Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over
short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in
the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile
devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of
security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally
conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can
connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which
has more than 18,000 member companies in the areas of
telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer
electronics. Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1, but the
standard is no longer maintained. The SIG oversees the development
of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects
the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must
be qualified to standards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is
required to implement the technology and are licensed only for those
WHO DISCOVERED BLUETOOTH ?
The sir Nicolas invented Bluetooth, as some people call him
the pig. It was made in the late 1990's.
Ericsson was a Swedish company. Two members, Jaap
Haartsen and Sven Mattisson began work on a wireless form
of communication in 1994. It wasn't until 1999 that Bluetooth
was actually released in Bluetooth 1.0 however the following
gives credit to Hedy Lamarr although her patent expired
before the navy opened her documentation regarding the
Hedy Lamarr (November 9, 1913 - January 19, 2000) was
an Austrian-Americanactress celebrated for her great beauty
who was a major contract star of MGM's "Golden Age".
Lamarr also co-invented - with composer George Antheil - an
early technique for spread spectrum communications
and frequency hopping, necessary to wireless communication
from the pre-computer age to the present day
USES OF BLUETOOTH
Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and
a hands free headset. This was one of the earliest applications to become
Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a
Bluetooth compatible car stereo system.
Wireless Bluetooth headset and Intercom.
Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little
bandwidth is required.
Wireless communication with PC input and output devices, the most common
being the mouse, keyboard and printer.
Transfer of files, contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders
between devices with OBEX.
Replacement of previous wired RS-232 serial communications in test
equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic
For controls where infrared was often used.
For low bandwidth applications where higher USB bandwidth is not required
and cable-free connection desired.
TYPES OF BLUETOOTHS
Bluetooth technology is also available in portable devices. Many smart phones
make use of Bluetooth for wireless Internet and for pairing with other nearby
devices. Some GPS devices use Bluetooth to not only help you with
directions, but also to get traffic updates and locate nearby vendors such as
restaurants or gas stations. Some cameras and camcorders use Bluetooth
wireless to make it simpler for you to transfer pictures and videos from the
device to your computer.
Those headsets you've seen are one of the more prominent uses of Bluetooth
technology. They pair with your Bluetooth-enabled smart phone to allow you to
have hands-free conversations, which comes in handy when you're looking over
reports or driving around. You can also get Bluetooth mini-keyboards to make it
easier to type text messages and emails on your phone, and Bluetooth speakers
for your phone. Finally, you can connect a call to your car stereo to hear the
other person through your speakers.
Computers and Office Equipment
More and more offices are making use of Bluetooth to connect their
workstations to shared equipment such as printers, scanners and
even keyboards. Not only does this make it easier to connect your
equipment, but it also eliminates the need for countless yards of cords
running around the office. However, Bluetooth has a limited range –
generally about 33 feet – so if you have a larger office, you will need
to carefully consider where you place equipment in relation to your
Dongles are small devices that you plug into a computer that is not
Bluetooth enabled to give it Bluetooth wireless capabilities. Dongles
resemble USB flash drives and fit into USB ports on the computer.
This lets you connect other Bluetooth devices to your computer, such
as a mouse, keyboard, camera or a headset. Like any other Bluetooth
equipment, these external devices must be within range of the
broadcasting dongle to establish a connection.
Bluetooth and Health: The Radiation Issues
It is a matter of concern to some that the carrier waves used by
Bluetooth inhabit the same band as that of microwave ovens. As being
cooked inside a microwave oven would produce deleterious effects in
most, should we be worried about standing in the path of a plethora of
Fortunately, the transmitting power is far too weak to result in
perceptible effects in humans. Moreover, the radiation is not
concentrated in a single beam; rather, it is randomly dispersed in all
directions. The penetration depth of a device working in the 2.4Ghz
frequency range is about 1.5cm - nothing more than a superficial
absorption. The principal absorption mechanism is field-induced rotation
of polar molecules (H2O for example) which generates heat through
molecular 'friction'. It is however important to note that 2450Mhz is not
a resonance frequency of water.
