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Vulnerability of Children to Disasters: Introspecting Development Practices


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Vulnerability of Children to Disasters: Introspecting Development Practices

  1. 1. Vulnerability of Children to Disasters: Introspecting Development Practices Sunil D Santha PhD Asst. Professor & Chair, Global Environmental Change, SCMS-COCHIN E-mail:
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Background </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought in Andhra Pradesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tsunami in Andaman & Nicobar Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysing Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability, Children & MDGs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Children as vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>Children as victims of disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Development policy / disaster recovery: Isolated technical solutions/Trickle down effect </li></ul><ul><li>Development goals should aim at vulnerability reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually integrated into Disaster Risk Reduction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theoretical Background <ul><li>Political Economy Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure and Release Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Root Causes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Pressures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights-based Approach </li></ul>
  5. 5. Vulnerability <ul><li>The characteristics of a person or group & their situation that influence their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist & recover from the impact of a natural hazard (Wisner, 2004) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Children & Their Families in Development: Analysing the Progression of Vulnerability Case Studies
  7. 7. 1. Drought in Andhra Pradesh <ul><li>Severe drought </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity of drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Out-migration </li></ul><ul><li>The Poor </li></ul><ul><li>The Dalits </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor coping capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physically disabled </li></ul></ul></ul>“ The first to lose and the last to recover from the impacts of natural disasters”
  8. 8. Interventions <ul><li>Risk Financing </li></ul><ul><li>Drought proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>“ The positive impacts of these interventions on the vulnerable sections of the population are often isolated & happen at a very micro scale ” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>8-12% of children live in HH below the absolute poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>29% of these children from ST live in absolute poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Low height-for-age scores [chronic malnutrition & long-time deprivation] </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Tsunami in ANI <ul><li>3500 people killed </li></ul><ul><li>650 children orphaned </li></ul><ul><li>119 schools were destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor training & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of basic health facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack clean drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor sanitation facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ranchi Community </li></ul><ul><li>65,000 (13%) </li></ul><ul><li>Chhotanagpur area </li></ul><ul><li>British period </li></ul><ul><li>Denied of basic rights even before the tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>ST status </li></ul><ul><li>Men, women & Children work as wage labourers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Analysing Vulnerability <ul><li>Childhood vulnerability  Family / community vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Development & disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance & democratisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil society participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asset building & social protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health & quality of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human rights & conflict management </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cyclone Heavy rains Flooding Landslide Drought Earthquake Viruses <ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements in hazardous locations </li></ul><ul><li>Fragile food/eco-system chains </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of commons </li></ul><ul><li>Public action and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Poor social protection </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of/inadequate warning </li></ul><ul><li>Excluded from hazard protection </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of social and ecological security </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of livelihood security </li></ul><ul><li>Local Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of insurance against disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-exploitative technology </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate technology </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Special groups at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of local institutions </li></ul>Lack of Local institutions Local community participation in development planning Local investments Public awareness Accountability Macro-forces Demographic changes Unplanned urbanisation Consumerist lifestyle Widening gap between rich and poor Deforestation Decline in soil productivity Poor Governance Lack of collective participation Lack of transparency & accountability Corruption Limited access to Power Decision-making structure Natural resources Information Ideologies Top-bottom approaches in governance Market-oriented development Disasters Root Causes Dynamic Pressures Unsafe Conditions Hazards THE PROGRESSION OF VULNERABILITY Figure 1 Pressure and Release (PAR) Model (Wisner et al, 2004)
  13. 13. Discussion <ul><li>Isolated interventions: Malnutrition, child mortality, education … </li></ul><ul><li>Child Rights? </li></ul><ul><li>Superimposed upon existing structures that create & recreate vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Success of MDGs… </li></ul><ul><li>…… And when the Climate Changes!... </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thank You! E-mail: [email_address]