Parts Of Speech Ef

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Parts Of Speech Ef

  1. 1. Review -Parts of Speech- Lesson 1 SE005 May - Aug 2010 Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias
  2. 2. Overview… <ul><li>Traditional grammar classifies “words” based on eight parts of speech, the Verb, the Noun, the Pronoun, the Adjective, the Adverb, the Preposition, the Conjunction, and the Interjection. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  3. 3. Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Formation of English Words Parts of Speech Sentence Structures Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  4. 4. NOUN Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias
  5. 5. What is a Noun? <ul><li>A word used to name person, animal, thing and abstract ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>A noun can function in a sentence as a ‘Subject ’, a ‘ Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Object ’, an ‘ Indirect Object ’, a ‘ Subject Complement ’, an </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Object Compliment ’, an' Appositive’, an ‘ Adjective ’ or an </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Adverb’. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  6. 6. <ul><li>TYPES of Noun </li></ul><ul><li>Proper – M alaysia, A lan, M acalister road, UCSI U niversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Common – table, students, air, boy, hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective – a band of singer, a troop of army. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract – love, sad, happy, loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete – table, chair, student. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  7. 7. <ul><li>CLASSIFICATION of Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns according to FORM and QUANTITY </li></ul><ul><li>Form : Singular / Plural </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity : Countable / Uncountable </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFICATION of Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Noun as a ‘ Subject ’: </li></ul><ul><li>The manager recruits all workers” </li></ul><ul><li>Noun as an ‘ Object’: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Harith owns a speedboat” </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  8. 8. <ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Late last year our neighbors bought a goat . </li></ul><ul><li>Portia White was an opera singer . </li></ul><ul><li>The bus inspector looked at all the </li></ul><ul><li>passenger’s passes . </li></ul><ul><li>According the Plutarch , the library at Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>was destroyed in 48 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving . </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  9. 9. What is a Pronoun? <ul><li>Used to replace the Noun in order to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  10. 10. 1. Personal Pronouns Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI SINGULAR Singular Pronoun Object Pronoun I Me You You He Him She Her It It PLURAL Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun You You We Us They Them
  11. 11. 2. Possessive Pronouns Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI Singular Pronoun Possessive Pronoun Before a noun Without a noun following it I my Mine You your Yours He His His She Her Hers it its -
  12. 12. Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI Plural Pronoun Possessive Pronoun Before a noun Without a noun following it You your Yours They Their Theirs we Our ours
  13. 13. 3. Reflexive Pronouns Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias ( a) Singular reflexive pronouns Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI (b) Plural Reflexive Pronouns Singular Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun My + self myself Him + self Himself Her + self Herself It + self Itself Your + self yourself Plural Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Our + selves Ourselves Them + selves Themselves Your + selves yourselves
  14. 14. 4. Relative Pronouns Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI People Things and Animals Uses Who That Addresses the subject / the object in a sentence Whose Which To show possession Whom Refers to the object in a sentence That Whose Addresses the subject / the object in a sentence
  15. 15. What is a Verb? <ul><li>A verb asserts something about the subject; expressing ‘Actions’, ‘Events’ and ‘States of Being’. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a critical element of the predicate of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Dracula bites his victims on the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>My first teacher was Ms. Susan, but I remembered </li></ul><ul><li>the janitor Ms. Nanny more vividly. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  16. 16. <ul><li>Examine these sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Books are made of ink, paper and glue. </li></ul><ul><li>Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets . </li></ul><ul><li>We walk down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>The mail carrier stood on the walk. </li></ul><ul><li>The town decided to build a new jail. </li></ul><ul><li>The sheriff told us that if we did not leave the town, he would jail us. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  17. 