Consumer electronics (abbreviated CE) are electronic equipment intended for everyday
use, most often in entertainment, communications and office productivity. Radio
broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the
broadcast receiver. Later products include personal computers, telephones, MP3
players, audio equipment, televisions, calculators, GPS automotive
electronics, digital sphygmomanometers, digital Glucose meters, digital cameras and players
and recorders using video media such as DVDs, VCRs or camcorders. Increasingly these
products have become based on digital technologies, and have large y merged with the
computer industry in what is increasingly referred to as the consumerisation of information
technology such as those invented by Apple Inc.and MIT Media Lab. The largest electronics
companies are mostly from Japan and to lesser extent South Korea and Taiwan. Some
American companies do contract manufacturing done in East Asia.
The latest consumer electronics are previewed yearly at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las
Vegas, Nevada, at which many industry pioneers speak.
BLUETOOTH IN MOBILE
BLUETOOTH HEADSETS FOR MOBILE PHONES
A phone capable of Bluetooth transmissions has a Bluetooth computer chip you can
program to communicate with other Bluetooth computer chips. When someone refers to
Bluetooth on a mobile phone, he is usually talking about that phone's capability to connect
wirelessly to a Bluetooth headset. Many phones are manufactured with Bluetooth chips
already in place, but most headsets are sold separately. When you have a Bluetooth
headset, you can talk on your phone hands-free by keeping the headset on one ear.
Bluetooth technology transmits the sounds coming through your phone to the headset. It
also picks up your voice on a small microphone in the headset and transmits those sounds
back through your phone, so you can talk on your phone even if you are in a separate room.
Some headsets paired with certain phones enable voice command so you can dial handsfree too.
OTHER BLUETOOTH ACCESSORIES FOR MOBILE PHONES
There are other Bluetooth accessories for mobile phones aside from headsets. For
example, you can connect your phone to speakers in your car or a high-quality
speakerphone. Some cars are also Bluetooth-ready, so you can connect your phone to it
without any additional accessories. If your phone plays music, you can connect it to
speakers or headphones wirelessly. New products are being developed all the time to make
phones' abilities more powerful and convenient.
PERSONAL COMPUTER [ PC ]
A personal computer (PC) is a general-purpose computer, whose
size, capabilities, and original sale price makes it useful for individuals, and which
is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer
operator. This contrasted with the batch processing or time-sharing models
which allowed larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems to
be used by many people, usually at the same time. Large data processing
systems require a full-time staff to operate efficiently.
IS BLUETOOTH IS HARMFUL ?
Bluetooth devices transmit signals via a short-range radio
frequency. That frequency operates at a much lower power
level than your phone, so the threat from radiation is
insignificant. Also, like cell phones, Bluetooth headsets
disperse their signals in random directions, rather than in a
straight beam. If you're really worried about radiation, keep
in mind that when using a headset, your phone will probably
be resting away from your body. Since your handset will have
a much higher SAR rating than the headset, you'll probably
feel better with this arrangement.
WHAT DOES SCIENCE SAY ABOUT
The science is a little bit all over the place on Bluetooth radiation. As they are
on the cell phone radiation issue, again because of the amount of money that
the cell phone industry spends to protect its interests. Various studies support
(American Cancer Society 2008, Martinez & Burdalow 2009) the view that
Bluetooth headsets when used in conjunction with cell phones decrease the
overall levels of SAR exposure to the head. Whereas other studies show a
diversity of hazards from cell phone use, as well peripheral devices such as
Bluetooth headsets. Their high-frequency electromagnetic fields can lead to a
significant increase in blood pressure and affect biological processes in the body
just the same as cell phones. Just two hours of exposure to high-frequency
EMFs from a cell phone or Bluetooth headset, can cause irreparable DNA
HOME AUTOMATION USING
Smart Home is a house that uses information technology to monitor the environment, control the
electric appliance and communicates with the outer world. Smart Home is a complex technology, at
the same time it is developing. A sample house environment monitors and control system that is one
branch of the Smart Home is addressed in this paper. The system is based on the embedded system
and can act as a security guard of the home. The system can monitor the temperature, humidity, gas
density, water immersion of the house.
The whole system is a cheaper one, but it provides the full-scale home device monitor and control
function. By using the embedded system technique, it is convenient to use and allows simple
installation in existing homes, it provide a safe, convenient home to us. The shortage of the system is
only can turn on/off the electric appliances and the lack of the wireless function. With the
Development of the smart electric appliances, the system must make much progress.
This Project is used to control the AC Machine controlled according to the temperature and it also
indicates the temperature. The system will get the temperature from the Temperature sensor and fed it
to microcontroller. When temperature exceeds normal level then it automatically enables/Turn’s on AC