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The Changing Nature of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

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Workshop at the TEACHING AND LEARNING INNOVATION EXCHANGE, 25 - 27 February, Centre for Teaching and Learning, American University of Cairo, Egypt

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The Changing Nature of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

  1. 1. The Changing Nature of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/matrix-network-data-exchange-1013611/ Workshop at the TEACHING AND LEARNING INNOVATION EXCHANGE 25 - 27 February, Centre for Teaching and Learning, American University of Cairo, Egypt Paul Prinsloo University of South Africa (Unisa) 14prinsp Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypatia.jpg
  2. 2. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ A confession on choosing an image for the Title slide of a presentation… The first idea for the Title Slide was And then I thought - why should we have a(nother) male portrait representing scholarship? So I chose an image of Hypatia of Alexandria.
  3. 3. Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/matrix-network-data-exchange-1013611/ Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypatia.jpg Hypatia (born c. 350–370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt.
  4. 4. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ I do not own the copyright of any of the images in this presentation. I therefore acknowledge the original copyright and licensing regime of every image used. This presentation (excluding the images) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  5. 5. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ These slides were used as broad guidelines for discussion, engagement and reflection. One of the limitations in sharing slides is the fact that looking at the slides without the context, narrative and discussions/remarks may result in a loss of meaning or misinterpretation. Despite the limitations I share these slides for the following reasons: • I believe knowledge is a public good and this presentation can be used freely under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. • The slides represent my thinking about the topic at this particular moment in time and as such are tentative and provisional. They do provide, however, a broader framework of making sense of the changing nature of the scholarship of teaching and learning
  6. 6. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Overview of the Workshop 1. Clarification of expectations – why this topic? 2. Defining ’scholarship’ and how it is similar/different to ‘research’ and ‘Research’ 3. So, the scholarship of teaching and learning refers to…. 4. Has the nature of scholarship of teaching and learning changed over the last 5-10 years, how and what are the implications? 5. Mapping some elements of the digital scholarship of teaching and learning
  7. 7. Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/street-people-adult-road-asphalt-3169981/ Why this workshop (expectations)? What do you want to get out of this workshop? Activity 1: Let’s get started
  8. 8. Activity 2: How would you classify yourself and why? Researcher Practitioner Scholar
  9. 9. Activity 3: What are the differences (and similarities) between being a researcher and a scholar? Researcher • • • • • • • • • • Source credit: https://degreesfiction.wordpress.com/2012/07/22/scholarship-and- research-is-there-a-difference/ Scholar • • • • • • • • • •
  10. 10. Researcher • The knowledge in a particular field does not exist • The purpose of the researcher is to generate knowledge, to validate knowledge claims • Often a very specific research interest/focus and flowing from a specific problem • Shares his/her findings with peers and the broader public Scholar • Knowledge exists • The purpose of being a scholar is to seek knowledge, to become knowledgeable, to acquire knowledge and possibly, to use it in a specific contexts • Often also just for the sake of knowing • Shares his/her knowledge with students/interest groups Adapted and expanded from Kyd, J. (2010, September 13). What is the difference between research and scholarship?Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIrUWOfEy7w
  11. 11. Researcher • The knowledge in a particular field does not exist • The purpose of the researcher is to generate knowledge, to validate knowledge claims • Often a very specific research interest/focus and flowing from a specific problem • Shares his/her findings with peers and the broader public Scholar • Knowledge exists • The purpose of being a scholar is to seek knowledge, to become knowledgeable, to acquire knowledge and possibly, to use it in a specific contexts • Often also just for the sake of knowing • Shares his/her knowledge with students/interest groups Practitioner/educator • • ?Activity 4: When we add the layer/role of the educator or practitioner, how do these play out in the lives of educational practitioners?
  12. 12. Researcher • The knowledge in a particular field does not exist • The purpose of the researcher is to generate knowledge, to validate knowledge claims • Often a very specific research interest/focus and flowing from a specific problem • Shares his/her findings with peers and the broader public Scholar/Educator • Knowledge exists • The purpose of being a scholar is to seek knowledge, to become knowledgeable, to acquire knowledge and possibly, to use it in a specific contexts • Often also just for the sake of knowing • Shares his/her knowledge with students/interest groups Activity 5: How are research and scholarship valued in higher education and in your institutional context? How is it celebrated, rewarded, supported and developed?
