Literacy Electronic Portfolio Priscilla Lee READ 7263
Phonemic Assessment/Strategy:Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic SegmentationDirections for Administering 1. Have one test sheet for each child in the class. 2. Assess children individually in a quiet place. 3. Keep the assessment playful and game-like. 4. Explain the game to the child exactly as the directions specify. 5. Model for the child what he or she needs to do with each of the practice words. Have them break apart each word with you.Children are given the following directions upon administration of the test:Today were going to play a word game. Im going to say a word and I want you tobreak the word apart. You are going to say the word slowly, and then tell me eachsound in the word in order. For example, if I say "old," you should say "oooo-llll-d"(The teacher says the sound, not the letters.) Lets try a few words together.The practice items are ride, go, and man. The teacher should help the child with eachsample item - segmenting the item for the child if necessary and encouraging the childto repeat the segmented words. Then the child is given the 22 item test. If the childresponds correctly, the teacher says, "Thats right." If the child gives an incorrectresponse, he or she is corrected. The teacher provides the appropriate response. Theteacher circles the numbers of all correct answers.If the child breaks a word apart incorrectly, the teacher gives the correct answer: Child You Says say Uses onset and rime /d/ - /d-/o- Repeats word /og/ /g/ Stretches word out dog /d-/o- Spells letters in word d-o- /g/ Says first and last g /d-/o- sounds "d" - /g/ Says another word "o" - /d-/o- Says a sentence "g" /g/ /d/ - /d-/o- /g/ /g/ bark /d-/o-
I dont /g/ know /d-/o- /g/The childs score is the number of items correctly segmented into all constituentphonemes. No partial credit is given. For instance, if a child says "/c/-/at/" instead of"/c/-/a/-/t/," the response may be noted on the blank line following the items but isconsidered incorrect for purposes of scoring. Correct responses are only those thatinvolve articulation of each phoneme in the target word.A blend contains two or three phonemes in each of these and each should bearticulated separately. Hence, item 7 on the test, grew, has three phonemes /g/-/r/-/ew/. Digraphs such as /sh/ in item 5, she, and the /th/ in item 15, three, are singlephonemes. Item 5, therefore has two phonemes and item 15 has three phonemes. If achild responds with letter names instead of sounds, the response is coded as incorrect,and the type of error is noted on the test.Students who obtain high scores (segmenting all or nearly all of the items correctly)may be considered phonemically aware. Students who correctly segment some itemsare displaying emerging phonemic awareness. Students who are able to segment onlya few items or none at all lack appropriate levels of phonemic awareness. Withoutintervention, those students scoring very low on the test are likely to experiencedifficulty with reading and spelling.Student Test Sheet Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme SegmentationStudents name _________________________________ Date _____________Score (number correct) _______________Directions: Today were going to play a word game. Im going to say a word and Iwant you to break the word apart. You are going to tell me each sound in the word inorder. For example, if I say "old," you should say /o/-/l/-/d/." (Administrator: Be sureto say the sounds, not the letters, in the word.) Lets try a few together.Practice items:(Assist the child in segmenting these items as necessary.) ride go man
Test items:(Circle those items that the student correctly segments; incorrect responsesmay be recorded on the blank line following the item.) 1. dog _________________________ 12. lay _________________________ 2. keep _________________________ 13. race _________________________ 3. fine _________________________ 14. zoo _________________________ 4. no _________________________ 15. three _________________________ 5. she _________________________ 16. job _________________________ 6. wave _________________________ 17. in _________________________ 7. grew _________________________ 18. ice _________________________ 8. that _________________________ 19. at _________________________ 9. red _________________________ 20. top _________________________10. me _________________________ 21. by _________________________11. sat _________________________ 22. do _________________________Return to the Test DirectionsThe author, Hallie Kay Yopp, California State University, Fullerton, grants permission for thistest to be reproduced. The author acknowledges the contribution of the late Harry Singer to thedevelopment of this test.
