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INTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE
 DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE
 THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
 HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE
TESTING
 INTELLIGENCE QUOT...
 the ability to learn or understand or to
deal with new or trying situations
( Merriam-Webster.com)
 the overall capacit...
THEORIES OF
INTELLIGENCE1. Two-Factor Theory of Multiple Intelligence
2. Theory of Seven Primary Mental Abilities
3. Theor...
Charles Spearman
 used factor analysis
 see group of abilities as reflective of a
certain trait:
 E.g. color coordination + shape
organi...
Louis Leon
Thurstone
 known as Factor Theory Approach to
Intelligence
 includes 7 factors to considered to be the
basic abilities of human be...
Joy Paul Guilford
Philip Ewart Vernon
 believed that mental abilities is arranged
hierarchically
 general intellectual ability is on the top
and the specific ...
 has major group factors include educational –
verbal and practical intelligence
 has minor group factors: pure verbal, ...
Verbal
Practical
Intelligenc
e
Theory of
Hierarchy
of Mental
Abilities
Howard Gardner
Raymond Bernard Catell
 also used factor analysis, discovered 2
major factors:
Fluid Intelligence:
Non-verbal & culture-free
form of intelligenc...
Robert Sternberg
 focuses on how adults solve problems;
this is indicative of intelligence;
Francis Galton
 a single general characteristic that
provides the basis for more specific
abilities
 intelligence is inherited and if a...
David Weschler
 believed that intelligence is the capacity to
understand the environment and its
resources to be able to cope with
chall...
Lev Vygotsky
The Binet Scales
 Oldest of the modern tests of
intelligence
 very first test, developed by
Alfred Binet, used some key
...
1905 scale
 30 tasks or tests of increasing difficulty
 no measuring unit – just categorized people
very roughly into
◦ ...
Tasks on 1905 Scale
 Follows moving object with eyes (1)
 Recognizes the difference between a
square of chocolate & a sq...
1908 scale
 grouped items according to age
 could now describe individual in terms of
“mental age” – based on his/her
pe...
Binet – Simon Intelligence
Scale this was applied to
children of various ages
and
was able to determine their
mental age
...
 was used and varied among children from
the
ages 3 years to 12 years old
 was revised in 1911 to include Henry
Herbert
...
1905 1908
Reply to an abstract
question
Repetition of three
figures; Immediate
repetition of figures
Definitions of abstra...
1916 Stanford-Binet Intelligence
Scale
 developed by Lewis M. Terman and Maud
Merrill of Stanford University
 first time...
IQ distribution where Deviation IQ is used
(Noll, 1967) ---Table 2
IQ Interval SD = 12 SD = 14 SD = 16 SD = 18
130 and abo...
1937 scale
 Extended age range
 Increased mental age range
 Improved scoring standards
 Improved standardization sampl...
1960 scale
 Adopted deviation IQ
 Simply used standardization sample to
transform all scores so that the mean would
be 1...
Different IQ Tests
 WISC – Weschler Intelligence Scale for
Children
 WAIS – Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
 Otis Sel...
IQ Tests developed in the
Philippines
 Philippine Mental Ability Tests
 PNIT - The Philippine Non-Verbal
Intelligence Te...
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
 a single score which indicates a person’s
general intelligence level
 the general capacity of a person to learn
(formal...
Table 1. Traditional Calculation of IQ for Three
People
Person 1 Person 2 Person 3
Mental Age (MA) 6 years 15 years 15 yea...
Uses of IQ
1. It can be used by schools for admission
purposes.
2. It can be used for classifying
pupils/students.
3. It c...
Uses of IQ
5. It can serve as basis for education and
career
guidance.
6. It can be used to determine special
children
for...
Measurement of Intelligence
 can be measured by standardized tests
 Ratio IQ
 Deviation IQ
 Example: Mario, a seven-year old first
grader
got a score of 70 in a 100 points IQ test.
His
score 70 is equivalent to t...
IQ distribution where Ratio IQ is used
Terman and Merrill (Noll, 1967) ---Table 1
Classification IQ Percentage in General
...
IQ distribution where Deviation IQ is used
(Noll, 1967) ---Table 2
IQ Interval SD = 12 SD = 14 SD = 16 SD = 18
130 and abo...
Intelligence Level
Level IQ Range Percent
Feeble Minded 0 – 70 1
Borderline 70 – 80 5
Dull 80 – 90 14
Normal 90 – 110 60
S...