  13. 13. Source credit: https://www.amazon.com/Scholarship-Reconsidered-Professoriate-Ernest- Boyer/dp/1118988302/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1519661337&sr=8- 1&keywords=Scholarship+Reconsidered%3A+Priorities+of+the+Professoriate Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton University Press, 3175 Princeton Pike, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648.. Boyer (1990) defined scholarship as… • Teaching • Discovery • Application • Integration
  14. 14. Scholarship is …not an esoteric appendage; it is at the heart of what the profession is all about. All faculty, throughout their careers, should themselves, remain students. As scholars they must continue to learn and be seriously and continuously engaged in the expanding intellectual world (1990, p. 36).
  15. 15. Boyer, E. L. (1991). The scholarship of teaching from: Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. College Teaching, 39(1), 11-13.
  16. 16. Application TeachingDiscovery Integration Savage, S., & Betts, M. (2005, July). Boyer reconsidered: priorities for framing academic work. In Proceedings of the HERDSA Conference ‘Higher education in a Changing World(pp. 3-6).
  17. 17. Teaching Scholarly Teaching Scholarship of Teaching ApplicationIntegrationDiscovery Fincher, R. M. E., & Work, J. A. (2006). Perspectives on the scholarship of teaching. Medical Education- Oxford, 40(4), 293-295.)
  18. 18. Activity 6: In general, how did the scholarship of teaching and learning change over the last ten years?
  19. 19. Activity 7: How did these changes affect you being a scholar and ‘doing’, enacting, performing scholarship?
  20. 20. Activity 8: How did living going digital and connected change the scholarship of teaching and learning?
  21. 21. Exploring the digital scholarship of teaching and learning • Teaching • Discovery • Application • Integration • Presence/networking/“onlife” • Activism (engaged public scholarship?) Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/mobile-phone-smartphone-app-426559/
  22. 22. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/festival-tokyo-wheel-ferris-1943592/ Living online as scholar means to get used to, enjoy and manage the noise, the unplanned serendipitous insights, the view(s), the selfies, the cats, the recipes, the insights, fake news, and increasing despair
  23. 23. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/the-strategy-win-champion-1080536/ Living online as scholar also means to be constantly peer reviewed, in public, having your views questioned and tested, and testing and contesting the views of others
  24. 24. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/balance-high-ropes-about-new-york-2051565/ Living online as scholar also means take risks and negotiating the impact of your race, your gender, your geopolitical location
  25. 25. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/tree-root-moss-overgrown-green-2266626/ Some considerations re digital scholarship, presence and activism Overlay image credit: http://site.sharespot.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/conectados-redes-sociais.png
  26. 26. Networks do not only include but also exclude While not everyone is included/connected, everyone is affected See Castells, M. (2009) Communication power .Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/photos/locked/
  27. 27. Networking pre-digital times… Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ontario_Historical_Society,_Ottawa,_1914.jpg
  28. 28. Networking pre-digital times • Who you knew mattered – ”can you introduce me to…” • Old (white) boys networks, glass ceilings • Disciplinary connections/gatekeeping/journals • Institutional reputation and networks • Legacy privileges/drawbacks – race, gender, class, country of birth • The role of individual reputation (as result of the previous three) • Social gatherings (by invitation only), conferences (depending on funding and gatekeeping) • Water fountain meetings, cafeteria discussions, bus and train conversations
  29. 29. So what changed (if anything)… • All the factors of the traditional networks are often amplified in hybrid and online networks • Social media - Twitter, Facebook, blogs, Linkedin, etc. • Recognise/nurture weak and strong connections – don’t underestimate the serendipitous weak connection • Beware of ‘filter bubbles’ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/isolation-education-no-time-2365544/
  30. 30. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Source credit: http://interactioninstitute.org/moving-from-inclusion-to-collaborative-solidarity/
  31. 31. Connect to the “Connectors”: The “Connectors” have the ability to span different worlds which is a combination of their personality, curiosity, self- confidence, sociability and energy. These people not only have feet in different worlds, but the ability to bring these worlds together (Gladwell 2000, pp. 49-51).
  32. 32. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/man-strange-male-funny-face-794514/ Connect to “mavens” – a Yiddish word for someone who accumulates knowledge (Gladwell, 2000, p. 60).Mavens are “information brokers, sharing and trading in what they know” and “data banks. They provide the message. Connectors are social glue: they spread it” (Gladwell, 2000p. 70).
