Animal identification and product traceability from the farm to the fork must be progressively implemented worldwide Source: www.oie.int, Reproduced by Dr. Muhammad Rasheed, firstname.lastname@example.org
Animal identification and traceability in pakistan
Animal Identification and
A BIT ABOUT ME
• My whole life is working with L&DD (1974-2013):
Veterinary Officer, LPO
PDS Expert, Trainer, Facilitator, Resource Person
National Consultant, Livestock Professional.
Deputy Director, TLMMSA
• What I’ve achieved:
Confidence, Experience, Recognition
Disease Surveillance and Reporting System
Rinderpest Accreditation for Pakistan
Passion and commitment .
– Identification for me, paying back to department
Dr. Muhammad Rasheed, 0333-6901401
• Sectors (Livestock and Veterinary Public Health)
• Policy Shift “ From Curative to Preventive
• Institutionalization of services
Disease Surveillance, Diagnosis, Reporting and Control
Disease Free Zones / compartments
Veterinary Public Health
Milk and Meat Safety Agency
• National Animal Herd Identification Database (NAHID)
• Punjab Animal Registration and Identification System (PARIS)
• National Animal, Agriculture and Plant Health Regulatory
• Punjab Animal Health Regulatory Authority (PAHRA)
• Guidelines from OIE
Livestock Sector - Milestones
Segment of rural
Herd of Livestock
In Agriculture Sector
Livestock contribute 55.1
% of the Agriculture
for 11.5 percent of
the total GDP.
Mission of L&DD
Punjab Vision 2020
‘Support livestock development in a
“To create enabling environment for
policy & regulatory environment that
raising livestock production and use
enables farmers to realize the
it as a vehicle for social security,
dividends of livestock farming by
smartly deploying public investments
towards domestic food security and
in core public goods & inducing private
creation of exportable surpluses”.
capital / initiative in the sector for
poverty alleviation, food security &
generation of exportable surpluses’
Shift from Curative to Preventive
1. Unclear policies and strategies
2. Political influences
3. Livestock trade obligations
4. Certification and accreditations
5. OIE listed Diseases
6. Transboundry Animal Diseases
7. Disease Surveillance and Reporting
8. Animal Registration and Identification System
9. Disease Free Zone / Compartments
10.ONE WORLD ONE HEALTH
Certainly it needs a System
System to Move Forward
Develop a national
level database for
and record keeping
farmers using their
include them in the
like CNIC numbers
and tag the animals
with their identity
through ear tags
This is off-course not an easy task
Periodic records of
animals can be
updated in the
From Farm to Fork Compliance
Tag and register
Issue unique IDs
/ Tag numbers
periodic data of
From Farm to Fork
1. Animal identification and traceability are important management tools in
animal health, food safety, effectiveness of policies and activities relating to
disease prevention and control, animal production food safety, and
certification of exports
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) helps its Member Countries.
First addressed the issue of traceability in 1998 in Buenos Aires , Argentina
In 2001 the OIE made Scientific and Technical Review to traceability.
In 2005 an ad hoc Group of experts was established and,
in March 2006, the OIE established a first series of guidelines.
Adopted in May 2007 as official OIE standards.
is the action by which information on animals (such as identification,
animal health, movement, certification, epidemiology, establishments)
is collected, recorded, securely stored and made appropriately
accessible and able to be utilised by the Competent Authority.
• Animal identification
means the combination of the identification and registration of
an animal individually, with a unique identifier, or collectively by its
epidemiological unit or group, with a unique group identifier.
• Animal identification system
means the inclusion and linking of components such as identification
of establishments/owners, the person(s) responsible for the animal(s),
movements and other records with animal identification.
• Animal traceability
means the ability to follow an animal or group of animals during all
stages of its life.
• Desired outcomes
Desired outcomes, defined through consultation between the Veterinary Authority and
stake holders in terms ofthe following:
– Animal Health (e.g. disease surveillance and notification;
detection and control of disease; vaccination programmes);
– Public Health (e.g. surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases
and food safety);
– Management of Emergencies e.g. natural catastrophes or manmade events;
– Trade (support for inspection and certification activities
of Veterinary Services, as described under OIE obligations.
– Aspects of Animal Husbandry such as animal performance, and
• Traceability Performance criteria should be designed in
consultation with other stake holder.
• The performance criteria depend on the desired
outcomes and scope of the programme.
• They are usually described in quantitative terms
according to the epidemiology of the disease.
susceptible animals within 24–48 hours when dealing with highly
contagious diseases such as FMD and avian influenza.
– For food safety, animal tracing to support investigation of
incidents may also be urgent.
– For chronic animal diseases that are not zoonoses, it may be
considered appropriate that animals can be traced over a longer
• The programme should be designed in consultation with the
stakeholders to facilitate the implementation of the animal
identification system and animal traceability.
• It should take into account the scope, performance criteria and
desired outcomes as well as the results of any preliminary study.
• All the specified documentation should be standardised as to format,
content and context.
