such as police and fire services, can be found in England. The British are considered to have pioneered this process and have led the field for many years (Olson, 1981, p. 2). Perhaps the most historically influential use of the assessment center process can be found in the American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Management Progress Study which took place from 1956 through 1960. This was strictly a study and the results were not used for actual promotional decisions within the company. The steps taken in the study almost mirror the steps taken in
  6. 6. 6 creating and implementing an assessment center in any organization. Characteristics of successful managers were identified, including dimensions such as managerial functions, interpersonal relations, general abilities, attitude, and values. Candidates were then rated on each of the variables through the use of exercises designed to cover each of the characteristics. An in-basket exercise was used which required the assesses to prioritize and carry out multiple administrative tasks which might be found on a manager's desk. A business game and a group discussion allowed assessors to observe the behaviors associated with group problem solving and communication skills. An interview was used to cover the areas of attitude and values, and several pen and paper tests were administered as well." ACCORDING TOAMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION Psychologists transform a military method for evaluating spy candidates into an accurate predictor of managerial potential for industry and local governments. Findings Borrowing methods used by the Office of Strategic Services (precursor to the CIA) to select agents in the Second World War, psychologists have been instrumental in bringing the assessment center method to industry and government to evaluate job applicants and to aid in the development of managers and executives. Assessment centers, which simulate real situations in the workplace, are widely used in identifying individuals who have the abilities and skills to succeed in managerial and executive jobs and to help guide the development of managerial skills and talent. The content of assessment centers varies somewhat across organizations, but there are a number of assessment exercises that are widely used and that convey the essential features of this method (See Thornton citation for more detailed descriptions). For example, the Leaderless Group Discussion is often used to evaluate emergent leadership and social skills. This exercise involves assembling a group of examinees and asking them to discuss a specific topic for a set period of time. No formal roles are assigned to examinees, and assessors observe how each examinee reacts to and attempts to impose structure on this
  7. 7. 7 ambiguous situation. Another typical exercise is to use role-playing, where, for example, examinees might be asked to play the role of a manager interacting with a difficult employee (who might be a confederate of the assessment team). Psychologist Douglas Bray, PhD, implemented the first industrial use of assessment centers in 1956 as part of a research study involving AT&T. In 1974, Dr. Bray and fellow psychologists Richard Campbell, PhD, and Donald Grant, PhD, published the long-term effects of the AT&T program. Their findings showed that assessments done early in a manager's career were still valid predictors of performance and valid indicators of strengths and weaknesses twenty years later. Additional analyses of assessment center effectiveness by psychologists Winfred Arthur, Jr., PhD, and colleagues, Barbara Gaugler, PhD, and colleagues and John Hinrichs, PhD, all support the conclusions that assessment centers provide valid and useful assessments in organizational settings. Significance The selection and development of managers and executives had long been conducted on a fairly haphazard basis, relying on the experience, hunches and biases of decision makers in organizations. Standardized tests have not been widely accepted in selecting and evaluating managers and executives, in part because of the seeming gap between the simple skills measured by tests and the complex skills (especially people-oriented skills) believed to be critical for managers and executives. The assessment center method provides a sort of wide-ranging, multidimensional assessment that has a strong record of both research significance and practical effectiveness to be accepted by participants and decision-makers alike. Practical Application Assessment centers are often the method of choice for selecting senior leaders in government and municipal jobs, including police chiefs and fire captains. Because assessment centers give candidates opportunities to demonstrate behaviors and skills that are manifestly job related, the results of these evaluations are more readily accepted by candidates and by the individuals they will lead than the results of equally valid objective tests. The results of assessment centers are increasingly being used to guide the type and sequence of developmental activities
  8. 8. 8 candidates for managerial and executive jobs go through. For example, many organizations have detailed succession plans, and assessment centers are a key component of identifying the sorts of job experiences and assignments a potential future executive should have in order to develop and demonstrate specific job- related skills. It is common for candidates for many managerial and executive jobs to participate in assessment centers that might last for up to several days, involving a combination of individual testing and evaluation and group-based exercises. Assessment centers usually provide a profile of each individual's strengths and weaknesses (e.g., assessment centers used by AT&T provided ratings on 25 separate dimensions of performance and effectiveness), and organizations often target training opportunities and job assignments toward developing areas noted at time of assessment as relative weaknesses. These assessments usually provide information about a variety of job-related skills (e.g., planning, setting priorities) and more generalized skills in dealing with others (e.g., oral communication, empathy), and they may also provide information about the values and preferences of examinees. ASSESSMENT CENTRE PROJECT Assessment Centre Project to Develop and Assess Employability Skills Fiona Factor in co-operation with Alex de Mont, Department of Applied Social Studies The aim of the Project was to give students an insight into what to expect during a recruitment process by simulating an assessment centre experience, something quite different from everything else they have experienced. Students also gained a level of skills development to face assessment centre activities with confidence. OUTCOME Apart from the feedback, students benefit from getting to know more about themselves, what they should focus on when preparing for graduate applications and exploring group working and team dynamics. Students benefit mainly from the simulated experience and skills development; they learned to think on their feet through the many
  9. 9. 9 exercises used (for instance the elevator pitch). ASSESSMENT CENTERS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PRACTICE AND RESEARCH Filip Lievens, Ghent University, George C. Thornton III, Colorado State University The assessment center method continues to be used in a variety of organizational settings and to generate numerous research studies. In recent years, assessment centers have been used for a variety of purposes with an increasingly diverse set of jobs in countries around the world. Developments in assessment center practice in the past few years include new dimensions being assessed with innovations in assessment methods employing computer and web-based technology. Although these are often innovative applications, it is unfortunate that systematic research about their validity and utility in comparison with established practices is typically lacking. Developments in research include innovative studies regarding the criterion- related validity of assessment centers and regarding the unique contribution of assessment centers over alternative assessment procedures. Recent studies have also increased our understanding of the construct validity issue. Specifically, research identified that poor assessment center design, assessor unreliability, and lack of performance variability all contribute to poor measurement of constructs in assessment centers. Finally, process-related studies onassessment centers have emphasized the criticality of type of assessor and type of assessor training. Additional research is needed to demonstrate the conditions under which developmental assessment centers have impact. Evidence is sorely lacking to demonstrate that participants take some follow up action in response to developmental feedback, show changes in behavior on the job, to contribute to increasing levels of individual and organizational that systematic research about their validity and utility in comparison with established practices is typically lacking. Developments in research include innovative studies regarding the criterion- related validity of assessment centers and regarding the unique contribution of assessment centers over alternative assessment procedures. Recent studies have also increased our understanding of
  10. 10. 10 the construct validity issue. Specifically, research identified that poor assessment center design, assessor unreliability, and lack of performance variability all contribute to poor measurement of constructs in assessment centers. Finally, process-related studies on assessment centers have emphasized the criticality of type of assessor and type of assessor training. Additional research is needed to demonstrate the conditions under which developmental assessment centers have impact. Evidence is sorely lacking to demonstrate that participants take some follow up action in response to developmental feedback, show changes in behavior on the job, to contribute to increasing levels of individual and organizational ASSESSMENT CENTER FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL PROJECT MANAGERS: A CHANCE FORSYSTEMATIC HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Dipl. Psych. Ingo Heyn, ALLIANZ LEBENSVERSICHERUNGS-AG, Germany, 1999.Paper for the 6th European Conference on Software Quality 1999 in Vienna This paper presents the concept of an assessment center that was applied as a method to evaluate employees in the department of software development in regard to the social skills necessary to ensure the production of high quality software in a team. The results of the assessment center are of multiple uses. On an individual level, the assessment center provides important information for the further personal and professional development of the candidate. The assessment center and analysis have revealed that there is a category of large scale projects that places special demands on the project managers that are not necessarily provable by managing smaller projects successfully. Social skills such as dealing effectively with a variety of people in a context of various expectations, points of view and conflicts of interest are tested much more cost effectively in a simulation prior to managing a large scale project in reality. In addition, the assessment center turned out to be an important impulse impacting organizational development.