Phonics Assessment/Strategy*Click twice to view powerpointBlachowicz Informal Phonics Survey (Barr, 2000)Test Items:1. Naming upper and lower case letters. Circle those known when pointedto.a S q I R h ks J d A f O Ul w z Q v X Bn H T b e G PV N j y K w fF r Z x L m OE o C D P g A
i M t u c Y dS j2. Sound values of isolated consonants. Point to each letter and ask thechild to tell you what sound “this letter makes: or give you a word thatstarts with this letter. Circle those not known.b c k j g t v d m h rp z l f n s u w y qu3. Short vowel phonograms blended with initial consonants. Check to seeif the student knows the following simple sight word phonograms: up, it,am, and on. (If they are not known, try to train the student to recognizethem, or choose phonograms the child does know.) Point to each item andhave the child pronounce it. If an item is mispronounced, write themispronunciation about it for later analysis.mupzamtupsam con rit gam kondupvithon quam bupponwup jamnitfup lam yup4. Consonant blends plus short vowel phonograms. This and all subsequenttests follow the same procedure as test 3. Have the child pronounce eachitem, and write in any mispronounced words.brupsconplitskamslup twit drongramswisspupfronblitsnamglupclamtritflonsmamslupcronpritglup5. Consonant digraphs plus short vowel phonograms.chupshonthup whit phamshupwhon chon thon6. Vowel-Consonant-Silent e plus initial consonant.
dake mime foletulemedetatefopeduteditesede 7. Long vowel digraphs.leatmiedboadtay ley moeteefbuelmoeslailbietoatmeeptayluebainleam8. R-controlled vowels.mertirhurdirferdarmortursardor bur9. Ending-blend phonograms.seltmextbasp mick dunchmulktandgoftsunchmimpkentmunkjungdulfbaftdilknoltsatchfodgehinkdispfoltnampdistgelfmondbant tingdastholffaskreptfelpnold bent 10. Ending-digraph phonograms.tathfashnichbaphdithsoshtachruph11. Alternate sounds of c and g.gapgity cot came gendcendgitcim12. Three-letter blends.splanchrinthrupschonstratscrupsquitspronchristhratscrisspronstrupsplupsquisschanshrat13. Diphthongs.dowdoydounddointdoydouddoilfown14. Silent Letters.talftambdemnfalm knop wridgnap
knopghat word gnomphotpnippsin15. Multisyllabic words. Show division in responses with slash marks.bufflehotratrewantsuntingfendleinsergunpottlerembatrebarkbullingableminkfallrefizwissingwenkerfilmendlesubmarkableractionbundedmadsionStudent Copya S q I R h ks J d A f O Ul w z Q v X Bn H T b e G PV N j y K w fF r Z x L m OE o C D P g Ai M t u c Y dS j___________________________________________________________________________b c k j g t v d m h rp z l f n s u w y qumupzamtupsam con rit gam kondupvithon quam bupponwup jamnitfup lam yupbrupsconplitskamslup twit dron
doilfowntalftambdemnfalm knop wridgnapknopghat word gnomphotpnippsinbufflehotratrewantsuntingfendleinsergunpottlerembatrebarkbullingableminkfallrefizwissingwenkerfilmendlesubmarkableractionbundedmadsion The Analogy Strategy: Teaching Children the Excitement of Becoming Word Detectives I greatly admire the research and classroom application of the analogy strategy fordecoding words by LinneaEhri and Irene Gaslins! They taught teachers and children theexcitement of discovering how to pronounce words as detectives and use the words inmeaningful contexts. I advocate their best practices and would like to share my favorite success story about thevalue of teaching the analogy strategy. I was fortunate to assist with teaching reading to a thirdgrade student in a low socioeconomic school named Rashad. Rashad had a wonderful teacherVirginia who was teaching the class the analogy strategy. Rashad was reading at a Pre-Primerlevel and was known to sit alone quietly and rarely smiled. Initially, I assessed his readingstrengths and weaknesses. After an analysis of the assessments I taught him the analogy strategywith positive reinforcement over a period of three months from January to March. We met onceweekly beyond the daily teaching in small groups of the strategy by Virginia. Rashad progressedand began to smile… All was well until we learned that his neighborhood had been redistrictedand he would be attending another school. We were devastated! Fortunately, Virgina was able totutor Rashad that summer. Rashad learned to attack unfamiliar words as an excited worddetective. His joy about his progress overcame the barriers to his happiness as a reader. Thefollowing is an explanation of the assessments and the process I used to teach him the analogystrategy.Assessments and ProcessAssessments: The Bear Spelling Test: I used the Bear Spelling Test from the text, Words TheirWay: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction by Bear, Invernizzi,Templeton, and Johnston. The test is a spelling inventory designed to determine students’stages of development with a feature guide. The test is excellent for students at all grade levelswho experience difficulty decoding words and spelling. The spelling features include theEmergent, Letter Name Alphabetic, Within Word Pattern, Syllable and Affixes, and DerivationalRelations Stages. The stages are from the earliest to most advanced stages of spelling.
