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  2. 2. Global Prevalence of Disability <ul><li>Global disability statistics are not easy to obtain, but most of the UN agencies use the rough calculation developed by Rehabilitation International (RI) in the 1970s that 10% of the world's population, currently around 60 crore are born with or acquire a disability within their lifetimes. </li></ul><ul><li>(Disability Awareness in Action, 2001). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global prevalence of disability ( Asia and the Pacific into the Twenty First Century, 2002 ) <ul><li>Over 2/3s of them live in developing countries with high density of their population in Sub-Saharan Africa and in South and South-East Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>There is wide variation in the estimated disability rates reported by the developed and developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The variation depends, to a large extent, on the definitions of disability used, which either expand or limit the disability groups covered in the survey </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It is estimated that there are 150 million children with disabilities worldwide and that fewer than 2 per cent are enrolled in school. (UNESCO, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The proportion of disabled children in developing countries is generally higher than in developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 6 to 10% of children in India are born disabled and that, because of low life expectancy, possibly a third of the disabled population are children. [ Children and disability(World Bank, 1999)] </li></ul>
  5. 5. Disability in the future: <ul><li>With half the world's population under 15 years old, the number of adolescents and youth with disabilities can be expected to rise markedly over the next decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents and youth are at increased risk for acquiring a disability due to work-related injuries and risk taking behaviour (including motor vehicle accidents, experimentation with drugs and unprotected sex). </li></ul><ul><li>(Nora Grace, 1999) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of Disability ( National Policy for Persons with Disabilities 2006 ) <ul><li>A person with restrictions or lack of abilities to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being was treated as having disability. It excluded illness/injury of recent origin (mobility) resulting into temporary loss of ability to see, hear, speak or move. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The medical definition of disability: <ul><li>The medical definition has given rise to the idea that people are individual objects to be “treated”, “changed” or “improved” and made more “normal”. </li></ul><ul><li>The medical definition views the disabled person as needing to “fit in” rather than thinking about how society itself should change </li></ul><ul><li>This medical definition does not adequately explain the interaction between societal conditions or expectations and unique circumstances of an individual. (Rieser and Mason, 1992) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The social definition of disability: <ul><li>Disability is a highly varied and complex condition with a range of implications for social identity and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Disability largely depends upon the context and is a consequence of discrimination, prejudice and exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the shortcomings in the environment and in many organized activities in society, for example on information, communication and education, which prevent persons with disabilities from participating on equal terms. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The social model of disability: <ul><li>Whilst disabled people may have medical conditions which hamper them and which may or may not require medical treatment, human knowledge, technology and collective resources are already such that their physical or mental impairments need not prevent them from being able to live perfectly good lives. </li></ul><ul><li>It is society’s unwillingness to employ these means to altering itself that causes their disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>( Rieser and Mason 1992 ) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Moral Definition of Disability <ul><li>Two Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and Spiritual origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment from God (ie: due to displeasure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evil spirits (possessed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Witchcraft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad Karma (did something evil in the past) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gift from God (cross to bear, angelic) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Moral Definition of Disability <ul><li>2 nd part of moral model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corruptness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immoral-ness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Human Rights Definition of Disability: <ul><li>There is a growing realization to elaborate a definition of disability, which is in conformity with human rights values and principles </li></ul><ul><li>In the heart of human rights mission lies the respect for variation in human cultures and the recognition that people are different on several considerations such as gender, race and disability. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, concerning their rights and dignity all people are same but it does not imply that all people should be treated in the same or similar way. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Comparing the medical and social models of disability in education: <ul><li>Medical model: </li></ul><ul><li>Child is faulty </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis and labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment is focus of attention </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation and alternative services </li></ul><ul><li>Re-entry if normal enough or permanent exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Society remains unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Social model: </li></ul><ul><li>Child is valued </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and needs identified </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers identified and solutions developed </li></ul><ul><li>Resources made available </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity welcomed; child is welcomed </li></ul><ul><li>Society evolves </li></ul>