Feeblemindedness
 mental retardation
 a mental deficiency marked by an IQ below
70
Feeblemi
ndednes
s
Idiots
Imbeciles
Morons
 severely retarted, custodials
 have IQ level of 0 – 25
 mental age of less than three years
 Incapable of taking a ba...
 moderate retarted, trainable
 have IQ level of 25 - 50
 mental age of 3 – 8 years
 with close supervision
 can do si...
 mildly retarted, educatable
 have IQ level of 50 – 70
 mental age of 8 – 12 years
 can care for themselves even witho...
Causes of
Mental
Retardation
Brain
Damage
Socio-
cultural
Factors
Prenatal
Factors
Genetic
Factors
Cretinism
Hydrocephal
y
Gargoylism
Mongolism/Down
Syndrome
Ingalactosem
Rubella STD Anoxia
Meningitis
Cerebral
Palsy
Malnutrition
Early
Pregnancy
Lack of parental
concern
Crowded and polluted
environment
Delayed prenatal care
Prematurity Head injury due to
accident of
pregnant mother
Radiation
Psychoactive
Drugs
Alcohol & Caffeine
intake of pregn...
Factors Affecting
Intelligence Heredity
 Environment
 Sex
 Race
 Culture
 Training
 Socio-economic status
 Efforts...
Improving One’s Intelligence
1. Enhancing self-esteem
2. Providing pleasant school experiences
3. Self-direction
4. Self-m...
Name Occupation Nationality IQ
Leonardo da Vinci Genius Italy IQ 220
Francis Galton scientist, doctor England IQ 200
Blais...
Galileo Galilei
physicist, astronomer,
philosopher
Italy IQ 185
Michelangelo Buonarroti artist, poet, architect Italy IQ 1...
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
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Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
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Intelligence Quotient

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Intelligence Quotient

  1. 1. INTELLIGENCE
  2. 2. INTELLIGENCE  DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE  THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE  HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING  INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ)  CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
  3. 3.  the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations ( Merriam-Webster.com)  the overall capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment  Is expressed behaviorally  First Known Use: 14th century
  4. 4. THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE1. Two-Factor Theory of Multiple Intelligence 2. Theory of Seven Primary Mental Abilities 3. Theory of Multiple Abilities 4. Theory of Hierarchy of Mental Abilities 5. Neuropsychological Theory of Intelligence 6. Fluid and Crystallized Theory of Intelligence 7. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 8. Galton’s Theory of General Intelligence 9. Weschler’s Theory of Intelligence
  5. 5. Charles Spearman
  6. 6.  used factor analysis  see group of abilities as reflective of a certain trait:  E.g. color coordination + shape organization + object balance = High Spatial Ability
  7. 7. Louis Leon Thurstone
  8. 8.  known as Factor Theory Approach to Intelligence  includes 7 factors to considered to be the basic abilities of human beings
  9. 9. Joy Paul Guilford
  10. 10. Philip Ewart Vernon
  11. 11.  believed that mental abilities is arranged hierarchically  general intellectual ability is on the top and the specific skill progressively descends from it
  12. 12.  has major group factors include educational – verbal and practical intelligence  has minor group factors: pure verbal, number, technical/scientific, drawing, psychomotor coordination, and handiwork mechanical information  specific factors includes reading, graphs, tables and rote arithmetic
  13. 13. Verbal Practical Intelligenc e Theory of Hierarchy of Mental Abilities
  14. 14. Howard Gardner
  15. 15. Raymond Bernard Catell
  16. 16.  also used factor analysis, discovered 2 major factors: Fluid Intelligence: Non-verbal & culture-free form of intelligence Related to a person’s inherent capacity to learn & solve problems Used in adapting to new situations Crystallized Intelligence: What one has already learned through the investment of fluid intelligence in cultural settings Highly culturally dependent Used for tasks which require learned or habitual response
  17. 17. Robert Sternberg
  18. 18.  focuses on how adults solve problems; this is indicative of intelligence;
  19. 19. Francis Galton
  20. 20.  a single general characteristic that provides the basis for more specific abilities  intelligence is inherited and if an individual has general intelligence, he will likely develop strong mechanical, artistic, musical and verbal abilities
  21. 21. David Weschler
  22. 22.  believed that intelligence is the capacity to understand the environment and its resources to be able to cope with challenges of the environment  WAIC – Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (6-17 years of age)  WAIS – Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (adults)  WPPSI – Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
