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Discusion on state and government


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Types of Governance
Different types of Government
Good Governance

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Discusion on state and government

  2. 2. Politics It comes from a Greek word “POLIS” refers to the ancient city-state of which Athens and Sparta were the more prominent. It is the power relationships between individuals and groups. Politics have also determined who shall occupy the roles of leadership in government and how powers of government shall exercised.
  3. 3. It also deals with public affairs, that is, the distribution of goods and services to satisfy the demands of the public. It is also concerned with conflict and resolution. It includes the decision-making and decision-enforcing processes in any group that makes and enforces rules for its members (Ranney, 2001).
  4. 4. THE BASIC CONCEPT OF POLITICS The capacity of an actor to compel or influence other actors to alter their behavior or to do what they would not do other wise. Threat of coercion, consequences or reward is present in POWER. Resources such as MONEY, INTELIGENCE, FAME, CONNECTIONS, etc. can be a source of POWER
  5. 5. Refers to the formal or legal relationships between policymakers and citizens. Therefore, AUTHORITY is power exercised within the confines of established procedures, traditions, and practices, ideology, and laws
  6. 6. Is a specie of power but it may connote more than those instances where power and authority manifest themselves. Influence takes place without the threat of coercion or sanctions, or without the promise of reward.
  7. 7. Three components of attitude: 1. COGNITIVE 2. AFFECTIVE 3. BEHAVIORAL INTENT A predisposition which may be positively or negatively directed towards certain people, issues, activity, or institutions It is an idea charged with emotions, which predisposes certain kinds of actions to a particular situation.
  8. 8. Refers to the summation of the expressed or verbalized attitudes of individuals. It can be expressed in a poll or verbalized in any forum, it is converted into an individual opinion.
  9. 9. Is the way how political actors view his environment and the various stimuli within.
  10. 10. Are enduring beliefs that a specific end-state of existing order or mode of conduct is preferable to an opposite state. Values plays a big role in decisionmaking. The kind of value every policymakers carry may manifest in policymaking.
  11. 11. This is a disharmony arising from stresses and strains due to some changes in the political environment. Conflict can also be viewed as an inherent feature of the political system arising from the continuing competition for scarce available resources.
  12. 12. Is the process by which authorized individuals or groups make decisions to allocate in the society through resolutions, laws, policies, programs, decrees, etc. Is the process by which authorized individuals or groups make decisions to allocate in the society through resolutions, laws, policies, programs, decrees, etc.
  13. 13. According to John C. Calhoun, “interest were destined to be varied and diverse in the society”. Because of this diversity, individuals tend to associate themselves in order to pursue their common interests. Groups that emerge from the association of individuals with common interest serve as the vehicle through which they participate in politics.
  14. 14. Pls. study Governance and Type of governance in advance
  15. 15. What is GOVERNANCE? I t i s t he e x e r c i s e of pol i t i c a l , e c o n o mi c , a d mi n i s t r a t i v e a ut hor i t y i n t he ma n a g e me n t of pol i t i c a l a f f a i r s . This is the capacity of the government to effectively manage its resources and implement sound Governance means the way those with power use that power. (ADB as cited by McCawley, 2005)
  17. 17. P OL I T I CAL GOV E RNANCE It is the formulation and implementation of policies by the government. The interplay of the three branches of government in which the legislative branch formulates policies, the executive branch implements policies and the judicial branch adjudicates conflicts.
  18. 18. E C O N O MI C GOV E RNANCE
  19. 19. A D MI N I S T R A T I V E GOV E RNANCE The process of implementing public policies through an efficient, independent and accountable bureaucracy
  20. 20. E COL OGI CAL GOV E RNANCE The use of science and technology and the mobilization of all stakeholders in the management of the environment.
  22. 22. TRANSPARENCY The general public should be informed about government operations. This requires that information is accessible, timely, relevant, accurate and complete.
  23. 23. ACCOUNTABILITY The extent that government officials can be held responsible for their discussions and for the performance of their agencies.
  24. 24. PARTICIPATORY The general public including stakeholders and marginalized groups are able to participate in and influence both the decisionmaking process and ongoing government operations.
  25. 25. LEGITIMACY The operation of the government is acceptable to the public. Public decisions should be directed towards common welfare and the manner of implementing government policies and programs should be within the bounds of accepted practices and procedures.