Rashadscored at the late emergent to letter name stage. Late emergent readers have difficultydetermining and sometimes omit the vowels in syllables in words. They often search forenvironmental clues to decode words such as the golden arches to read the word McDonald’s.Rashad was only able to spell the word bedout of the list of words bed, ship, when, lump, andfloat. I stopped asking him to spell words when he missed 5 words in a row. The results indicatedthat Rashad needed help understanding that syllables have vowels and that spelling patterns suchas ip in the word ship and ump in the word lumphelp with decoding unfamiliar words. Spellingpatterns are the vowel and what comes after it in a syllable.Informal Reading Inventory: Qualitative Reading Inventory(QRI) by Leslie and Caldwell. Thetest is designed to determine students’ ability to decode words and comprehend words in context.Rashad scored at the Pre-Primer level on the word list. He was able to decode a narrative at thepre primer level with pictures for comprehension. Analysis of the test results indicated thatRashad depended on pictures and guessing for decoding words. He had difficulty comprehendingtext based on word recognition problems.Analogy Strategy Process and Positive Reinforcement: The analogy strategy helps studentsdecode unfamiliar words by using familiar words with the same spelling patterns. For example,the spelling pattern in the word cat is at (the vowel and what is after it in the syllable. Spellingpatterns are also referred to as the rime in a syllable). Students need to understand that syllablesoften have an onset-the beginning consonants in a syllable and a spelling pattern-the vowel andwhat comes after it in a word in order to pronounce words.I helped Rashad understand how his successful pronunciation of the word bed which has theedspelling pattern evolved. Then I taught him the spelling pattern in the word cat which is at. Iused the word cat in the sentence, “The cat is my pet.” He learned to decode the word cat andunderline the at spelling pattern. We used the word cat as the key word to decode other wordswith the same at spelling pattern. Next, we created word families with the key word cat to createhat, sat, mat. We used the words in a language experience story that he dictated for me to writeon chart paper and underlined the spelling pattern at when appropriate. Then Virginia used thekey word cat during the week to help him decode words with the same at spelling pattern. Thekey word cat was also placed on a personal word wall under the vowel a. The vowel word wallhelped him find the spelling patterns in unfamiliar words easily. For example, when Rashad wasreading and came to an unfamiliar word like sat he was able to compare it to the key word cat onthe word wall under the 1st letter of the spelling pattern a rather than refer to a word family list ofwords with the same spelling pattern but different beginnings (onsets) that might be confusing tohim. This enabled him to think and say, “If I know cat, I know sat.” “If I know cat I know mat.”When he discovered the value of the analogy strategy in this process to decode a word he wouldsmile so broadly that it would touch my heart. I praised and gave him a sticky note with a phrasesuch as “you are a great reader!” I would stick it on his shirt and he would grin from ear to ear!!Word analysis is a part of the analogy strategy. For example, for the unfamiliar word mat Iwould use the following chart found in an article by Ehri, Gaskins, et al (19 ):
Talk to Yourself Chart 1. The word is____________________________. (mat) 2. Stretch the word. I hear ____sounds. (3 sounds m a t) 3. I see _________ (3) letters because__________________. (I can hear each letter and the a makes the short sound as in the word cat) 4. The spelling pattern is ________________.(at) 5. This is what I know about the vowel: ______________________ (It is short because it makes the short a sound). 6. Another word on the word wall with the same vowel sound is______________________. (cat) Important: I always asked him to create his own rule for the vowel and asked if the vowel broke a rule he already knew about it. He was able to conclude that if a word has a consonant vowel consonant (CVC) it might be a short vowel. Sometimes using word analysis would get tricky as in the unfamiliar word farusing the key word car. For example, Talk to Yourself Chart 1. The word is____________________________. (far) 2. Stretch the word. I hear ____sounds. (2 sounds c ar – controlled vowel) 3. I see _________ (3 )letters because__________________. (The vowel a has an r next to it=r controlled vowel) 4. The spelling pattern is ________________.