  11. 11. 11 INTRODUCTION In a competitive world, past successes do not always guarantee future success. The risks are high, especially to those who have operating in a protected environment. Economic reforms are constantly exposing organizations to higher and stronger levels of competition. In order to meet competition, firms need to be advancing at a high speed in all areas; technology, processes management, finances, quality, costs, new market creation, new market creation, new product inventories and above all increased efficiency, motivation and productivity on the part of the employees. Competing organizations from every part of the world have easy access to best technologies, easy and unlimited finance, well established management systems and practices, high quality orientation, brand equity and simple flat and cost effective structures with fewer but very competent people to handle all these. Under such circumstances , firms have no option but to become more technology driven, market sensitive and customer focused, quality centered, cost effective, system driven and managerially effective . To achieve these, having competent managers to occupy strategic roles becomes inevitable. With competent managers, organizations can gain strategic advantages; without them, they cannot survive long. Hence having competent managers occupy strategic positions and perform their roles very competently is an inescapable necessity of the day. PSU’s and government organizations offer some peculiarities due to their public accountability and stress on adherence to rules and regulations. Over a period while the dysfunctional procedure are getting eliminated there are still difficulties in terms of exercising autonomy. Developing individuals’ competences throughout their life is a key challenge for today’s knowledge based society. Learning activities aims at maintaining or increasing proficiency levels, referred to as competence development activities, and are key resources in meeting the challenge. Assessment Development Centre (ADC) is an event and not a location it is basically a vital tool/ technique used to measure various aspects of Human Resource. Due to the high quality research done in this area and high reported validity, the methodology finds widespread use in a number of organizations. Besides selection, it is used for variety of purposes, such as:  Early identification  Promotion  Diagnosis of development needs.
  12. 12. 12 Assessment centers’ are good at identifying high fliers in the organizations. Assessment centers’ certainly help in making employee promotions and placement decisions more scientific Their contributions are more in creating a competence culture rather than best – fit decisions continuous competence building is a better aim rather than short term objective promotion decisions. Establishing assessment centre is an investment. It will give adequate returns if it is aimed at as a long term investment and it is carefully planned and properly executed. Different organizations initiated assessment centre for different purposes such as recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, career development, performance appraisal, succession planning and development purposes like identification of training needs, identification high potential managers, create a pool of managerial talent and multifunctional managers, that would be available across the business group, employees recognition and fast growth. Potential appraisal is a necessity. Today, it is beyond argument that competent people should handle strategic and critical roles. Hence, there is a need to constantly identify competent people. This need is what makes potential appraisal ver significant. To have competent people, we must know competency requirements. To know the competency requirements, we must know the job profile or the list of tasks to be performed. There should then be rehable and valid method of assessing the extent to which a given employee has the competence to perform the new tasks. Potential appraisal is nothing but an assessment of the extent to which a given individual has the potential to perform the new task or new job. Such potential assessment can either be a simple or a complicated matter depending on a number of things. Potential appraisal is complicated. Assessment centres are specially established centre to create such simulated job conditions and observe a person’s performance thereby assessing his potential to occupy that position.
  13. 13. 13 ASSESSMENT CENTRES Assessment Centre is a process whereby a group of participants undertake a series of job- related exercises under observation, so that skills, competencies and character traits can be assessed and development areas can be identified. Specially trained assessors evaluate each participant against predetermine criteria. An Assessment Center consists of a standardized evaluation of behavior based on multiple evaluations including: job-related simulations, interviews, and/or psychological tests. Job Simulations are used to evaluate candidates on behaviors relevant to the most critical aspects (or competencies) of the job. An Assessment Center can be defined as "a variety of testing techniques designed to allow candidates to demonstrate, under standardized conditions, the skills and abilities that are most essential for success in a given job" (Coleman, 1987). Assessment centers allow candidates to demonstrate more of their skills through a number of job relevant situations (Joiner, 1984). Several trained observers and techniques are used. Judgments about behavior are made and recorded. These judgments are pooled in a meeting among the assessors or by an averaging process. In discussion among assessors, comprehensive accounts of behavior, often including ratings, are pooled. The discussion results in evaluations of the performance of assesses on the dimensions or other variables.
  14. 14. 14 PREREQUISITES OF ASSESSMENT CENTRE The following are the essential elements necessary for a process to be considered an assessment centre. 1) A job analysis of relevant behaviours must be conducted to determine the dimensions, attributes, characteristics, qualities, skills, abilities, motivation, knowledge, or tasks that are necessary for effective job performance and to identify what should be evaluated by the Assessment Centre 2) Behavioral observations by assessors must be classified into some meaningful and relevant categories, such as dimensions, attributes, characteristics, aptitudes, qualities, skills, abilities, knowledge or tasks 3) The techniques used in the assessment centre must be designed to provide information for evaluating the dimensions, etc. previously determined by job analysis 4) Multiple assessment techniques must be used 5) The assessment techniques must include sufficient job – related simulations to allow multiple opportunities to observe the candidate’s behavior related to each dimensions etc being assessed 6) Multiple assessors must be used for each assessee 7) Some systematic procedure must be used by assessors to record accurately specific behavioral observation at the time of their occurrence; this might involve handwritten notes, behavioral observation scales, behavioral checklists etc 8) Assessors must prepare some report or record of the observations made in each exercise in preparation for the integration discussion 9) The integration of behaviors must be based on a pooling of information from assessors and techniques at a meeting among the assessors or trough a statistical process validated in accord with professionally accepted standards
  15. 15. 15 THE FOLLOWING KINDS OF ACTIVITIES DO NOT CONSTITUTE AN ASSESSMENT CENTER 1) Assessment procedures that do not require the participant to demonstrate overt behavioral responses are not behavioral simulations 2) Panel interviews or a series of sequential interviews as the sole technique 3) Reliance on a single technique (regardless of whether it is a simulation) as the sole basis for evaluation. However, a single comprehensive assessment technique that includes distinct job- related segments (e.g., large, complex simulations or virtual assessment centres with several definable components and with multiple opportunities for observations in different situations) can be called as an assessment centre exercise 4) Single-assessor evaluation 5) Using only a test battery composed of a number of paper-and-pencil measures, regardless of whether the judgments are made by a statistical or judgmental pooling of scores 6) The use of several simulations with more than one assessor but with no pooling of data 7) Physical location labeled as an “Assessment Center” which does not conform to the requirements noted above
  17. 17. 17 METHODOLOGY TO CONDUCT ASSESSMENT CENTRE: PRE PLANNING  Identify need: Identify organization’s need for implementing ADC & establish commitment amongst relevant stakeholders for implementation  Objectives: Establish clear objectives for the process DEVELOP  Competencies: Identify organization or job specific competencies to evaluate participants  ADC TechniquesDevise: ADC techniques to measure competencies such as role plays, business games etc.  Design ADC: Construct ADC by preparing formats for assessment, timetable & logistics  Training: Identify & provide training to assessors, facilitators for smooth implementation IMPLEMENT  Conduct Centre: Run ADC with participants  Feedback & Reports: Provide feedback & reports for each ADC participant  Facilitate in formulating Individual Development Plan
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19 HISTORY OF ASSESSMENT CENTRES Assessment centres were introduced at the middle of the 20th century. It also gives the idea and use of assessment centre. It uses to check the ability and skills of the employees. History of assessment centres explore, how and why assessment centres help us to appreciate, what the original user were trying to get and how can be assessed the skills, attitudes, personal skills and abilities as well as knowledge of the participants with the help of interview, exercises and leading practice. Basically, the origin of assessment centres started for the selection of the soldier in the Germany. That time there was a great frustration between the boundaries of the countries due to the atmosphere of the war, and every country wanted to get Prestige on the other countries. So, assessment centres used to check the ability and quality of the employees, and referred the position according to his knowledge and capabilities. We can be seen certain example throughout the history. Germany used to check the ability and performance to select the officers. In the book 'Spies and Saboteurs', by DrW.J.Morgan (1955, London – Victor Gollancz Ltd), the author describe how a German psychologist, DrSimoneit watched officer performing a variety of tasks. The duties of assessment centres were to check the abilities thorough different implications of test and exercises. It also checked the rate and standard of the officers and according to this, the promotions have been announced by the army. This process had been started because; it showed the performance and their promotions. It also explored the certain reasons, why certain offices did not reveal or proceed in the way. They would have been promoted once. After this, the assessment centres emerged from Germany to USA. USA was one of the fast growing economies and USA used to judge the ability of the spy. It also used select the officers for intelligence. For checking of mental ability of officers they used further research of psychological and scientific method had been to add the work by assessment centres. The concept of assessment centres populated in different economy from one side of the world to another part of the world. British Government checks the qualities of on board selection committee and testing method. British government added more tests and exercises analyzing the capability, British were pioneers to add the physical and psychological tests during an interviews and selections for employees. Dr WJ Morgan illustrates that it is how you performed your tasks, whether as an individual or within a group, that matters not how quickly an exercise was done.
