Prepare Instructional Materials• Check list of material needed• Gather media and materials• Check equipment• Cue media and put up materials
Prepare Learning Environment• Provide comfortable seating• Provide adequate ventilation• Control temperature• Provide suitable lighting• Arrange seating so all can see and hear
Prepare Learners• Arouse interest and movie• State purpose• Present overview of content• Relate content to previous and future topics• Explain unfamiliar vocabulary
Proceed with the Lesson• Give dear instructions• Set a learning tone• Maintain attention• Question• Provide feedback• Make smooth transition
Using Methods :Cooperative Learning Utilization Guidelines : Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning refers to a small group of Help students realize the students working to a advantages of working as a common goal or task. team. Allow student learn Teach group process to the from several source, not just students. from teacher worked in group Learn to facilitate, not and works as a team to solve dominate and guide instead the problem. of director.
Using Methods : Discovery Utilization Guidelines : Discovery Students have to discovery Be prepared for all type of method from actual “discoveries”. situation. Encourage students to share They can learn through their discoveries thought the personal experience and experience of discovery. students have to develop and Constantly encourage and use observation and reward to students. comparison skill. Students have to learn to follow to record and explain.
Using Method : Problems solving Utilization Guidelines : Problem Solving Students have to analyze Clarify the problem when problems, collect and interest necessary. data. Use additional resources and In the Rainforest researchers materials when necessary. scenario, student have to Keep group small. work together as a team. Help students understand the need for generalization.
Using Media Multimedia,including computer software Utilization Guidelines : Multimedia, including computer software The lesson’s center in the Use the display technology that computer software on the is appropriate for number of students. CD-ROM Install and test all software in Students used the software to advance of presentation. manage almost everything. Run the software from the hard The CD-ROM and computer drive rather than from floppy disk. system allow them to work Encourage students both collaboratively and participation through indepently. questioning and having students decide next steps.
Using media video Teacher must prepare students for active viewing of video. Some of teachers use a videotape to “set the stage” Check lighting, seating and volume controls before the showing. Prepare students by reviewing and asking new question. Stop the videotape at important point Highlight major point by writing.
Presentation Utilization Presentation Video and audio tape Inform students of purpose of presentations can be used, it presentation. is the main way of presenting Highlight the critical points new material for covering a of presentation. specific topic in more detail. Make the presentation relevant. Use variety to maintain attention.
Demonstration Utilization Demonstration A demonstration an Planning, presentation, and individual performs a practice are important if you procedure in order to use equipment that you do highlight a videotape not use regularly. or CD-ROM Ensure that all can see and hear. Present in sequential steps. Allow the audience to practice.
Discussion Utilization Discussion The benefit of discussion Provide inspiration or method is interaction occurs motivation before beginning and learning that results a discussion. from that interaction. Encourage active participation from each group member. Questions are needed to stimulate discussion, and prepared beforehand. Summarize and/or synthesize the different viewpoints.
Graphics Utilization Graphics A variety of pictures, Use simple materials that drawings, charts, and visuals. every can see. Graphics are available in Provide important aspects of textbooks and other printed visuals. materials, in computer Use one visual at a time. software and multimedia Hold visuals steady. programs, and as separate paper-based visuals.
Slides Utilization Slide Slides can show anything Make sure slides are incorrect from microscopic views of order. cells to representations of Darken the room. outer space. Stand facing your class and use a remote control. Break up long presentation.
Overhead Transparencies Utilization Overhead Transparencies The overhead projector is one Focus the image so it fills the of the easiest devices to use. screen. Notes key words on the frame of transparency. Direct viewers’ attention to the important parts. Shift viewers’ attention back your presentation by switching off the projector.
Display Boards Utilization Display Boards Chalkboard Multipurpose Check the visibility of the boards. board from several positions around the room. Plan to use the broads. Print using upper and lowercase. Do not talk to the broad.
SCENARIO: SPANISH NUMBERTRANSLATIONS Teacher: Lance Thomas Class: First-year Spanish class Method of teaching: games, simulations, drill and practice, tutorial method audio, text and real objects and models.
A tutorial booklet.1. Teaches students by using a tutorial booklet.2. Provides practice for visual recognition of the number.3. Students do a short quize. Media audio1. Listen to an audiotape on which the speaker pronounces numbers in Spanish.2. Repeat the numbers.3. The speakers say the number in random and asks students to answer in English.