• To protect and enhance the integrity of the system, procedures
should be incorporated into the design of the programme;
– to prevent, detect and correct errors
– to prevent duplication of identification numbers and
– to ensure plausibility of data.
• Scope should also be defined through consultation
between the Veterinary Authority and other stake
• The scope of animal identification systems is often
based on the definition of a species and farming
systems e.g. poultry in a defined compartment;
cattle within a defined FMD free zone.
• Different systems will be appropriate according to
the production systems used in countries and the
nature of their industries and trade.
• Preliminary studies
conduct preliminary studies, which should
take into account:
– animal populations, species,
distribution, herd management,
– farming and industry structures,
production and location,
– animal health,
– public health,
– trade issues,
– aspects of animal husbandry,
– zoning and compartmentalisation,
– animal movement patterns (including
– information management and
Pilot projects of the
preliminary study to
test the AITS and to
for the design and
availability of resources (human and financial),
social and cultural aspects,
stakeholder knowledge of the issues and expectations,
gaps between current enabling legislation and what is needed long
available technology options,
existing identification system(s),
expected benefits from the animal identification
systems and animal traceability and to whom they accrue,
issues pertaining to data ownership and access rights,
Economic analysis may consider costs,
benefits, funding mechanisms and
Means of animal identification
Physical animal or group identifier should consider elements such as the;
durability, human resources, species and age of the animals to be
identified, required period of identification, cultural aspects, animal
welfare, technology, compatibility and relevant standards, farming
practices, production systems, animal population, climatic
conditions, resistance to tampering, trade considerations, cost, and
retention and readability of the identification method.
• The Veterinary Authority should approve the materials and
equipment chosen as per given standards and
• The Veterinary Authority is also responsible for ensuring
that identifiers are unique and are used in accordance with
the requirements of the animal identification system.
1. External tools
2. Plastic tags
3. Ear tags
Illustration of tags with bar codes
Animal Identification and traceability system require:
1. A property or holdings register.
2. An agreed means of identification.
3. Register of identification codes and the initial
operators/farmers to whom they were issued.
4. System of recording animal movements and transfer /
disposal of animals
When an animal is introduced into or leaves
an establishment, these events constitute a
• Every establishments should be registered
as part of the animal identification system.
• The information registered should include the
– date of the movement, the establishment from which
the animal or group of animals was dispatched, the number
of animals moved, the destination establishment, transit,
means of transport and the identification of
According to the scope, performance criteria and desired outcomes.
The system should provide for the collection, compilation, storage
and retrieval of information on matters relevant to registration. The
following considerations are important:
• have the potential for linkage to traceability in the other
parts of the food chain;
• minimize duplication;
• relevant components, including databases, should be
• confidentiality of data;
• appropriate safeguards to prevent the loss of data,
including a system for backing up the data.
• The Veterinary Authority should have access to this information
system as appropriate to meet the scope, performance criteria and
• The Animal identification, animal traceability should be under the
responsibility of the Veterinary Authority.
• This legal framework should address:
– desired outcomes and scope;
– obligations of the Veterinary Authority and other parties;
– organisational arrangements, including the choice of technologies
and methods used for the animal identification system and animal
– management of animal movement;
– confidentiality of data;
– data access / accessibility;
– checking, verification, inspection and penalties;
– where relevant, funding mechanisms;
– where relevant, arrangements to support a pilot project.
the establishment of birth / age;
when animals are introduced into an establishment;
when an animal loses its identification or
the identifier becomes unusable;
arrangements and rules for the destruction and/or reuse of
– penalties for the tampering and/or removal of official animal
• Where group identification, documentation for specifying
– the number of animals in the group, the species, the date of
identification, the person legally responsible for
the animals and/or establishment.
– the group are physically identified with a unique group identifier.
• An action plan specifying the timetable and including the milestones
and performance indicators, the human and financial resources, and
checking, enforcement and verification arrangements.
• The following activities should be addressed in the action plan:
– The scope, performance criteria, desired outcomes,
responsibilities, movement and registration
requirements and sanctions need to be
communicated to all parties.
– It is desirable to implement training programmes to
assist the Veterinary Services and other parties.
– Technical support should be provided to address
Checking and verification
• Checking activities should start at the beginning of the
implementation to detect, prevent and correct errors and
to provide feedback on programme design.
• Verification should begin after a preliminary period in
order to determine compliance with the legal framework
and operational requirements.
• Auditing should be carried out to detect any problems
with the animal identification system and animal
traceability and to identify possible improvements.
• Periodic review, taking into account the results of
checking, verification and auditing activities.
LDD staff visit farm
L&DDD staff apply
tags with record
L&DDD staff return
record to SCIP
SCIP send tag to
SCIP enter record
SCIP to move with
SCIP create tags
and back to L&DD
Tagged animal is
part of NAHID
Registration to Traceability
Province, District, UC, Village, animal
Compatible with NADRA
Livestock as Livelihood
Movement or disposal data
Producer to Processor linkages
Processor to Consumer linkages
Illustration of tags with bar codes
Animal Identification and Traceability
Qualified VOs & Staff