(ar) 5. This is what I know about the vowel: ______________________ (It is not long or short because it has an r next to it). 6. Another word on the word wall with the same vowel sound is______________________. (car) Important: I always asked him to create a rule for the vowel and asked if the vowel broke a rule he already knew about the vowel. For example, if you have an r next to a vowel it might not sound long or short. It was important for student Rashad to share their word analysis with another student toreinforce their learning and to remind them how to decode words when reading in context.In summary:The analogy strategy process I used with Rashad is the following: 1. Introduce a key word to be used during the week. Emphasize and underline the spelling pattern and create word families with the same spelling pattern. For example, key word cat- mat, sat, hat.Do not simply write cat, mat, sat, and hat. The key word must be
emphasized as the word to help decode the other words in the word family. I placed the key word on a colored index card and placed the other words in the word family under the key words on white index cards. Use the phrase “If I know (key word), I know (word family word).” Sometimes you have words that have different spelling patterns but sound the same such as bear and bare. In that case use parenthesis around words that have a different spelling pattern and tell the student that they are great word detective who recognize that some spelling patterns sound alike but are spelled differently. 2. Use the key words and some related word family words in a Language Experience Story. Have the student(s) find the words with the same spelling pattern as the key word 3. Review the key word or words and analyze the words and use the Talk to Yourself Chart. 4. Use the key words in sentences and words with the same spelling patterns in challenging sentences. Challenge the student(s) to find words with the same spelling patterns throughout the week. 5. Apply the key patterns in games such as concentration, dice with onsets on one dice and spelling patterns on another dice and create fun stories with the words. 6. Create vowel word walls. Notice that only the key words are used on the word wall not the word family. For example, Word Wall A E I O U Y Cat bed ride boat Up Yes Car feet kite rice rug byRemember to use a form of positive reinforcement throughout the process!! Vocabulary Assessment/StrategyBear and Barone (1989) Spelling Stages, adapted for Ways With Words (Prentice Hall) To analyzestudents spelling determine which phase they are in by looking at how they spell the following words.Administer the following assessment like a spelling test and analyze your students strengths andweaknesses. Determine the students spelling stage. Which spelling patterns, etc. does the studentneed help with to improve? What spelling strategies do you need to teach the student to help themmove to the next stage? If the student misses five in a row stop the test. Spelling Stages and TestStudent Name: Date: Letter Early Letter Within Word Pattern Syllable JunctureWord Name Derivational Stage Name Stage Stage Stage Stage
puncture17. cellar18. pleasure19. squirrel20.fortunate21.confident22. civilize23. flexible opasion, opasishan, opasition, oposision,24. opozcison, opishien, oppasishion, oposition,opposition spasitian oppisition opposition25.emphasize Vocabulary StrategiesUse a story to teach the word and have students create word stories: Henrietta Hippo Story ExampleWord Wizards (found on www.readwritethink.org)and Shape PoemsYou Try It! (Isabel Beck) Use check marks to indicate knowledge:Word Know it well, can explain Know something Have seen or Do not know the it, use it in a sentence about it, can relate heard the word word (include sentence) it to a situationtyrannygrapnel