  20. 20. 20 With the passage of the time, it growth and, different business have been adopted by different countries. Then most businesses used the assessment centres to assessing the hold jobs to employees. But sometimes man has more ability but at the position sometimes, it can be showed by an organisation. In this matter the assessment centres help the organisation as well as to emerged the capabilities of the employees and the employees have better opportunities to do best. It is right that an assessment centres started for militaries bias to check the abilities but now it very common in between every aspect of the life such as businesses and other public service as well. Now in this era, there is a great competition in the world, so, it is not easy task to check the capabilities of any employees. So in this matter assessment centres is helpful to check the abilities and capabilities through the interviews and exercises the personality of the employees. ADVANTAGES OF ASSESSMENT CENTERS: 1) The most important advantage of an assessment is their flexibility. They are not time-restricted as interviews 2) The data which is collected by the assessment center helps them to recruit the right candidates for the right position; by this process the reliability and validity of the selection decision is improved. The assessment centers which are designed well provide evidence of the most valid method of predicting a candidate’s performance in a job. The way in which the assessment center collects data is the most fair and objective to make recruitment decision 3) Assessment center improves planning and administration. Now a day’s many organization choose assessment center for recruiting large number of candidates because to avoid juggling interviews and managing the recruitment process 4) The nature of the assessment centre also allows organizations to get closer to the selection process by observing how candidates perform the sort of tasks actually found in the role for which they are being assessed. These sorts of ‘real life’ exercises can provide a good indicator of a candidate’s probable future performance LIMITATIONS OF ASSESSMENT CENTERS: 1) An effective centre requires a considerable investment in time and resources-the design process alone can take many months 2) Care should be taken when using high-validity selection methods to ensure that they operate fairly and are free of bias against any particular group of candidates
  21. 21. 21 DEVELOPMENT CENTRES A Development Centre transforms talent, identifies potential and establishes individual needs and objectives. In a development Centre a combination of methods are used to ensure that each participant has equal opportunities for insight and learning. In our Development Centre the emphasis is different; participants are part of the learning process and all responses to situations are handled in a spirit of personal and professional improvement. During a variety of exercises, observers will observe, record, classify and evaluate. However, they do this in a coaching style and provide feedback throughout the event to help participants build a picture of capability along with ideas for maintaining and/or improving in identified areas. In this way there are no surprises at the end of the event; participants have acquired a portfolio of insights, feedback and ideas and may have already had the opportunity to work on key areas during the event. Impact advocates using a combination of methods in a Development Centre, to ensure that each participant has equal opportunities for insight and learning. Depending on group size this invariably means that the process can last between 24-48 hours and may be residential. This adds a valuable networking dimension to underpin the professional development focus of each Centre You will most likely take part in a development centre as you progress from front-line to managerial roles, or from a general role to a more technical or strategic role, often as part of an organization’s graduate management programme. As a participant of a development centre your preparation will follow the same approach as that for an assessment centre and specific preparation relevant to any internal promotional activity is discussed in greater detail in later chapters. The fundamental differences for the participants are:  They will actively be involved in assessing themselves.  They will be required to assess and give feedback on the competencies of other participants.  They are given detailed feedback on their results and what they mean for their future development.  They will be expected to ‘own’ the development requirements as part of their Continuous Professional Development. The role of the assessors is focused more on facilitation and identification of the competencies that participants need to acquire or develop. The way in which the assessors score an individual during an
  22. 22. 22 exercise will emphasize their developmental needs rather than their competency to perform a specific role. This may alter the nature of the exercises so that the developmental aspects are emphasised. The results of these tests will then be discussed and decisions made as to where the main focus of personal development should be. For example,  Management,  Research, or  Technical If you take part in a development centre, you can expect there to be more emphasis on your abilities to explore or brainstorm an issue or the potential of a situation; rather than simply to display particular competencies. It is important to focus on why you are taking part in such a centre and you may wish to assess your own level of competencies before your development centre.
  23. 23. 23 COMPENTENCY Competence (or competency) is the ability of an individual to do a job properly. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. The term "competence" first appeared in an article authored by R.W. White in 1959 as a concept for performance motivation. Later, in 1970, Craig C. Lundberg defined the concept in "Planning the Executive Development Program". The term gained traction when in 1973, David McClelland Ph.D. wrote a seminal paper entitled, "Testing for Competence Rather than for Intelligence". It has since been popularized by one-time fellow McBer& Company (Currently the "Hay Group") colleague Richard Boyatzis and many others, such as T.F. Gilbert (1978) who used the concept in relationship to performance improvement. Its use varies widely, which leads to considerable misunderstanding. Some scholars see "competence" as a combination of practical and theoretical knowledge, cognitive skills, behavior and values used to improve performance; or as the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance, life, management competency might include systems thinking and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. Identifying employee competencies can contribute to improved organizational performance. They are most effective if they meet several critical standards, including linkage to, and leverage within an organization’s human resource system Core competencies differentiate an organization from its competition and create a company’s competitive advantage in the marketplace. An organizational core competency is its strategic strength. Competencies provide organizations with a way to define in behavioral terms what it is that people need to do to produce the results that the organization desires, in a way that is in keep with its culture. By having competencies defined in the organization, it allows employees to know what they need to be productive. When properly defined, competencies, allows organizations to evaluate the extent to which behaviors employees are demonstrating and where they may be lacking. For competencies where employees are lacking, they can learn. This will allow organizations to know potentially what resources they may need to help the employee develop and learn those competencies. Competencies can distinguish
  24. 24. 24 and differentiate your organization from your competitors. While two organizations may be alike in financial results, the way in which the results were achieve could be different based on the competencies that fit their particular strategy and organizational culture. Lastly, competencies can provide a structured model that can be used to integrate management practices throughout the organization. Competencies that align their recruiting, performance management, training and development and reward practices to reinforce key behaviors that the organization values. Competencies are the measurable or observable knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors (KSABs) critical to successful job performance. Choosing the right competencies allows employers to:  Plan how they will organize and develop their workforce.  Determine which job classes best fit their business needs.  Recruit and select the best employees.  Manage and train employees effectively.  Develop staff to fill future vacancies. COMPETENCY TYPES  Knowledge Competencies - practical or theoretical understanding of subjects.  Skill and Ability Competencies- natural or learned capacities to perform acts.  Behavioral Competencies - patterns of action or conduct. USAGE OF COMPETENCIES In Job Descriptions Job descriptions explain the duties, working conditions, and other aspects of a job, including the competencies needed to perform the job's essential functions Position-specific competencies are determined through the process of job analysis, and are documented in the Position Description (PD) form. These competencies form a basis for recruiting, hiring, training, developing, and managing the performance of employees. In Recruitment, Assessment, and Selection Describing desired competencies in recruitment announcements gives job seekers a clearer picture of what jobs entail. Competencies also provide the foundation for assessment and selection techniques, including exams, interviews, and reference checks.