  23. 23. Lev Vygotsky
  24. 24. The Binet Scales  Oldest of the modern tests of intelligence  very first test, developed by Alfred Binet, used some key principles: ◦ age differentiation – Binet looked for tasks that could be successfully completed by 2/3 to 3/4 of children in a particular age group, a smaller proportion of younger children, and a larger proportion of older children ◦ general mental ability –
  25. 25. 1905 scale  30 tasks or tests of increasing difficulty  no measuring unit – just categorized people very roughly into ◦ idiots (most severe intellectual impairment) ◦ imbeciles (moderate impairment) ◦ morons (mildest impairment)
  26. 26. Tasks on 1905 Scale  Follows moving object with eyes (1)  Recognizes the difference between a square of chocolate & a square of wood (4)  Repeats three spoken digits (11)  Tells how two common objects are different (e.g., “paper & cardboard”) (16)  Compares five blocks to put them in order of weight (22)  Puts three nouns, e.g., “Paris, river, fortune” (or three verbs) in a sentence (26)  Defines abstract words by designating the
  27. 27. 1908 scale  grouped items according to age  could now describe individual in terms of “mental age” – based on his/her performance compared to average performance of individuals in a specific age group  e.g., if 6 year old can perform tasks that
  28. 28. Binet – Simon Intelligence Scale this was applied to children of various ages and was able to determine their mental age  developed in 1905, revised in 1908 and 1911
  29. 29.  was used and varied among children from the ages 3 years to 12 years old  was revised in 1911 to include Henry Herbert Goddard (translated the 1908 revision in English)
  30. 30. 1905 1908 Reply to an abstract question Repetition of three figures; Immediate repetition of figures Definitions of abstract terms Verbal definition of known objects Resemblances of several known objects given from memory Unfinished pictures Comprehension questions Definition of familiar objects Making change from 20 sous (French money) http://childpsych.umwblogs.org/intelligence-testing-2/binet-simon- scale/
  31. 31. 1916 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  developed by Lewis M. Terman and Maud Merrill of Stanford University  first time the concept of “intelligence quotient” was used: 100X CA MA IQ
  32. 32. IQ distribution where Deviation IQ is used (Noll, 1967) ---Table 2 IQ Interval SD = 12 SD = 14 SD = 16 SD = 18 130 and above 0.7 1.6 3.1 5.1 120 - 129 4.3 6.3 7.5 8.5 110 - 119 15.2 16.0 15.8 15.4 100 - 109 29.8 26.1 23.6 21.0 90 - 99 29.8 26.1 23.6 21.0 80 - 89 15.2 16.0 15.8 15.4 70 - 79 4.3 6.3 7.5 8.5 Below 70 0.7 1.6 3.1 5.1 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Table 2 shows the distribution of IQ where Deviation IQ is used
  33. 33. 1937 scale  Extended age range  Increased mental age range  Improved scoring standards  Improved standardization sample  PROBLEM: standard deviation of IQ scores differed across age levels  E.g., S for age six was 12.5, for age 12 was 20; this meant that an IQ score of 120 indicated something very different for
  34. 34. 1960 scale  Adopted deviation IQ  Simply used standardization sample to transform all scores so that the mean would be 100 and the standard deviation would be 16 (15 on the most recent edition)  This corrected for differences in variability
  35. 35. Different IQ Tests  WISC – Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children  WAIS – Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale  Otis Self Administering Test of Mental Ability  California Test of Mental Maturity  AGCT – Army General Classification Test  Cooperative School and College Ability Test  Terman-McNemar Mental Ability Test
  36. 36. IQ Tests developed in the Philippines  Philippine Mental Ability Tests  PNIT - The Philippine Non-Verbal Intelligence Test ( developed by Amanda H. Tayag)  Otis-Lenon Mental Ability Test (modified by the Philippine Guidance and Personnel Association
  37. 37. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
  38. 38.  a single score which indicates a person’s general intelligence level  the general capacity of a person to learn (formal learning)  measures only general intelligence  William Stern derived the IQ test
  39. 39. Table 1. Traditional Calculation of IQ for Three People Person 1 Person 2 Person 3 Mental Age (MA) 6 years 15 years 15 years Chronological Age (CA) 6 years 18 years 12 years MA ÷ CA 6 ÷ 6 = 1 15 ÷ 18 = 0.83 15 ÷ 12 = 1.25 (MA ÷ CA) x 100 1 x 100 = 100 0.83 x 100 = 83 1.25 x 100 = 125 IQ 100 83 125
  40. 40. Uses of IQ 1. It can be used by schools for admission purposes. 2. It can be used for classifying pupils/students. 3. It can be used for job hiring and placement.
  41. 41. Uses of IQ 5. It can serve as basis for education and career guidance. 6. It can be used to determine special children for their special education needs.