PurportWord Associations: After discussing explanations for the words accomplice, virtuoso, philanthropist, andnovice, ask students to associate one of their new words with a presented word or phrase:Which word goes with crook?Which word goes with “gift to build a new hospital?”Which word goes with piano?Which word goes with kindergartner?Have you ever?Describe a time when… (you might urge someone, etc.)Applause! Applause!Clap how much they would like to be described by the target word: Ex. Frank, vain, wise, funny, etc.Idea CompletionsStudents indicate word meanings into a context in order to explain a situation.Ex. The audience asked the virtuoso to play another piece of music because…The skiing teacher said Maria was a novice on the ski slopes because…Vocabulary ActivitiesLanguage Arts Core CurriculumVOCABULARY Standard 4000-06Objective: 0601 Learn new words through listening and reading widely.Objective: 0602 Use multiple resources to learn new words.Objective: 0603 Use structural analysis/context clues to determine word meanings.InstructionalStrategyGoal – Use itwhen you wantto…DirectionsContext CluesStorybook Reading Provide meaningfullistening experiences withnew words. It is also goodfor motivation andlanguage development.Should be some direct teaching of vocabularywith storybook reading in schools - Incidental
word learning will occur but some studentsneed direct teaching of vocabulary.Adult/child discussion should be interactiveStories should be read multiple timesText Talk – Rich talk and discussion aroundwords – example from Isobel Beck using bookA Pocket for Corduroy (Freeman, 1978)Teacher’s notes using the word “reluctant.” Inthe story, Lisa was reluctant to leave theLaundromat without Corduroy. Reluctantmeans you are not sure you want to dosomething. Say the word with me: reluctant.Someone might be reluctant to eat a food thatthey never had before, or someone might bereluctant to ride a roller coaster because itlooks scary. Think about something you mightbe reluctant to do. Start your sentence with“I might be reluctant to _________.” Aftereach child responds, call on another child toexplain the response. For example, if a childsays, “I might be reluctant to eat spinach” askanother child, “What does it mean that _____is reluctant to eat spinach?Dual Language Charts Create synonym listsHelp show value ofbilingualismFor ESL students, create word lists that use words intheir native language as well as English. If you leavespaces, students may provide their own picture clues.Classroom Labeling Associate words withconcrete objects; developconcept of wordWorks well for ESL andforeign language; forscience or technologyclassesObjects and situations in the classroom providenatural contexts for learning. This process can alsoassist the students in spelling when they want todescribe the classroom aquarium or write about themealworms in science class.CD-Rom Books Increase motivation;provide dual-language andmultimodal inputComputer based books allow students to read thewords as they listen to the story. Several versions allow them to highlight the words.
Fluency Assessment/Strategy*Please click twice to view powerpoint DIBELS Benchmark Assessment Assessment of Big Ideas in Beginning Reading Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement University of Oregon, College of Education Oregon Department of EducationRepeated Reading Procedure 1. The teacher selects a short passage (100-200) words which is of interest to the student and at his/her instructional reading level (Informal Reading Inventory samples are useful for this, since they have been assessed for readability level and the number of words is noted.) 2. The student reads the passage (sight unseen-no practice) orally into a tape recorder. 3. The teacher directs the student to listen to the recording and to note any oral miscues (deviations from the printed text) by circling them in the script. 4. After counting the miscues and calculating the words per minute rate, the teacher enters these data on the repeated reading chart as Trial 1 (repeated reading chart is on CourseDen). 5. The student rehearses the passage a few times, with the aid of the teacher or another student. During the rehearsal, the teacher should discuss the passage with the student and teach as necessary to ensure that misreading isn’t due to a lack of comprehension: Determine cause of miscues such as unknown words, unclear meanings, and observation of punctuation marks. A useful sequence for rehearsing the passage is: echo reading, neurological impress, choral reading. During the rehearsals, the teacher must encourage the student to read with vocal variety and expressiveness to match the meaning of the passage. 6. The student again reads the same passage into the tape recorder.