  25. 25. 25 In Employee Performance Management Competencies allow supervisors to more fully describe to employees their performance expectations. Competency descriptions show employees what level of knowledge and skill mastery is required to successfully perform job duties, and what behavioral standards must be consistently demonstrated. Washington State's Performance and Development Plan includes competencies in both the expectations and evaluation sections. In Training and Development done well, competencies allow supervisors to choose and prioritize training courses and other learning opportunities for employees. Training courses often describe the competencies students should be able to demonstrate by the end of the class. Likewise, most on-the-job and other developmental assignments are designed to build certain knowledge and skills. Knowing how class content and developmental activities build mastery helps supervisors to 'map' each position to a specific training and development plan that fosters growth in required competencies. In Career and Workforce Planning Competencies play a key role in workforce planning efforts. Knowing which competencies the future workforce must possess to achieve business goals and deliverables helps organizations plan and design:  Organizational structure.  Recruitment strategies.  Training budgets and development plans.  Job assignments and individual performance plans. Employees can also use competencies to plan a career path. Knowing which competencies are critical for certain promotions allows employees to request training and development opportunities and seek out specific feedback and coaching. In Compensation Washington State's Compensation Plan is directly tied to the state classification system, which describes jobs in terms of the type and level of work performed. While competencies don't directly impact compensation, the nature and complexity of the work duties usually requires a certain level of knowledge and skill mastery. These competencies are often represented in the class specifications as 'Knowledge and Abilities.
  26. 26. 26 COMPETENCY MAPPING Competency mapping is a way of assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a worker or organization. It's about identifying a person's job skills and strengths in areas like teamwork, leadership, and decision-making. Large organizations may use some form of this technique to understand how to best use each worker or how to combine the strengths of different employees to produce the highest quality work. Individuals may also find that this type of assessment can help them prepare for a career change or advance in a specific job field. FUNCTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL MODELS Many competency mapping models break down strengths into two major areas: functional and behavioral. Functional skills include all of the practical knowledge that a person needs to perform a job. For instance, functional requirements for a secretary might include typing ability, familiarity with computer systems and office machinery, and bookkeeping knowledge. These skills are generally easy to measure through skill tests or task-specific questions, and can help define whether a worker is capable of carrying out his or her basic responsibilities. Behavioral assessment is sometimes more difficult to quantify, and is the focus of most competency studies. This type of analysis examines personal skills such as leadership, active listening, teamwork, and morale. Crafting questions and tests that accurately identify behavioral strengths and weaknesses can be difficult, because a worker may try to answer in a way that makes him look his best rather than providing an honest response. This type of testing is important for getting a complete picture of an individual's skill- set, however. Questions might focus on how the person sets goals for himself, how he adapts to changing situations, or how he deals with failure. BENEFITS FOR BUSINESSES In large organizations, competency mapping models are often used to improve employee performance, to help with hiring or promotion decisions, and to provide a critical look at the current workforce. The process can be complicated, but typically begins with identifying those competencies that are most important for a specific position. For example, if an executive wants to internally promote a new
  27. 27. 27 manager, he might begin by listing the required job skills and ideal behavioral traits needed for the position. From this list, he could create a questionnaire that maps a candidate's competencies in the desired areas. After all the candidates answer the questionnaire, the executive can then compare the results using the competency scores to determine the best person for the promotion. How the questions are worded can be critical to the overall usefulness of the process. Good questions are generally very specific to the job and carefully worded to eliminate vague answers. For instance, an ineffective question might ask "Are you good at time management?" People may interpret the term "good" in many different ways, and may be tempted to answer positively to make themselves appear to be better workers. A better question might be "Do you finish projects before their deadlines most of the time?" Since this question can be verified by work history and allows a "yes" or "no" answer, it may provide more useful information. CHALLENGES FOR BUSINESSES While this technique can be quite useful to large organizations, it does require thought, time, and analysis, and some companies simply may not want to do the work involved. When enough time is not put into preparing a questionnaire, the results may not be very useful. Some companies choose to hire a external consulting team to handle the modeling, testing, and analysis process for them. This type of skill analysis can also backfire if the workplace does not respond to the results. Companies that engage in competency mapping need to be prepared to make changes to take advantage of the skills and abilities revealed in the assessment. This may mean that job descriptions and responsibilities are changed or swapped, and departments are merged or split as needed. Training and incentive programs may be needed to improve core skills for workers who are struggling with performance issues. While these changes can cause initial confusion and anxiety, actively responding to the results can often improve employee performance, raise morale, and create a more efficient workplace. BENEFITS FOR INDIVIDUALS Competency mapping can also be used to help those seeking employment show the specific skills which would make them valuable to a potential employer. Many employers now purposefully screen applicants for specific characteristics, so once a person knows her strengths, she can emphasize them on an application or in an interview. A company may be looking for someone who can be an effective team leader or who has demonstrated great active listening skills, for example. Knowing that she has these
  28. 28. 28 strengths and being able to discuss personal examples of them with prospective employers can give job- seekers a competitive edge in the market. Usually, a person will find that he or she has strong skills in five or six areas. Employees who want to increase their worth may find that an area identified as a weakness is worth developing. In other cases, the process may reveal that a person needs to find a new type of work or a different work environment that is better suited to his or her abilities. CHALLENGES FOR INDIVIDUALS One potential limitation of personal testing is that individuals often have a few blind spots regarding their own skills and personality. People tend to overestimate their abilities, which can limit the usefulness of any test. They may also have difficulty accurately answering questions that ask how others view them in the workplace. This gap between how a person sees himself and what his skills really are can sometime make the results of self-testing assessments questionable. For the most accurate results, test-takers must be prepared to answer questions candidly and resist the temptation to overestimate their abilities COMPETENCY MAPPING IN GENERAL FOR MGVCL EMPLOYEES PREVAILING COMPETENCIES COMPETENCY GAP EXPECTED BY COMPETENCIES BY ORGANIZATION Analytical skills Customer management Decision making Business orientation Communication skill People management Ethical behavior Decision making Active listening skills Leadership skill Communication skill
  29. 29. 29 COMPANY PROFILE Madhya Gujarat Vij Company Ltd. is an electricity company that was incorporated on 15 September 2003 by Gujarat Electricity Board (GEB). The Company obtained the Certificate of the Commencement of Business on 15 October 2003. The company was one of several created as a part of efforts towards restructuring of the power sector in the state of Gujarat in India. The Government of Gujarat reorganized the GEB functionally into a Generation Company, a Transmission Company and four Distribution Companies. Thereby Madhya Gujarat Vij Company Limited became functional on 1 April 2005.  Type: Public Limited (Subsidiary of GUVNL)  Industry: Power  Predecessor(s): GEB  Founded: Vadodara, India  Headquarters: Vadodara, India  Area served: Gujarat  Services: Power Distribution  Employees: 6000  Parent: Gujarat Urja Vikas NigamLtd.  Website: In MGVCL the process of ADC started in 2012. For implementation of ADC various companies approached to give their service of ADC to the company. According to MGVCL norms and requirement Pricewaterhouse Cooper got selected. In every beginning thirty employees were selected for the ADC process and now in 2014 approximately twenty employees are being selected for developmental process. MGVCL completed with its post ADC i.e assessment of competencies with various tools and techniques and now it is undergoing through development stage. Every firstly they have define competencies in their own way. Competency is an underlying characteristic of an individual which is causally related to effective or superior performance