  42. 42. Measurement of Intelligence  can be measured by standardized tests  Ratio IQ  Deviation IQ
  43. 43.  Example: Mario, a seven-year old first grader got a score of 70 in a 100 points IQ test. His score 70 is equivalent to the score of a nine- year old child in the standardization sample. Thus, the mental age of Mario is 9. Using the
  44. 44. IQ distribution where Ratio IQ is used Terman and Merrill (Noll, 1967) ---Table 1 Classification IQ Percentage in General Population Very Superior 140 and above 1.3 Superior 130 – 139 3.1 120 – 129 8.2 High Average 110 - 119 18.1 Normal Average 100 – 109 23.5 90 – 99 23.5 Low Average 80 – 89 14.5 Borderline defective 70 – 79 5.6 Mentally defective Below 70 2.6 Note that in this Table standard deviation remains the same.
  45. 45. IQ distribution where Deviation IQ is used (Noll, 1967) ---Table 2 IQ Interval SD = 12 SD = 14 SD = 16 SD = 18 130 and above 0.7 1.6 3.1 5.1 120 - 129 4.3 6.3 7.5 8.5 110 - 119 15.2 16.0 15.8 15.4 100 - 109 29.8 26.1 23.6 21.0 90 - 99 29.8 26.1 23.6 21.0 80 - 89 15.2 16.0 15.8 15.4 70 - 79 4.3 6.3 7.5 8.5 Below 70 0.7 1.6 3.1 5.1 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Table 2 shows the distribution of IQ where Deviation IQ is used
  46. 46. Intelligence Level Level IQ Range Percent Feeble Minded 0 – 70 1 Borderline 70 – 80 5 Dull 80 – 90 14 Normal 90 – 110 60 Superior 110 – 120 14 Very Superior 120 – 130 5 Near Genius 130 – 140 1 Genius 140 - up -
  47. 47. Feeblemindedness  mental retardation  a mental deficiency marked by an IQ below 70
  48. 48. Feeblemi ndednes s Idiots Imbeciles Morons
  49. 49.  severely retarted, custodials  have IQ level of 0 – 25  mental age of less than three years  Incapable of taking a bath, dressing, and cleaning themselves  Have incoherent speech  cannot do household chores  requires close supervision and care
  50. 50.  moderate retarted, trainable  have IQ level of 25 - 50  mental age of 3 – 8 years  with close supervision  can do simple manual work like cleaning, digging, fetching water and other household chores  cannot perform academic work like reading, spelling and counting  usually only up to Grade 2 level of
  51. 51.  mildly retarted, educatable  have IQ level of 50 – 70  mental age of 8 – 12 years  can care for themselves even without supervision  can reach up to Grade 6  they usually faill in examinations and other class activities  generally at the bottom of the class  usually dubbed as stupid
  52. 52. Causes of Mental Retardation Brain Damage Socio- cultural Factors Prenatal Factors Genetic Factors
  53. 53. Cretinism Hydrocephal y Gargoylism Mongolism/Down Syndrome Ingalactosem
  54. 54. Rubella STD Anoxia Meningitis Cerebral Palsy
  55. 55. Malnutrition Early Pregnancy Lack of parental concern Crowded and polluted environment Delayed prenatal care
  56. 56. Prematurity Head injury due to accident of pregnant mother Radiation Psychoactive Drugs Alcohol & Caffeine intake of pregnant Overdose of medicines Mother’s frequent stress
  57. 57. Factors Affecting Intelligence Heredity  Environment  Sex  Race  Culture  Training  Socio-economic status  Efforts of the will
  58. 58. Improving One’s Intelligence 1. Enhancing self-esteem 2. Providing pleasant school experiences 3. Self-direction 4. Self-monitoring or metacognition
  59. 59. Name Occupation Nationality IQ Leonardo da Vinci Genius Italy IQ 220 Francis Galton scientist, doctor England IQ 200 Blaise Pascal Mathematics, religious philosopher France IQ 195 Voltaire Writer France IQ 190 Pierre Simon de Laplace Astronomer, mathematician France IQ 190 George Berkeley philosopher Ireland IQ 190 Isaac Newton Scientist England IQ 190 Rene Descartes mathematician, philosopher France IQ 185
  60. 60. Galileo Galilei physicist, astronomer, philosopher Italy IQ 185 Michelangelo Buonarroti artist, poet, architect Italy IQ 180 Charles Dickens Writer England IQ 180 Baruch Spinoza philosopher Netherlands IQ 175 Immanuel Kant philosopher Germany IQ 175 Johannes Kepler mathematician, physicist, astronomer Germany IQ 175 Martin Luther philosopher Germany IQ 170 Plato philosopher Greece IQ 170 Raphael Artist Italy IQ 170 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Composer Austria IQ 165 JohnLocke philosopher England IQ 165 Ludwig van Beethoven Composer Germany IQ 165 Name Occupation Nationality IQ

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