  33. 33. A personal journey as digital scholar and living “onlife” Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/boards-height-balance-2040575/
  34. 34. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Goodier, S., & Czerniewicz, L. (2015). Academics' online presence: a four-step guide to taking control of your visibility. [Third edition] Retrieved from http://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11427/2652/GoodierOnlinePresenceV3.pdf?sequence=11
  35. 35. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/traces-snow-snow-lane-footprints-69808/ Our digital footprints…. The (un)informed and (un)intentional, (non)actions we take
  36. 36. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/shadows-jogging-footprints-evening-183121/ Our digital shadows…. Content that are collected from us (by other human and non-human actors) and that are stored, analysed, combined with other sources of information (including our digital footprints) to compile digital dossiers
  37. 37. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Activity 9: So, how do you use social media, and if not, why not? Image credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/143601516@N03/28011015990
  38. 38. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  39. 39. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Some scholars say that Twitter ‘does not work’ for them… This reminds me of walking into a library and expecting books to find you Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/books-door-entrance-italy-colors-1655783/
  40. 40. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/books-door-entrance-italy-colors-1655783/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/ant-shadow-big-small-metaphor-1541524/ Using Twitter as scholar requires effort, dedication, a careful selection of who to follow, a willingness to be surprised, and dealing with an abundance of stimulation
  41. 41. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  42. 42. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/nacelle-workers-wall-city-work-1888587/ The increasing disappearance of public/private/professional/personal Using Facebook as scholar…
  43. 43. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  44. 44. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  45. 45. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  46. 46. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  47. 47. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/
  48. 48. Activity 9: Living and being scholar in a digital age – ‘notes to self’ Image credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/143601516@N03/28011015990 Any thoughts you want to share at this stage? Anything that, in particular, made you wonder?
  49. 49. Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/sculpture-bronze-the-listening-2275202/ The art/craft of curation firstly involves learning to listen Some final reflections
  50. 50. Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/bench-man-back-view-sorrow-pond-889222/ Being a digital scholar means to be an audience, to take time to be an audience, to care enough to be an audience
  51. 51. Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/megaphone-speaker-sound-message-2335573/ Digital scholarship also means to carefully amplify, to share, to highlight, to call attention to…
  52. 52. Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Argentina_road_sign_R7.svg Critical and ethical digital scholarship also means to know when not to share, not to repeat, not to amplify
  53. 53. Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/adult-artists-audience-band-1836322/ Digital scholarship also means to support, to carry, to applaud, to care…
  54. 54. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MPOTY_2014_Social_media_opens_doors_for_meeting_new_people.jpg On the internet, everyone knows you are a dog Pointer 1
  55. 55. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/doors-choices-choose-open-decision-1587329/ Central to our strategy to take (more conscious) control of our digital footprints and shadows is the need to understand the choices we have, the (sometimes irrational) reasons why we choose specific options, the downstream effects of our choices and the choices we don’t have Pointer 2
  56. 56. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/window-dark-old-opinions-shadows-2387518/ Going ‘dark’ or ‘offline’ is increasingly impossible. For a scholar, going ‘dark’ is not really an option. We need to understand what is (not) in our control , the (ir)rationality of our choices, the (un)foreseen downstream use of our data Pointer 3
  57. 57. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/prey-hunt-bird-sparrow-nature-cat-244070/ Weighing the opportunities with the risks; weighing the abundance with the peril Pointer 4
  58. 58. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/bubble-soap-bubble-winter-thorns-1991077/ Serious serendipity Pointer 5
  59. 59. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/munich-oktoberfest-ride-carousel-1220908/ Playful serendipity Pointer 6
  60. 60. Imagecredit:https://pixabay.com/en/binary-code-man-display-dummy-face-1327512/ (In)conclusion Source credit: Circulated on Twitter (2017)
  61. 61. Paul Prinsloo (Prof) Research Professor in Open Distance Learning (ODL) College of Economic and Management Sciences, Office number 3-15, Club 1, Hazelwood, P O Box 392 Unisa, 0003, Republic of South Africa T: +27 (0) 12 433 4719 (office) T: +27 (0) 82 3954 113 (mobile) prinsp@unisa.ac.za Skype: paul.prinsloo59 Personal blog: http://opendistanceteachingandlearning.wordpress.com Twitter profile: @14prinsp Thank you

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