  30. 30. 30 Competencies can be motives, traits, self concept, attitudes or values, content knowledge, or cognitive or behavioral skills – any individual characteristic that can be measured reliably and that can be shown to differentiate significantly between superior and average performers.  Motive  Underlying need or thought pattern that drives directs and selects an individual’s behavior. E.g. need for achievement  Trait  General dispositions to behavior respond in a certain way; for instance with self-confidence, self-control, and stress resistance  Self-Concept  What they think they value, what they think they do or interested in doing  Knowledge  Content knowledge  Cognitive or behavioral skills  Either covert or overt  What Business needs can competency models address?  Clarifying job and work expectations  Hiring the best available people  Maximizing productivity  Enhancing the 360 degree feedback  Adapting to change  Aligning Behavior with Organizational Strategies and values In an all after defining competencies twelve (12) key roles where identified for which assessment centre will be approached. The twelve key roles are as follows:  Chief Engineer C.E. (Technical andOperations)  Chief Engineer C.E. (Projects)  Additional Chief Engineer (Circle Coordination)  Additional Chief Engineer (Procurement)  Additional Chief Engineer (System Development and Planning)  Additional Chief Engineer (Regulatory Affairs and Commerce)  Superintending Engineer (Technical)  Superintending Engineer (Operation)
  31. 31. 31  Superintending Engineer (Regulatory Affairs and Commerce)  Superintending Engineer (Demand Side Management)  Superintending Engineer (Circle Office) After identification of these twelve critical leadership positions Job analysis was done. During the process of job analysis employees were interviewed for finding of following four questions answer:  What: Duties, Responsibility, Role  How: Process to how to carry their job  Why: To Serve Customer (Internal (Superiors, Colleagues, and Subordinates) and External)  Qualification: Knowledge, Skills, Abilities Working Conditions According to the employees answers a detail report of job description with their role title, responsibilities, duties, experience and qualification required to perform their job where discussed. The purpose of a Center is to obtain the best possible indication of a person’s actual or potential competence to perform in the target job/level of responsibility. Assessment and/or Development Centers focus on the systematic and objective identification of behaviors of an individual for the purposes of selection, placement, promotion, development, career management, succession planning and training.
  32. 32. 32 PROCESS OFASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT CENTRE The following is a general process of ADC followed:-
  33. 33. 33 Stage 1 – Pre-planning  Identify need The initial trigger for the implementation of an Assessment or Development Center should be the establishment of an organizational need for the process.  Clarify the objectives of the process Having identified the need for the center, it should be clarified at this early stage whether the process is for assessment, selection, promotion or development. Clear outcomes and success criteria of the process should also be defined.  Defining organizational policy statement For an Assessment and/or Development Center to be effective and have positive impact, it needs to be fully integrated into the organization’s human resource strategy. An organizational policy statement should be drawn up to provide information on the center’s use, and should provide details on the following areas:  The purpose of the center The policy document should include a clear statement giving the reasons why the organization has chosen to make use of Assessment and/or Development Centers (for example, selection or identification of development needs) and how this process fits in with the overall strategy of the organization. Any potential benefits, to both the organization and the participants, could also be given at this stage.  How participants are to be selected The document should specify how participants are to be selected for the center. This may be on the basis of self-selection (although this can be costly and time consuming and more centers may need to be run), structured interviews, minimum requirements or “cut-offs”, pre-screening interviews, aptitude testing, bio-data or job knowledge tests. It should also be made clear within the document whether participation on the center is voluntary or compulsory and, if appropriate, whether alternatives to participation are an option.  Briefing of participants Within this section of the policy statement, details should be given as to the level of briefing to be given to participants. This will ensure all participants have been given the same level of
  34. 34. 34 information before they commence the center. For Development Centers, briefings should also be included for managers of the participants. Research has shown that this is critical to the success of the centers and thus achieving behavioral change.  Standards for eligibility as an assessor One of the key factors that will impact on the effectiveness of an Assessment or Development Center is the level of skill of the assessors. Clear guidance should be given within the policy document as to the level of training, frequency of participation, organizational level when compared to the participants and experience/qualifications of external consultants.  Materials and assessment procedures to be used The policy document should clearly state the standards required for the design, development and validation of the materials and assessment procedures to be used on the center.  Feedback procedure Clear guidance should be given on the feedback procedure for the center, including when feedback will be available to the participant, the form it will take, e.g. written or face-to- face/telephone, the level of detail to be included, e.g. brief summary or comprehensive feedback, and who will provide the feedback.  Access to, and use of, information gathered on the center Participants should be given a clear understanding of what happens to the information gathered on the center, including who has access to the data within the organization and for what purpose, where the information will be stored and for how long the information will remain valid. It is generally recommended that the data be used within two years of the date of the center. The document should also specify if the information is to be used in combination with other data for selection and promotion decisions.  Diversity and Equal Opportunities The policy statement should give details of how the center will be as fair and objective as possible to all participants, regardless of their gender, race, ethnicity and age. Consideration should also be given here on assessing those with a disability.
  35. 35. 35  Monitoring, reviewing and evaluating the Assessment/Development Center process A final factor for inclusion in the policy document is a statement on the procedures the organization will undertake to investigate how well the center performed against its objectives – for example, to identify potential, to select the best candidates or to provide a fair and objective profile of relative strengths/limitations for each individual. Stage 2 – Design and development  Job Analysis the starting point of any Assessment or Development Center project is to get a clear and accurate specification of what the center needs to measure. As a general rule, competencies are the basis upon which an assessment process is structured and job analysis the approach to identify them. Job analysis has been defined as a systematic procedure for obtaining detailed and objective information about a job that will be, or is currently being, performed. Whether the center is to be for selection or development, there will be a particular job, or possibly group of jobs, at what may be termed the “target level”. It is important to have a highly detailed knowledge of the target level of job(s) in order to use the center as a basis for accurately: (i) Selecting people who meet the requirements of the job; and/or (ii) Analyzing the development needs of job “incumbents” at the target level. Job analysis is the method used to determine the competencies that the center will be designed around. A range of techniques can be used, either in isolation or in combination. Four broad categories of job analysis techniques are: (i) diary/self descriptions (ii) Observations (iii) Interviews, e.g. critical incident technique, repertory grid and visionary (iv) Questionnaires and inventories.
  36. 36. 36 Job analysis not only provides the basis for the design of competencies, but also enables: (i) Weighting of importance of competencies across the procedure (ii) Weighting of importance of assessment methods across the center (iii) Test and exercise choice (iv) Exercise design (v) Audit trail should the centre be questioned, i.e. equal opportunities perspective.  Competency design Competencies are described as the cluster of observable behaviors and actions that can include personality, ability, interest, motivation etc. and can act as the anchor for the implementation and evaluation of Assessment and Development Centers.
  37. 37. 37 Competencies:  Behaviorally anchored  Observable  Reflect organizational culture  Visionary/forward looking  Discrete The competency framework utilized by an organization can either take the form of a generic, “off-the- shelf” competency model such as The SHL Universal Competency Framework or the competencies can be tailored to the specific organization and derived from the job analysis process.