7. The student and the teacher listen to the re-reading, noting miscues and rate on the repeated reading chart as Trial 2. 8. Steps 2 through 7 are repeated until criterion levels for rate and number of miscues is reached. Criteria may vary slightly from student to student, but usually are at or near the following: WPM (words per minute)=rate of 100 WPR (or faster) and MPH (miscues per hundred words)=1 or 0 miscues per 100 words of text The student’s final reading should be fluent and expressive, as if the student were narrating the text in his own words. The teacher analyzes the results to plan instruction and determine what reading skills interfere with fluency. Repeated Reading ChartTitle:Week of: 200 190 180 W 170 o 160 r 150 d 140 s 130 120 P 110 e 100 r 90 80 M 70 i 60 n 50 u 40 t 30 e 20 10 0 10 9 E 8 r 7
r 6 o 5 r 4 s 3 2 1 0 Name: SIGHT WORDS Sight words are those words that a reader needs to be able to know “on sight,” that is, withoutany hesitation or sounding out. Dr. Ed Fry calls these “instant words” because a reader should knowthem the very instant he or she sees them. What is so important about these words? Believe it or not, the very first TEN words on the firstlist make up about 24% of all written English material! That is, every fourth word you come across islikely to be one of those ten words. The 100 words on the first page represent almost half of all writtenEnglish, while all 300 words (pages 1-3) make up nearly two-thirds of our language! On any typical pageof text, 2/3 of the words will likely come from the words on just these three pages. Please note that many of the words on these three pages are also considered sight words if theycontain the variant endings (suffixes) such as s, ed, or ing. These endings do not change the need tolearn and know the basic root of these words. Approximately 60% of the first 300 Instant Words havecommon variant endings. Each of the 100 Instant Words on the following three pages compares fairly closely with thegrade level of the list: the first 100 words represent words known by a majority of first-grade studentsby the end of the first year of school, the second 100 by the end of second grade, and the third 100 bythe end of third grade. Past the third grade level, most students will be expected to have seen andlearned all 300 Instant Words. If a reader does not recognize these words instantly when reading, he or she is likely to havedifficulty with both fluency and comprehension. In fact, slow and labored reading is a major factor inpoor comprehension. If two-thirds of written English is made up of this rather small number of words,then it is extremely important for all readers to know them without hesitation. If a child does not know all the words on any particular vertical list of 25 words (starting with thevery first one), LOTS of practice should be done with just that column. Flashcards and easy-book readingwill often reinforce them. After all 25 words on any vertical column are known by the child reading at hisor her own pace, then it is time to work on speeding up the rate of recognition. It should take no longer
than 12-seconds to get through any list. Again, this should not be worked on until the child canrecognize all twenty-five without being timed. But once 100% accuracy has been attained, speed ofrecognition should be practiced until that particular list is mastered. Only then should the child work onthe next harder list of twenty-five words. *Presented by* Jilene Coleman Kelly Cottingham Kimberly Anne Elshazly Susan Gilchrist June Gual Darice LeAnne Shelton Rachael West Comprehension Assessment/Strategies
*Please click twice to view powerpoints Constructivism Theory and Assessing and Teaching Literacy Across the Curriculum Dr. Elaine Roberts The Elements of Comprehension By Witt, Hutchinson, Boisis, Davis, and Roberts Bas e d on the 7 Ke ys to Compr e he ns ion by S. Zimme r man and C. Hutchins