  26. 26. EFFICIENCY & EFFECTIVENESS IN THE USE OF RESOURCES Effectiveness is the extent in which the acts of government contribute to the performance government functions such as in the maintenance of peace and order, delivery of basic goods and services, and maintenance of ecological balance. Efficiency is the extent that the functions of government are performed through established processes and within reasonable cost.
  28. 28. Wh a t i s ST AT E? State is a compulsory association with territorial basis having the monopoly of the legitimate use of force (Weber, 1958). According to James Garner, “State is a community of persons more or less numerous occupying a definite portion of territory completely free of external control and pursuing an organized government to which a great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience. A state possesses a power called SOVEREIGNTY.
  29. 29. Non-recognition could effectively isolate a State in Int’l for a like the UN Due to globalization of the affairs of the state in the modern world, there is also a need for the newly emerging state to be recognized by other state. Technically, RECOGNITION is not a fundamental element of a State, yet it is important for its survival and prosperity.
  30. 30. Wh a t i s NAT I ON? Nation is an ethnic concept, defined as people, or an aggregation of men existing in the form of an organized society usually inhabiting a distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language, using the same customs, possessing historic continuity, and disguised from other like groups by their racial origin and characteristics, and generally, but not necessarily, living under the same government and sovereignty.
  31. 31. The nations referred to in the UN are actually states. The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.     The UN has 4 main purposes To keep peace throughout the world; To develop friendly relations among nations; To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms; To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
  32. 32. Di s t i n g u i s h i n g NAT STATE NATION State is a word that has been derived from the latin ‘status’, which means ‘status’ or ‘condition’. The word ‘nation’ has been derived from the latin ‘natio’, which means a ‘set of people’. Juristic or political concept Racial or ethnic concept Where there is a state there is at least one nation There can be a nation without there being a state. A state may be made up of one A nation may occupy two or or more nations, as in the more states, like the american case of united states. nation, german nation or the jewish.
  33. 33. Four Elements of the State
  34. 34. People Refers to the inhabitants of a State. There is no strict requirement on their number, but it is generally accepted that they must be composed of both sexes of sufficient number to be selfperpetuating. The population of States range from more than a billion like China or a few hundred thousand in the case of ministates like Qatar and Fiji. The capability of the state is determined largely y the quality of the population. No education or training is required for the inhabitants of a territory before it can aspire for statehood.
  35. 35. Territory A territory may extend over a vast expanse like CANADA or covers only a small component of territory like Sngapore. The fixed portion of the surface of the earth inhabited by the people of the State. Components of territory includes TERRITORIAL DOMAIN, FLUVIAL DOMAIN, AERIAL DOMAIN
  36. 36. TOPOGRAPHY Topography of a territory, the kind of its soil, the climate and the available natural resources within are important determinants of the quality of the lives of the inhabitants.
  37. 37. Saudi Arabia has generally BARREN SOIL but underneath is a vast oil deposit, which provides WEALTH. Israel’s soil is likewise INFERTILE but because of technology & the work discipline of the people, it is currently a NET EXPORTER OF FOOD to other countries.
  38. 38. Sovereignty This is the supreme power inherent in a state. Two kinds of Sovereignty: 1. Legal Sovereignty 2. Political Sovereignty
  39. 39. Government This is the instrument that provides mechanisms in determining, formulating, and implementing the policies of the state. It is an institution by which the society’s needs for social services are satisfied and by which conflicting interests are reconciled (Ayaton,, 2000)
  40. 40. The three branches of the Government
  41. 41. Distinguishing Government & Administration ADMINISTRATION This refers to the group of persons headed by the President in whose hands the reins of government at given period. GOVERNMENT The instrument that provides mechanisms in determining, formulating, and implementing policies.
  42. 42. Functions of Government Constituent Functions These are the basic functions of the government that must be performed. Their performance is the minimum requirement for an orderly existence. Administrative Functions These are the undertaken to advance the general interest of society, such as public works and public charity. These may be undertaken optional by the government because they can be undertaken by private sectors.
  43. 43. Forms of Government
  44. 44. Monarchy Oligarchy According to the number of people who rule or participate in the exercise of sovereignty Democracy
  45. 45. Monarchy A government in which the supreme power and final authority is in the hands of a single person. The monarch comes from a ROYAL FAMILY. His/her title may be KING, QUEEN, EMIR, EMPEROR, EMPRESS, TZAR, TSARINA Monarchy is classified into two:  ABSOLUTE MONARCHY  LIMITED MONARCHY