  38. 38. 38 Below is an example of Problem Solving and Analysis competency.  Design of a balanced assessment matrix Once the key competencies to be assessed have been identified, the next step is to draw up a competency/exercise matrix, with the competencies to be assessed listed down the side and then the exercises to be used across the top By ticking the relevant boxes it is then easy to ensure that each competency is being assessed by at least two methods, and that no one exercise has too heavy a burden in terms of number of competencies to be assessed. It is recommended that no more than four competencies be assessed by each exercise. Strength of evidence can also be indicated on this matrix, with one tick representing secondary evidence and two ticks representing stronger (primary) evidence.
  39. 39. 39 Below is an example of a matrix demonstrating how different assessment methods have been chosen to assess different competencies. Selection and development of exercises having carried out a thorough job analysis and produced a set of clearly defined competencies, with behavioral indicators, it is then possible to select the appropriate exercises. The exercises and techniques chosen must provide reliable, objective and relevant behavioral information. Key criteria to be considered are:  The behavioral dimensions the exercise measures  The difficulty level  The content/scenario of the exercise  Technical soundness, e.g. reliability, empirical validity  Practical constraints, e.g. costs, time available for administration and exercise development, participant/assessor availability and work hours lost. A wide range of techniques is available for use on these centres, for example:  Group exercise  Presentation  Fact-finding exercise  Role-play/Negotiation  In-tray exercise/e-basket
  40. 40. 40  Competency-based interview/Biographical interview  Written analysis  Psychometric assessment (to include assessment of cognitive, personality, motivational and interest profiles). It is possible to purchase both “off-the-shelf” exercises or design/tailor exercises for a particular centre/organization. A customized exercise is one developed especially for a particular user and therefore will be tailored to suit organizational needs. Customized exercises have the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages  The skill being measured, as well as the level and content of the exercise, will be directly related to the job(s) in question, therefore validity is enhanced  The exercise is likely to seem fair and acceptable to most participants in that it reflects the content of the job  The participants will not have been exposed to the particular exercise before. Disadvantages  Customized exercises require time to design and trial before being available for use. The time required will depend on the type and complexity of exercise, but will typically range from 5 to 20 days  The initial outlay in terms of cost can be greater  Should the job or participant population for which the exercise was designed change, the exercise may become obsolete. Stages in Developing a Simulation Exercise If the decision is taken to develop a customized exercise, the typical steps that must be followed are:  Research into background information  Designing and writing of exercises  Trial run of draft exercises  Artwork and production  Drafting of administration, scoring and evaluation guidelines
  41. 41. 41  Finalization of exercise and guidelines. Timetable design having identified the assessment methods to be used on the Assessment or Development Center, a timetable would then need to be drawn up. Once again, a number of key considerations should be taken into account:  Amount of time available for the center  Sufficient time for a general briefing of the participants  Number of assessors available  Ensuring the rotation of assessors and participants  Number of rooms available and their proximity to each other  Administration time for the exercises  Write-up time for assessors  Sufficient breaks for the participants but not lengthy gaps  Personal action planning time if the purpose is developmental  Time for the integration session.
  42. 42. 42 Below is an example timetable demonstrating that different assessor observe different participants for different exercises.
  43. 43. 43 Assessor training A key factor in the overall success of the Assessment or Development Center is the effectiveness of the assessors. The training should increase the objectivity and consistency of assessor ratings and this will be achieved by ensuring the following areas are covered:  Familiarity with the assessment criteria and exercises, with particularly detailed knowledge of the exercises they will be assessing  Training in the ORCE process (Observe, Record, Classify and Evaluate)  Training on the skills of giving feedback and report writing (if this is to be part of their role). This should include the use of examples of behaviour demonstrated by the participant on the centre. For a Development Center, the feedback process will also include a development planning perspective and the observer should be prepared to explore potential developmental activities available to the participant.  An opportunity to practice these skills as soon as possible after the training (ideally within two months)  Refresher training if the assessor does not participate regularly. This training should be supported by a comprehensive Assessor Manual, giving full details of the competencies to be assessed, timetable of the centre, assessment criteria (including behavioral indicators), rating forms, and example reports and, for a Development Center, examples of activities for action planning. Stage 3 – Implementation  Pilot Run To ensure the success of the first (and subsequent) “live” centers, it is important to ensure time is scheduled into the planning process for both a pilot run of the centre plus time to make any amendments (if necessary). The trial run should be set up using real assessors and participants who are as like the real participants as possible. As much feedback should be collected as possible from the pilot run from both the participants and the assessors and their comments should be taken into consideration when reviewing the process.
  44. 44. 44  Running the Assessment or Development Center To ensure the smooth running of the center, the following factors should be taken into consideration:  Ensure everyone concerned has been briefed appropriately. Open communication is the essence  Adhere as closely to the timetable as possible  Observations and comments on each exercise should be kept discrete until the integration session  The integration session should be conducted immediately after all the exercises have been completed  Sufficient time must be allowed for the integration to do justice to the amount of data collected  The integration must be led by the evidence (observed behaviors) gathered over the event and not by ratings (numbers) or previous knowledge; reports and feedback of results must also be expressed in this manner  An Assessment Center should be followed promptly by feedback, as soon as decisions have been made  At a Development Center, feedback on exercises should be given either during the programme; or as soon after as possible. Action plans should be initiated by the individuals and shared with their line managers.  Regular follow-ups should be made to ensure action plans have been carried out. Stage 4 – Post implementation  Integration session Once the center has been run, it is important to ensure there is sufficient time available to carry out the integration session. There is significant research to show the effectiveness of Assessment/Development Centers is often compromised when this part of the process is rushed. The outcome of this session will depend on the purpose of running the center, but the underlying process should be the same. In essence, the aim of this session is to ensure that all the information gathered on each participant is brought together and discussed objectively. The discussion should be based on the behavioral evidence gathered throughout the center. It is important to ensure weightings of particular competencies or exercises are also taken into consideration at this stage and any selection decisions and identification of strengths and development needs should be derived on the basis of this evidence.
  45. 45. 45 If more than one centre is being undertaken, it is important to ensure that there is consistency of assessment – this can be achieved by creating clearly defined standards of performance against which to assess individuals. It can also prove to be useful for the Chair of the integration session to be present on each center, as this can again increase consistency of assessment. It is important to ensure sufficient time is available for these discussions. Integration into the late evening should be avoided if at all possible as tiredness could result in insufficient consideration being given to those discussed last. The discussion of the first participant can take over an hour, although the process typically becomes more efficient as the process continues. As was mentioned above, the final output of this session will depend on the purpose of running the centre. For an Assessment Center, the selection decision will typically be reduced to a single rating, either numerical or descriptive, with supporting behavioural evidence for each criterion produced to enable meaningful feedback to the candidates. For a Development Center, the output is typically more detailed, with behavioral evidence being generated for each of the competencies being assessed. This evidence should then be used to focus the discussion for the development planning session. Below is an example integration matrix for one participant. The numbers within the matrix represent ratings that have been given for that participant’s performance, in a particular exercise, for a given competency-based on the behavioural criteria. In this example a rating of 1 implies the participant has a strong development need, whereas a 5 implies the participant is very strong in that area.
