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Cellsignaling
Pritam Prajapati
B.Tech Biotechnology
Ashoka Institute of Technology & Management
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Cell Signaling
All cells receive and respond to signals from their
surroundings
Signaling molecules that are secreted on the surface of
one cell and bind to receptors expressed by the other
cells
The binding of most signaling molecules to their
receptors initiates a series of intracellular reactions that
regulate of the cell behaviour including
metabolism,movement,proliferation and differentiation
The ligand is the signaling molecule.
It may be a hormone,a growth factor/cytokine ,a
steroid,a polypeptide,or other type of molecule.It has no
activity of its own,but must bind to a macromolecule
Which is known as a receptor
Receptor when activated by ligand ,the receptor causes
a change in the target cell in which it is expressed
Signaling molecules
 Signaling molecules, which are released by signal-
producing cells, reach and transfer biological
signals to their target cells to initiate specific
cellular responses.
Signaling Molecules
 Extracellular molecules
 Intracellular molecules
1. Extracellular molecules
 Protein & Peptides: Hormone, cytokine
 AA & its derivatives: Gly, Glu, adrenaline,thyroxine
 Steroid: Sex Hormone,glucocorticosteroid
 Fatty acid derivatives: prostaglandin
2.Intracellular molecule
 Ca2+ ions
 DG, ceramide lipid derivatives
 IP3 carbohydrate derivatives
 cAMP cGMP nucleotides
 Ras, JAK, Raf proteins
Cell Cell signaling
 Most signaling molecules are secreted by one
cell and bind to cell surface
receptorsexpressed by a target cell.
 The steroid hormones are small hydrophobic
molecules that diffuse across the plasma
membrane of their target cells and bind to
intracellular receptors.
Signaling molecule
Receptor of target cell
Intracellular molecule
biological effect
Signal
transduction
Cell Cell signaling is divided into three
general categories
 Endocrine
 Paracrine
 Autochrine
 Signaling based on the distance over which
signals are transmitted
(1) Endocrine signal
 Secreted by endocrine cells.
 Reach target cells by blood circulation.
 Time of action is long.
 Such as insulin, thyroxine, adrenalin
(2) Paracrine signaling
(local chemical mediators)
 Secreted by common cells.
 Reach neighboring target cells by passive
diffusion.
 Time of action is short.
(3) Synaptic signal
(neurotransmitters)
 Secreted by neuronal cells.
 Reach another neuron by synaptic gap.
 Time of action is short.
 Such as Acetylcholine (Ach),
noradrenaline
(4) Gaseous signal
 Simple structure, half life is short and active
in chemistry .
 Such as NO, CO.
 NO is a major paracrine signaling molecule
in the nervous,immune and circulary
system
 NO is synthesized from the aa arginine by
the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.
(5) Autocrine signal
 Act back to their own cells.
 Such as GF, cytokine, interferon, interleukin.
 Direct cell to cell signaling,some signaling
molecules remain bound to the cell surface and
act as a ligands.these kinds off signaling take
place during embryonic development
Receptor
 Receptors are specific membrane or
intracellular proteins, which are able to
recognize and bind to corresponding ligand
molecules,
 Receptor when activated by ligand ,the
receptor causes a change in the target cell in
which lt is expressed.
 Glycoprotein or Lipoprotein
Function of receptor
(1) Recognize the special ligand
(2) Binding to special ligand
(3) Signal transduction biological effect
ligand
 A small molecule that binds specifically to a
larger one; for example, a hormone is the
ligand for its specific protein receptor.
Membrane receptors
 Membrane
 Glycoprotein
Intracellular receptors
 Cytosol or nuclei
 DNA binding
protein
Properties of binding of
Hormone and Receptor
 highly specificity
 highly affinity saturation
 reversible binding
 special function model
Cellsignaling

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Cellsignaling

  • 1. Cellsignaling Pritam Prajapati B.Tech Biotechnology Ashoka Institute of Technology & Management Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
  • 2. Cell Signaling All cells receive and respond to signals from their surroundings Signaling molecules that are secreted on the surface of one cell and bind to receptors expressed by the other cells The binding of most signaling molecules to their receptors initiates a series of intracellular reactions that regulate of the cell behaviour including metabolism,movement,proliferation and differentiation
  • 3. The ligand is the signaling molecule. It may be a hormone,a growth factor/cytokine ,a steroid,a polypeptide,or other type of molecule.It has no activity of its own,but must bind to a macromolecule Which is known as a receptor Receptor when activated by ligand ,the receptor causes a change in the target cell in which it is expressed
  • 4. Signaling molecules  Signaling molecules, which are released by signal- producing cells, reach and transfer biological signals to their target cells to initiate specific cellular responses.
  • 5. Signaling Molecules  Extracellular molecules  Intracellular molecules
  • 6. 1. Extracellular molecules  Protein & Peptides: Hormone, cytokine  AA & its derivatives: Gly, Glu, adrenaline,thyroxine  Steroid: Sex Hormone,glucocorticosteroid  Fatty acid derivatives: prostaglandin
  • 7. 2.Intracellular molecule  Ca2+ ions  DG, ceramide lipid derivatives  IP3 carbohydrate derivatives  cAMP cGMP nucleotides  Ras, JAK, Raf proteins
  • 8. Cell Cell signaling  Most signaling molecules are secreted by one cell and bind to cell surface receptorsexpressed by a target cell.  The steroid hormones are small hydrophobic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane of their target cells and bind to intracellular receptors.
  • 9. Signaling molecule Receptor of target cell Intracellular molecule biological effect Signal transduction
  • 10. Cell Cell signaling is divided into three general categories  Endocrine  Paracrine  Autochrine  Signaling based on the distance over which signals are transmitted
  • 11. (1) Endocrine signal  Secreted by endocrine cells.  Reach target cells by blood circulation.  Time of action is long.  Such as insulin, thyroxine, adrenalin
  • 12. (2) Paracrine signaling (local chemical mediators)  Secreted by common cells.  Reach neighboring target cells by passive diffusion.  Time of action is short.
  • 13. (3) Synaptic signal (neurotransmitters)  Secreted by neuronal cells.  Reach another neuron by synaptic gap.  Time of action is short.  Such as Acetylcholine (Ach), noradrenaline
  • 14. (4) Gaseous signal  Simple structure, half life is short and active in chemistry .  Such as NO, CO.  NO is a major paracrine signaling molecule in the nervous,immune and circulary system  NO is synthesized from the aa arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.
  • 15. (5) Autocrine signal  Act back to their own cells.  Such as GF, cytokine, interferon, interleukin.  Direct cell to cell signaling,some signaling molecules remain bound to the cell surface and act as a ligands.these kinds off signaling take place during embryonic development
  • 16. Receptor  Receptors are specific membrane or intracellular proteins, which are able to recognize and bind to corresponding ligand molecules,  Receptor when activated by ligand ,the receptor causes a change in the target cell in which lt is expressed.  Glycoprotein or Lipoprotein
  • 17. Function of receptor (1) Recognize the special ligand (2) Binding to special ligand (3) Signal transduction biological effect
  • 18. ligand  A small molecule that binds specifically to a larger one; for example, a hormone is the ligand for its specific protein receptor.
  • 19. Membrane receptors  Membrane  Glycoprotein Intracellular receptors  Cytosol or nuclei  DNA binding protein
  • 20. Properties of binding of Hormone and Receptor  highly specificity  highly affinity saturation  reversible binding  special function model