World War I: Trench warfare


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World War I: Trench warfare

  1. 1. Trench warfare in the first world war<br />Felix Schaber<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />The beginning of Trench Warfare<br />Weapons of Trench Warfare<br />Life in the Trenches<br />Strategies to break through the enemy lines and defend their own<br />Facts and figures<br />
  3. 3. The beginningofTrench Warfare<br />3rd August, 1914, German troops crossed the Belgian border in the narrow gap between Holland and France. <br />Germans are quickly victorious over the Belgians<br />The French an British are defeated at Sambre (22nd August) and Mons (23rd August). <br />The German army marches for Paris but is unable to break through due to a French counterattack (Battle of the Marne 4th to 10th September)<br />The German commander, General Erich von Falkenhayn, decided that his troops must hold onto those parts of France and Belgium that Germany still occupied. <br />Falkenhayn ordered his men to dig trenches that would provide them with protection from the advancing French and British troops.<br />The Allies soon realized that they could not break through this line and they also began to dig trenches. <br />After a few months these trenches had spread from the North Sea to the Swiss Frontier. <br />For the next three years neither side advanced more than a few miles along this line that became known as the Western Front.<br />
  4. 4. WeaponsofTrench Warfare<br />
  5. 5. Infantry<br />At the beginning improvised weapons<br />Rifle<br />Bayonet<br />Shotgun<br />Hand grenades<br />Flamethrowers<br />
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  7. 7. Machineguns<br />British: <br />Vickers machine guns <br />Later changed to Lewis Gun<br />German: <br />Maschinengewehr 08<br />Mostly used to defend<br />Heavy machine guns<br />
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  9. 9. Tanks<br />British innovation<br />First use: Battle of Somme<br />At first it was very ineffective<br />Later became essential<br />
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  11. 11. Artillery<br />Essential foranyattack<br />Shapedthelandscapeatthe Western Front<br />Fragmentation, highlyexplosive and gas shells<br />German 420 mm howitzer:<br />Weight: 20 tons<br />Could fire a one-ton shell over 10 km<br />
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  13. 13. Gas<br />Mustard gas<br />Chlorine<br />Phosgene<br />85% of the 100,000 deaths caused by chemical weapons during World War I<br />Gas masks:<br />Urinating over a handkerchief<br />Later developed<br />Not very effective due to countermeasures<br />
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  15. 15. Life in theTrenches<br />
  16. 16. Water in theTrenches<br />Germans had the higher and therefore better positions<br />Water would be found 2-3 feet below surface<br />Rain would collect in the trenches<br />Caused trench foot<br />
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  18. 18. Trench Foot<br />Infection of the feet<br />Caused by:<br />Cold<br />Wet<br />Unsanitary conditions<br />Sometimes feet had to be amputated<br />
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  20. 20. Food<br />Caned food<br />Nothing fresh<br />Rats ate some<br />Rations got lower and lower over the course of the war<br />
  21. 21. SelfInflictedWounds<br />Hoped to be released home<br />Mostly shot themselves in the arm or foot<br />Could be sentenced with execution<br />
  22. 22. Strategies to break through the enemy lines and defend their own<br />
  23. 23. Barb Wire<br />In front of the trenches in the No-Mans-Land<br />Worsened with the artillery fire<br />Redone at night<br />
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  25. 25. Cavalry<br />High place value at the beginning<br />Equipped with:<br />Sword<br />Rifle<br />Lance<br />Massacred by machine gun fire<br />
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  27. 27. Miners<br />Specialist Miners-Not soldiers!<br />Objective:<br />Blow up the trenches from below<br />Then start a quick attack<br />Other side tried to hear them<br />Could take a year to dig<br />
  28. 28. Facts andFigures<br />
  29. 29. 1914<br />Over 450,000 civilian deaths<br />
  30. 30. Bibliography<br />Information:<br /><br /><br /><br />Pictures:<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />