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The mayans period 1


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The mayans period 1

  1. 1. The Mayans One of the most dominant indigenous societies in Mesoamerica. This was a culture that excelled at agriculture,writting, calendar making and mathematics. Lasted from 1800 BC-AD 250 -
  2. 2. Mayan Geography <ul><ul><li>The homeland of the Maya stretched from southern Mexico to Northern central America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The area included high land regions and low land regions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It also includes a dry scrub forests of the Yucatan peninsula at the dense , steamy jungles of southeast Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>High lands are farther south; the range of cool, cloudy weathered mountains </li></ul><ul><li>They evolved at the same time as the Olmecs. </li></ul><ul><li>Maya is present day Guatemala </li></ul>
  3. 3. Urban Centers <ul><li>250-900 A.D was known as the classical period of the Mayan civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>During this period the built phenomenal cities such as Tikal which is a major center in Northern Guatemala. </li></ul><ul><li>Important cities such as: Copan, Palenque, Uxmal and chichen Itza were all independent </li></ul><ul><li>Each city has a court where a ritual ball game is played that has a religious and political significance. </li></ul><ul><li>This games were believed to maintain the cycles of the son and moon and bring life giving rain. </li></ul><ul><li>They also have pyramids, temples palaces and stone carvings dedicated to the gods and important rulers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Calendars, Mathematics and written language <ul><li>The Mayans religious beliefs led to the development of the calendar, mathematics and astronomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed time was a burden carried on the back of a god, at the end of a day month or year on god would lay the burden down and another would pick it up </li></ul><ul><li>A day would be lucky or unlucky depending on the nature of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>The Mayans developed a 260-day religious calendar and a second 365 day solar calendar – the two calendars were linked together </li></ul><ul><li>Mayan astronomers were able to attain great precision by using a math system the developed using the concept of zero </li></ul><ul><li>They developed an advanced writing system in the ancient Americas that consisted of 800 hieroglyphic symbols or glyphs- some stood for whole words while others represented syllables </li></ul><ul><li>They used a writing system to record important historical events, carving their glyphs into stone or recording them on a paper book called a codex. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Agriculture and trade <ul><li>The Mayans were linked through alliances and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Successful farming methods led to the accumulation of wealth and development of classes: </li></ul><ul><li>Noble class: priests, leading warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants: specialized knowledge ( master artisans) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Cities exchanged the products of their local environment ( salt, feathers, shells and honey) they also traded crafted goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Cacao beans served as the unofficial currency </li></ul><ul><li>Growing maize , beans and squash provided the basis for Mayan life </li></ul><ul><li>They used slash and burn agriculture but also developed sophisticated methods like planting raised beds above swaps and on hillside terraces </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mayan Architecture <ul><li>The Mayas, like other Mesoamerican cultures, built pyramids as temples. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayan temples usually consisted of four or two sets of stairs, with the number of stairs corresponding to the Mayan calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayan buildings often had two chambers on top of them, with emperor’s palaces consisting of two lined halls of chambers. Mayan buildings were made with stone and concrete. Then covered on the outside in lime stucco, a stone that is especially durable. </li></ul><ul><li>Though the Mayans did not decorate their buildings extensively, they did include some detailed scenes or carvings in stone on the sides of their buildings. Mayas also used beamed roofs for support of their architectural structures. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Religious practices <ul><li>The Mayans worshiped their gods in many different ways. They prayed, made offerings of money and presented flowers and incense. </li></ul><ul><li>They pierced their bodies with sharp needles and offered their blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes human sacrifice of captured enemies occurred because they believed human sacrifice pleased all gods and kept the world in balance. </li></ul><ul><li>At chichen Itza captives were thrown into deep sinkholes lake along with gold, jade and other offerings. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>It is not known exactly why the Mayan Empire fell. Much like ancient Rome, they slowly declined until a final attack by Spanish Conquistadors nearly deleted all Mayan states. </li></ul><ul><li>Some scholars believe that the Mayans had already overworked their natural resources before the Spanish invasion. Family feuds and feuds among city-states in the Mayan Empire erupted during the time of decline deteriorated the power of the government and the effectiveness of the military. This could have been combined with some severe environmental catastrophe to bring down the Mayan Empire </li></ul>Decline of the Maya Empire
  9. 9. Fun facts about the Maya <ul><li>The Ancient Mayans “enhanced” the beauty of their children by flattening their heads with wooden boards tied to their skull. Crossed eyes were also considered beautiful and many parents would dangle objects in front of their infants to permanently cross their eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayan physicians were excellent doctors. Shamans would go through extensive training and perform complicated surgeries, such as healing scars, and repairing tooth cavities with turquoise and pyrite fillings. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Mayans used painkillers made from hallucinogens and alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayas used sweat baths to purify themselves. Special buildings have been discovered that were used as sweat baths by kings and commoners alike. </li></ul><ul><li>The last Mayan state existed until 1697, almost two hundred years after the first Conquistadors began invading the Yucatan Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mayan calendar does not end in 2012. Mayan calendars existed in cycles, with calendars extending to well beyond 2012. The end of a cycle was considered a cause for celebration among the Mayan people, and the idea of an apocalypse was first suggested by a new-age author </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bibliography! <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>www.history.come/topics/maya </li></ul><ul><li>http://science-news/science-at-nasa/2004/15nov-maya </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>