  46. 46. 46  Review and validation Once an Assessment or Development Center has been successfully implemented, it is vital to ensure the process is reviewed to ensure that standards are being maintained and that the different components are working in the intended way. Analysis should be conducted on the following areas through qualitative content analysis, statistical analysis, attitude surveys and empirical validation studies:  Quality of assessor evidence  Balance of input from the individual exercises  Use of rating scales  Perception of participants of the fairness and relevance of the procedure  Empirical validity of the center. In addition it is possible to benchmark participants ratings to those of other organizations. This provides an essential, external perspective.  Use of technology Advances in technology have increased the options for the delivery of assessment procedures. Organizations operating in a global field now have the opportunity, by making full use of technological advances, to reduce the necessity for requiring assessors and participants to meet up in one location. This cannot only save travel time but also the expenses involved in international travel. To date, the use of virtual Assessment or Development Centers is still in its infancy, but the potential within this field is currently being explored. The key requirements for an organization wishing to make use of this approach are:  A reliable and efficient technology infrastructure  Quiet and standardized environmental conditions for the participants  Monitoring procedures to ensure the participant is who they say they are and that they are working alone. The main area of concern with the use of technology within the traditional Assessment Center design is the use of the group exercise. A number of options are potentially available along this route and it is down to the organization to decide which option will best suit their needs. The alternatives include:
  47. 47. 47  Carrying out a group exercise by, for example, the use of a video-conferencing process  Bringing the candidates together for only those exercises requiring face-to-face contact  Consideration of alternative ways of assessing the behaviours traditionally assessed through the group exercise process. Other areas in which technology is already being effectively utilized in this field include:  Screening and sifting for candidates likely to succeed in interview or on an Assessment Center  Job analysis and competency profiling  The administration and presentation of items in, for example, ability tests and personality questionnaires  Computerized simulations, for example, an electronic in-basket  The automated scoring of these measures (although this can be more problematic for assessment methods where non-standardized answers are generated, e.g. an in-tray)  The recording of evidence directly on to a computer/palmtop  The design of the Assessment or Development Center timetable  Report writing  Assessment/Development Center management and review (validation).  Ethical considerations As with any situation where an individual’s performance is to be assessed, there are a number of ethical considerations to be born in mind:  The individual should be provided with sufficient information, before attending the center, to make a decision as to whether or not to attend. This should include:  a brief summary of the types of assessment procedures to be used  the make-up of the assessor pool  the possible outcomes of the center  how the results will be used  where the results will be stored and who will have access to this information  the feedback procedure  practice tests or exercises (if applicable or available) a point of contact for further information.
  48. 48. 48  Ethical issues should also be taken into consideration when providing feedback to the participants:  If the results are to be stored, the Data Protection Act requires all candidates to be given meaningful feedback, if they request it  All participants on an Assessment or Development Center should be offered feedback as part of the process, for a Development Center this should be built in as part of the process  Ideally feedback should be face-to-face, although practical limitations may not always make this a viable option  It is recommended that feedback be provided within 4 weeks of the Assessment or Development Center.  The materials should be kept in a secure place and access should only be granted to those authorized or trained to utilize them  The participant should be informed of the lifespan of the data. Typically, the information will remain relevant for between 18-24 months  Consent should be obtained from the participants if the organization wants to make use of the data for any other purpose than that which had originally been stated.  Diversity and equal opportunities The use of multiple techniques in an Assessment or Development Center allows the weaknesses of any particular method to be compensated for by the strengths of another, increasing the overall validity and predictive value of the assessment. The multiple assessment approach also compensates for the lack of skill in certain areas, by allowing candidates to show strengths in other areas. The following points should, however, be considered to ensure the center is as fair and objective as possible:  The possible inhibiting effect of being, for example, the only woman or individual from an ethnic minority group. The issue is particularly pertinent in interactive exercises such as a group discussion. The assessors may need to take this into account when evaluating the participant, but on the other hand, this could be a realistic situation. It is good practice to ensure that one of the assessors represents the minority group
  49. 49. 49  The relevance of the issues and scenarios of the exercises for all candidates. This is usually covered by careful design of the exercises  The varying degree of experience that candidates have of participating in assessment programs. This is usually covered by providing detailed briefing sessions or documents prior to the event  The ability of the observers to judge participants against objective and job-relevant criteria, without allowing their own biases and stereotypes to influence them. This is usually covered by appropriate training of assessors in the skills of observing and evaluating behaviors, as well as by enhancing awareness of personal biases  Any background circumstances which may affect a candidate’s performance on exercises, e.g. disabilities, first language. These factors should be taken account of when planning the assessment and interpreting the results  Equal opportunities data should be monitored and the relevance of the skills and procedures regularly reviewed.  Assessment or Development Centers on an international basis Multinational organizations are increasingly seeking to co-ordinate the assessment and development of staff across their international offices. The following are some points to consider in designing Assessment and Development Centers with participants from different countries:  The objectives of the center  The acceptability of techniques and activities to different cultures, e.g. psychometric testing, feedback. The whole concept of objective assessment and assessment technology tends to be much less advanced in some countries than in others, with different types of methodology and exercises featuring more commonly in some countries than others  A number of process issues should be taken into consideration, for example, timekeeping, forms of address, dress code, written and spoken agreements, and timetabling  The applicability of content/scenarios of exercises; the exercises should be developed by multinational designers and the amount of verbal information should be minimized  The language capability of the participants should be assessed in advance to ensure they would be able to participate to their full potential on the center  Careful consideration should be given to the pre-centre briefing and, if possible, a precentre language practice session should be conducted with the group of participants
  50. 50. 50  More preparation time can be given for exercises where candidates are not working in their first language and consideration should be given to allowing participants to complete some exercises, e.g. written in their own language. Psychometric tests should be completed in the participant’s first language  Consideration of the language requirements for the role should be born in mind when selecting the appropriate language in which to assess the individual  Assessors representing the participant’s countries should be involved, both in terms of culture and language, at all stages of the process  As with all Assessment or Development Centers, training of assessors is important, particularly in terms of cross-cultural sensitivity  For a Development Center, it may be possible to undertake the centre in, for example, English, but then provide feedback to the participant in their first language.  A final word While there is strong evidence that multiple assessment procedures generally provide sound, objective data on which to base selection and development decisions, it is important to consider carefully the applicability of the process and, more importantly, the specific program situation. Information arising from an Assessment or Development Center should always be interpreted in context by appropriately trained individuals, and treated as confidential information. Results are normally considered valid for a period of up to two years, but this would depend on the pace at which individuals, jobs and organizations change. These guidelines should serve as a useful structure on which to base Assessment and Development Center projects, and against which they can be evaluated. They are not, however, a substitute for formal training in the design and management of assessment and development programs.
  51. 51. 51 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a pure and simple framework or a plan for the study that guides the collection and analysis of data. Research is the scientific way to solve the problems and it’s increasingly used to improve the market potential. This involves exploring the possible methods one by one and arriving at the best solution considering the resources at the disposal of research OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  To know the effectiveness and impact of ADC as a technique / tool implemented in MGVCL  To know the effectiveness of applying ADC for various measuring competencies viz. Functional, Commercial and Behavioral  Critical Findings of ADC in MGVCL  Significance of ADC in MGVCL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:  This research work would be significantly useful in knowing the developmental issues of MGVCL  This tool will help MGVCL in getting potential candidates for required positions  The research study will help me to know the practical application of ADC tool SCOPE OF THE STUDY:  To prepare of Job Analysis for key roles in the cadre of SE, ACE & CE.  Competency Mapping for various roles identified clearly defining attributes & skills required shall be elaborated in such a manner that occupant of the position is aware of his responsibilities & his superior also become aware of the expected outcome of his subordinate.  Competency assessment of potential candidates for the position of SE, ACE & CE.  Prepare & submit assessment report covering detailed competency gap.  Recommend & develop Individual Development Plan (IDP)
  52. 52. 52 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY  Time constraints.  Limitation of sample size.  ADC is highly confidential technique and so it is very challenging together in depth as well as internal information about the same.  ADC is a very wide technique but due to time constrain in depth report was not feasible.  Time consuming technique. SAMPLING FRAME The project work would be undertaken at Madhya Gujarat Vij Company Ltd, in Vadodara city SAMPLING METHOD: The employees who participated in ADC SAMPLING MEDIA Sampling media is the interview for the proposed project. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size is 20 respondents. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION The data collected was through: “Primary source” in the form of raw materials to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations The primary source are discussion with the employees, data collected through structured non- disguised questionnaire. “Secondary sources” in the form of finished products as they have already been treated statistically in some form or the other The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from books, catalogue,etc.