  14. 14. Why is it important to understand these different perspectives on disability? <ul><li>It determines how society, systems, schools and individuals respond to the needs of children living with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>It decides the experiences of children living with disabilities in their homes, schools and communities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why is it important to understand these different perspectives on disability? <ul><li>Many national and international responses to the children living with disabilities are based on social and human rights perspectives of disability </li></ul><ul><li>Working from social and human rights perspectives on disability means we can develop approaches that respect and promote the rights of children living with disabilities to participation in education, employment and lives of dignity </li></ul>
  16. 16. Implications of disability in schools <ul><li>According to estimates more than 90 % of children with disabilities in developing countries do not attend school. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools often do not give quality education that responds to the diverse needs of their students with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>(UNESCO, 2005) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Implications of disability in society (UNESCO, 2005) <ul><li>Persons with disabilities are at high risk of becoming illiterate which often leads to restricted possibilities to education, employment and income. </li></ul><ul><li>Disability is both the cause and consequence of poverty. Disabled people account for as many as one in five of the world’s poorest. </li></ul><ul><li>Disability is a major cause of social exclusion. It may lead to marginalization in family, school and community. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Govt Policies and Programs <ul><li>The National Policy for Children (1974): Early detection , prevention, medical and physical rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>The National Policy on Education (NPE): integrated education, special education, vocational training </li></ul><ul><li>Scheme of Assistance to Disabled persons for purchase/fitting of aids and appliances (ADIP) </li></ul><ul><li>District Centres for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities </li></ul>
  19. 19. Govt Policies and Programs <ul><li>National Policy for Persons with Disabilities (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The National Integrated Open School (NIOS) </li></ul><ul><li>Concessions and Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>PWD ACT 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>National Trust For Welfare Of Persons With Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation And Multiple Disabilities Act 1999 </li></ul>
  20. 20. International responses: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) <ul><li>The right to education specified in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is universal and extends to people with disabilities as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Article 28: </li></ul><ul><li> Demands primary education should be compulsory and available free to all </li></ul>
  21. 21. International responses: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) Contd... <ul><li>Article 23: </li></ul><ul><li> Covers the rights of disabled children and includes their right to education that is responsive to their individuality and promotes their fullest possible social integration and individual development </li></ul><ul><li>Article 29: </li></ul><ul><li> Emphasises the development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms </li></ul>
  23. 23. NIMHANS EXPERIENCE <ul><li>LABELLING </li></ul><ul><li>CRITISIZING </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARING </li></ul><ul><li>STIGMA </li></ul><ul><li>DOCTOR SHOPPING </li></ul>
  24. 24. NIMHANS EXPERIENCE (Contd…) <ul><li>CONFINEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ISOLATION </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSTIMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>NEGLECT </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROPER MEDICAL </li></ul><ul><li>ATTENTION </li></ul>
  25. 25. NIMHANS EXPERIENCE (Contd…) <ul><li>VIOLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL ABUSE </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL ABUSE </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL ABUSE </li></ul><ul><li>TREATED AS A BURDEN </li></ul>
  26. 26. NIMHANS EXPERIENCE (Contd…) <ul><li>UNDERACHIEVEMENT DUE TO LACK OF </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER OPPORTUNITIES </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF ENCOURAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>REDICULING </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERESTIMATING </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROPER DISCIPLINING </li></ul>
  27. 27. NIMHANS EXPERIENCE (Contd…) <ul><li>DROPPING OUT OF TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>IRREGULAR TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CERTAIN TRAUMATIZING </li></ul><ul><li>TRADITIONAL PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTING SICK ROLE / </li></ul><ul><li>ABNORMAL ILLNESS </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOURS IN THE CHILD </li></ul><ul><li>OVERINVOLVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SCAPE GOATING </li></ul>
  28. 28. REASONS…. <ul><li>POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>VERY HIGH EXPECTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY DISCORD </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICALIZATION OF THE </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF SOCIAL SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>INADEQUATE FOLLOW UP </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITIES </li></ul>
  29. 29. ??? <ul><li>Fundamental rights??? </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of the Govt programs and policies??? </li></ul><ul><li>The unreached??? </li></ul><ul><li>What lies ahead of them??? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we??????????????????? </li></ul>
  30. 30. THANK YOU…