17. How to Recognize an Adverb? <ul><li>In a sentence, we can recognize an adverb by its: </li></ul><ul><li>Function (b) Formations (c) Positions </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>It modifies a verb: “He speaks softly ” </li></ul><ul><li>(‘Softly’ modifies the verb ‘speak’) </li></ul><ul><li>It modifies an adjective:“The drawing is really beautiful” </li></ul><ul><li>(‘Really’ modifies the adjective ‘Beautiful’) </li></ul><ul><li>It modifies an adverb: “They started the journey least enthusiastically” </li></ul><ul><li>(‘Least’ modifies the adverb ‘Enthusiastically’) </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  18. 18. <ul><li>(b) FORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, an adverb is formed by adding ‘-ly’ to an adjective </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow : Slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Certain : Certainly </li></ul><ul><li>Soft : Softly </li></ul><ul><li>If any adjective ends in ‘-y’, we replace the ‘y’ with ‘i’ and add ‘-ly’ </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Happy : Happily </li></ul><ul><li>Easy : Easily </li></ul><ul><li>Hungry : Hungrily </li></ul><ul><li>Tidy : Tidily </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  19. 19. <ul><li>If any adjective ends in ‘-able’ or ‘-le’, we replace the ‘-e’ with ‘y’ </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible : Feasibly </li></ul><ul><li>Gentle : Gently </li></ul><ul><li>Sensible : Sensibly </li></ul><ul><li>If any adjective ends with ‘-ic’, we add ‘-ally’. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic : Economically </li></ul><ul><li>Basic : Basically </li></ul><ul><li>Specific : Specifically </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  20. 20. What is an Adjective? <ul><li>Adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by describing, identifying or quantifying words. </li></ul><ul><li>It describes a quality or state of an object, usually relating to ‘taste’, ‘color’, ‘size’, ‘shape’, ‘judgments’ like Pretty, good etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually precedes the noun or pronoun it modifies. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. </li></ul><ul><li>The back room was filed with large , yellow rain boots. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  21. 21. <ul><li>An Adjective can be modified by an adverb, by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  22. 22. Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI Categories of Adjectives POSSESSIVE (my, her, their, Your, his) DEMONS- TRATIVE (this, that, those) DESCRIPTIVE (thin, wet, short) QUANTI- TATIVE (few, many, several)
  23. 23. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVE <ul><li>There are three DEGREES of comparison </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERLATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Used to describe NOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. : Fat boy, tall building, blue shirt, bad news </li></ul><ul><li>(2) COMPARATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Used to compare TWO things </li></ul><ul><li>Often, it is followed by “THAN” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. : taller than, bigger than, faster than </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  24. 24. <ul><li>(3) SUPERLATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Used to compare MORE THAN TWO things </li></ul><ul><li>Used to show the highest degree of the quality among the persons, places or things that are being compared. </li></ul><ul><li>The article “the” usually precedes them. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. : </li></ul><ul><li>the most intelligent, </li></ul><ul><li>the prettiest, </li></ul><ul><li>the longest, </li></ul><ul><li>the strongest, the fastest. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  25. 25. What are Determiners? <ul><li>Determiners are little function words found within noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cat is sleeping. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which cat is sleeping? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whose cat is sleeping? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your cat is sleeping . </li></ul></ul></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  26. 26. Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI DETERMINERS Demonstratives Possessives Articles WH-Tags Quantificational Determiners
  27. 27. Demonstratives <ul><li>Refers to something that is known and specific </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>This – Singular Form </li></ul><ul><li>That – Singular Form </li></ul><ul><li>These – Plural Form </li></ul><ul><li>Those – Plural Form </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  28. 28. WH-Tags <ul><li>Indicate that the noun phrase is the focus of question. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>Which – used for both things and persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Whose – a counterpart of ‘who’ and ‘which’ </li></ul><ul><li>What – used for things only. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  29. 29. Articles <ul><li>Definite : “The ” </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite : “A / An ” </li></ul><ul><li>Quantificational </li></ul><ul><li>Words that indicate amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Words like ‘some’, ‘ any’, ‘enough’ , and ‘ no’. </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  30. 30. Possessive <ul><li>They are used to indicate ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Used before nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>His - Their </li></ul><ul><li>Your - Theirs </li></ul><ul><li>Its - Yours </li></ul><ul><li>Mine - My </li></ul><ul><li>Our - Ours </li></ul>Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias Social Science and Liberal Arts English Department, UCSI
  31. 31. -End Slide- Prepared by Ms. Arlini Alias

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