GameName of game: Ay Caramba or Oh, my goodness1. Students stand beside their dask.2. Teacher picks a student begin with “uno” it means one3. Students go in order pronouncing the Spanish number in sequence.4. To make the game interesting, which a number has a “3” in it, student must say “ Ay Caramba”. A student who makes a mistake must sit down. Media videotape & real objects and models.1. A teacher lets students watch a videotape about Spanish market.2. Teacher brings boxes, packages and other food containers labeled in Spanish.
Simulation*** The teacher have to make the supplemented with plastic food item (meat, vegetable, etc.)1. Students works in pairs and role play a clerk and a customer.2. The customer read a grocery list the number of things that they want to buy to the store clerk in Spanish.3. The clerk gives the number of thing to the customer.4. The customer accepts the thing when the clerk give the correct number of thing.
Using Methods: GameGames have 3 key attributes on role-play1. A clearly defined set of rules that outline how the game will be play.2. Element of competition or challenge wherein players complete against themselves, against other individuals or against a standard of some type. ExampleMr.Thomas use “Ay Caramba” (Oh, my goodness) to let his students practice their numbers in Spanish.
Utilization Guidelines: Games1. Students must have a clear of instructional gold of the game.2. Students must understand the procedures and rules of the game.3. The game is so structured so active involvement at the highest possible level for all participants.4. Include a debriefing or discussion following the game’s conclusion.5. Make sure the students understand the purpose of game.
Using Methods: SimulationsGive learners the opportunity to interact with these simulations. Utilization Guidelines: Simulations1. Explain the purpose, procedures, and/or rules for the simulation.2. Give guidance or direction for students such as questions or activities.3. Let them play out the rules.4. Teacher provides feedback following the simulation. Example 1. Mr. Thomas use a simulated market to allow students to practice reading and talking in Spanish. 2. This activity is realistic because he uses the models of things (fruit, vegetable, etc.).
Utilization Guidelines:Drill and Practice Drill and Practice is the technique for helping individual learners learn basic skill or knowledge.1. Introduce content before doing the exercise.2. Use many short drill and practice instead of afew longer ones. They are both individual and group activity.3. Students are practicing the correct information or procedures. Example Game about counting numbers in Spanish and role play.
Using Methods: TutorialTutorials introduce content to the learner and assess thelearner’s progress. Utilization Guidelines: Tutorial1. Present overview.2. Present content or skills one step at a time.3. Ask the questions of the student.4. Plan for varying rates of the completion. Example The booklet that is about Spanish numbers from one to twenty. Students can do the exercise for mastering all of numbers.
Using Media: Audio Audio will motivate students to learn. Utilization Guidelines: Audio1. Cue the audio material.2. Make sure all students can neat.3. Use hand out4. Use activity Example Audio that the speaker pronounces numbers in spanish and students have to repeat.
Using Media: Text Textbooks and other text-base materials such asfound on the Internet. Utilization Guidelines: Text1. Students read with objectives or question.2. Emphasize the use of visual.3. Check the teacher’s guide4. Supplement text. Example1. The tutorial booklet that teacher gives to students to learn about Spanish numbers.2. The boxes and packages of food.
Using Media: Real objects andModelsThe student will learn effectively with the realobjectives and models. Utilization Guidelines: Real objects and Models1. Familiarize with the object or model.2. The object should be enough large.3. Indicate actual size shape or color of object.4. Avoid passing a single object. Example The actual packages and boxes that containrd food product and plastic models of meats, fruits, vegetable.
It is important to realize that implementingany one instructional method does not excludeother methods. Choosing one method doesn’t mean thatanother method may not be equally effective.
Example of combining instructionalmethod and media Method Example of method Presentation - Audiotape - Tape video Demonstration - Video - Slides - Use of a
The relationship among practice, confidence,and motivation. If the learning experience is well design andpracticed, students’ learning can be measurable and reliable. The important things that they need to experience arethe direct and indirect results of preparation. Opportunities toprepare within the classroom, to use new hardwaretechnologies, to practice for presentation, allow learners to alsoexperience the confidence that comes with presentation.
Summary• Preparation yourself, your material, the environment and the studentscan all affect the effectiveness of your instruction.General principles for the correct utilization of all media do exist.1. Becoming familiar and comfortable with the media format.2. Making sure all in the audience can see and hear.3. Emphasizing the relevant of the media4. Highlighting what students should expert to gain from their experience