  53. 53. 53 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPERTATION COMMUNICATION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) YES 10 50 NO 10 50 TOTAL 20 100  Neither the communication skills are good or bad COMMUNICATION YES NO
  54. 54. 54 ROLE CLARITY NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) YES 17 85 NO 3 15 TOTAL 20 100  It has been interpretated that 85% candidates are transparent about their role clarity  15% candidates did not have role clarity  Majority of the employees felt that ADC is an important tool because they got to know what they are performing. And what they will perform in future ROLE CLARITY YES NO
  55. 55. 55 WORK EFFICIENCY NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 18 90 NO 2 10 TOTAL 20 100  From this 90% employees are assuming that there will be an increase in their work efficiency  On the other side 10% candidates are assuming that there will be no significant change in their work efficiency WORK EFFICIENCY YES NO
  56. 56. 56 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 16 80 NO 4 20 TOTAL 20 100  80% candidates felt that there interpersonal skills have improved during the process of ADC  20% candidates felt that there was no such improvement in their interpersonal skills  After ADC there interpersonal skills improved which helped for building health atmosphere in MGVCL INTERPERSONAL SKILLS YES NO
  57. 57. 57 SIGNIFICANCE OF ADC NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 13 65 NO 07 35 TOTAL 20 100  65% candidates felt that it is important for their role they are performing, they find there is a need of ADC in organization and therefore they were fortunate enough to be part of ADC  35% candidates felt that it is not that important SIGNIFICANCE OF ADC YES NO
  58. 58. 58 TOOLS/ TECHNIQUES USED  Here, we can find that candidates gave more importance to Case Study, Behavioral Event Interview, and Psychological Test, than to Group Decision, Presentation, and Situational Test.  Least Importance was given to Debate and Written Test TOOLS Presentation debate group decision case study psychological test behavioral event interview situational test written test
  59. 59. 59 MOTIVATION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 12 60 NO 08 40 TOTAL 20 100  60% candidates got highly motivated during ADC  30% candidates were not that motivated to attain ADC  Candidates were motivated to know their strength and areas of improvement MOTIVATION YES NO
  60. 60. 60 LEADERSHIP SKILL NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 09 45 NO 11 55 TOTAL 20 100  55% candidates felt that ADC will not help in developing their leadership skill  45% candidates were positive that it will help to develop their leadership skill LEADERSHIP SKILL YES NO
  61. 61. 61 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE YES 06 30 NO 14 70 TOTAL 20 100  30% candidates felt that it will build competitive advantage  70% candidates felt that it will not build competitive advantage  For building competitive advantage technical knowledge is required and during ADC technical knowledge was not provided COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE YES NO
  62. 62. 62 FINDINGS  ADC helps to study employees to study their skills required to perform their job  Before implementation of ADC Company took initiative to communicate its need i.e. why ADC is been conducted? Which shows proper communication link between employees and management  The candidates were positive to this approach of ADC because at the time of job analysis ,all aspects were taken into consideration , and the employees were clear about their job description that they will have to perform in future  They got to know the strength and weakness were they can improve their performance in much better way .  In earlier training programs the assessment part was missing out, thus in ADC the training is provided after the assessment of one’s own strength and weakness, were the employees boost their level of confidence, and try to upgrade themselves  The organization has completed its assessment part and its development trainings are going on , it has been said by the employees that more focus was given on managerial aspects rather than technical  For building competitive advantage more technical knowledge (like what are recent changes took place in electricity sector worldwide is taking place, what kind of innovation can be brought in this sector…) should be provided  There is a need of ADC in MGVCL because being a public sector company it help them to enhance their capabilities, they will be motivated to work efficiently and effectively  The feedback report provided to them mentioning their strength and weakness was realistic.  It was been notice that employees found themselves fortunate to be the part of ADC  Moreover, the candidates were ready to pass their experience of ADC to their collogues and subordinates
  63. 63. 63 RECOMMENDATIONS  The tools used in ADC for the organization are acceptable but according to me the following tools should have been included during ADC because of following reasons:  In tray test: includes prioritizing documents, drafting , replies to letters, and delegation of important task o Outcome: decision making, analytical skills o Reason: being on top most post how the candidate manages his time and how he prioritizes his work. At the end it all depends on order of top management subordinates has to simply follow them.  Problem solving task: includes building structure with limited period o Outcome: creative skills, resourcefulness, analytical skills o Reason: every time each and every resource is not able these will enhance their creativity to deal with various problems in different way and at least how to manage the situation  The employees should be made aware about the amendments made by the company E.g. promotion are not given on seniority basis only but also on performance base  Feedback should be taken from the employees who are participating in ADC at every level of ADC process  The Appraisal of all the candidates should be done Quarterly instead of annually  Areas like dependability, output, attitude, co-operation, initiative, creativity, punctuality and discipline should be focused more during the appraisals
  64. 64. 64 CONCLUSION  The research study on ADC in MGVCL , I found that ADC has been an important technique  Due to ADC roles and responsibilities have been made clear  The objective of ADC have been achieved to an extent like communication skills has been improved on the other hand there is more scope for improving in leadership skills  Candidates found that ADC will help them to deal in administrative kinds of activities, on this part they are satisfied but they are eagerly looking forward for more technical knowledge so, that they can enhance their knowledge and can bring certain changes and innovation in their company  From the inputs of employees have shown that other than ADC retire officers should be invited for conducting training program
  65. 65. 65 QUESTIONNAIRE ON ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT CENTRE IN MADHYA GUJARAT VIJ COMPANY LIMITED. DATE: DEPARTMENT: POSITION: NAME: (OPTIONAL) 1. Whether the tools used in ADC are close to role you are performing? Yes No 2. Do you think need of ADC are properly communicated? Yes No 3. Is the training programs communicated you in well in advance? Yes No 4. Are the things well communicated between toplevel and middle level employees? Yes No 5. What motivates you to attain ADC? 6. Does the content added to your knowledge? Yes No 7. Do you think it will help to improve your performance? Yes No
  66. 66. 66 8. To what extent it will help in your subject matter? 9. Do you think ADC will help in building competitive advantage in MGVCL? Yes No 10. Do you think ADC is important for your role? Yes No 11. If you find any kind of dissatisfaction can you provide any suggestions? 12. List down the various tools used in ADC? 13. Why do you think ADC is better tool for identify development needs as compared to any other training tools? 14. Is there a need for ADC in MGVCL? If yes why? Yes No 15. How ADC did help to enhance your competencies? 16. How will ADC help in improving your leadership skill?
  67. 67. 67 17. On the basis of ADC assessment report was realistic? Yes No 18. Do you think from ADC you came to know your strength and weakness? Yes No 19. Do you think at the time of post ADC the company provided the opportunity to develop required competencies? Yes No 20. Do you think the whole exercise will benefit you in performing your future role more effectively and efficiently? Yes No 21. Do you think you were fortunate to be part of ADC? Yes No 22. Would you like this exercise to be extended in other cadre? Yes No
  68. 68. 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY #Human resource management by Gary Dessler # Designing and managing Human Resource Systems 3rd Edition byUdaiPareek and T.V.Rao. WEBLIOGRAPHY development-centers/ t.aspx mpetency_20models_20-_20an_20overview.aspx development-centers/
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