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  1. 1. MELENDEZ, PRINCESS MELANIE B. AA.. PPHHYYSSIICCAALL FFIITTNNEESSSS 1. DEFINITION The ability to function efficiently and effectively, to enjoy leisure, to be healthy, to resist disease, and to cope with emergency situations. The relative importance of each of the components varies for each sport. It is not only sport specific, it may also be position specific. 2. COMPONENTS aa.. HHeeaalltthh--rreellaatteedd SSkk iillllss i. Cardio-Vascular Endurance- the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (e.g. running long distances) ii. Flexibility - the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle (e.g. executing a leg split) iii. Muscular Strength- s measured by maximum amount of strength a muscle has while lifting or during an exertion. In short, muscular strength is the ability of the muscle to exert strength during a workout or an activity. The physical fitness of muscle strength could be improved through exercise such as lifting weights. iv. Muscular endurance is sometimes confused with muscular strength. The ability of the muscle to perform an action without feeling fatigue is known as muscular endurance. It is related to muscular strength and cardio-respiratory endurance. vv.. Body composition is the amount of fat mass compared to lean muscle mass, bone and organs. This can be measured using underwater weighing, Skinfold readings, and bioelectrical impedance. Underwater weighing is considered the “gold standard” for body fat measurement, however because of the size and expense of the equipment needed very few places are set up to do this kind of measurement. bb.. PPeerrffoorrmmaannccee--rreellaatteedd SSkk iillllss i. Speed is the ability to move your body from one point to another as fast as possible. Activities such as soccer, baseball, and gymnastics require speed. ii. Power is the application of speed and strength to produce a muscular movement. Almost all sports require power to perform well. iii. Agility is the ability to change the direction of your body quickly and efficiently at the speed of your travel. In games such as tennis, agility is important to reach the ball in time iv. Coordination is the ability to use your body parts, muscles, to move smoothly and accurately v. Balance is the ability to remain in equilibrium while being stationery or moving. Activities such as gymnastics, ballet, skiing require balance vi. Reaction time is the amount of time taken for you to respond to a stimulus (based on sight and touch) GUIDE QUESTIONS: 1. Physical fitness- The ability to function efficiently and effectively, to enjoy leisure, to be healthy, to resist disease, and to cope with emergency situations. The relative importance of each of the components varies for each sport. It is not only sport specific, it may also be position specific. 2. Health-related fitness focuses on the health, while skill-related fitness focuses on the performance in a sport. Skill related fitness is very important if you are competing in sporting activities. 3. The importance of health related fitness is most recommended in any form of fitness activity, may it be a work out or a sport. It works in improving our physical fitness, and works great in keeping our inner well being at the top shape. Why is it recommended? The answer is simply because it is important to our positive health. The importance of health related fitness lies in the benefits we get from it. The Strength and muscular endurance, and cardiovascular endurance and body composition are the benefits we gain over a long period of time from health-related fitness. 4. Yes, Participating in a fitness assessment is an important part of identifying your current level of physical fitness. Furthermore, it is designed to aid in the determination of one's physical fitness status relative to age and sex, to assist in developing an exercise program, to identify potential health and injury risks with possible referral to the appropriate health professional, to establish goals and provide motivation and to evaluate progress.
  2. 2. B. SPORT SPECIFIC SKILLS 1. The highly specific skills needed by the particular sports 1. Ball handling The ball handling skills is indispensable for the short players of the basketball team. The short players with the ball handling skills will normally acquire the guard positions. According to the professional basketball players, a short player without the ball handling skills should bid goodbye to the game. Hence it is clear that, without ball handling skills, one cannot become a professional basketball player. 2. Passing Passing is one of the fundamentals skills required for playing basketball. Passing the ball can be further classified as overhead pass and bounce pass. The ball passing method should be selected based on the position of the opponent. 3. Defense The main role of the defense player is to block passing, shooting and dribbles of the opponent. Hence the defense player must have a tall physique and should be fast enough to react to the opponent’s moves. The position and footwork are the two main skills needed for the defense player. 4. Rebounding Rebounding refers to gaining possession of the ball after a missed shooting. Professionalbasketball players concentrate more on rebounding a missed shot is an opportunity for the opponent to gain the possession of the ball. Rebounding is of two types namely offensive rebounds where the procession of the ball does not change and defensive rebounds, in which the defending team gains possession of the missed shoot. 5. Shooting The shooting skill in basketball is the toughest one to develop. Set-shot, lay-up, and hook shot are the common types of shooting techniques used in the sport. As shooting is the point scoring part of the games, the athletes need to get trained in shooting with the very best Coaches. 2. The playing area or court needed for the particular sport
  3. 3. 3. The playing time required for the specific sport Games are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA) or 12 minutes (NBA). College games use two 20-minute halves, while high school varsity games use 8 minute quarters. Fifteen minutes are allowed for a half-time break under FIBA, NBA, and NCAA rules and 10 minutes in high school. Overtime periods are five minutes in length except for high school which is four minutes in length. Teams exchange baskets for the second half. The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours. 4. The special pieces of equipment which are essential in participating in the activity The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the court: a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends (or in the case of 3-on-3 street basketball, half a court with one basket). Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, score sheets, scoreboard(s), alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems. 5. The specific rules governing the sport Basketball is a team sport, in which each team of five players tries to score by shooting a ball through a hoop. Generally, a shot made from the position within the three point line is worth 2 points; while a shot from outside the three point line gives three points. A free throw is worth a single point. The team that scores the highest points is declared as the winner. The game consists of offense and defense. When any player of the team possesses the ball, then all the players from that team are on the offense. That team has to score points by shooting the ball into the opponent's basket. When the ball is with the opponent team, then all the team members in the first team are on the defense. Then, these team members have to prevent the offensive team from shooting the ball into their basket and try to take the ball away from them. Rules for the Offense: The player must bounce the ball using one hand, while moving both feet. If the player touches the ball with two hands or stops dribbling, then movement of only one leg is allowed. The foot that is not moving is known as the pivot foot. The player is allowed to take only one turn at dribbling. That means; once the player stops dribbling, another dribbling can't be started. Restarting the dribbling is referred to as a 'double-dribbling violation'. If so, the ball goes to the opponent team. The players should touch only the top of the ball while dribbling. If the player touches the bottom and continues to dribble, then it is known as 'carrying the ball'. In such a situation, the ball is handed over to the opponent team. No player can kick or hit the ball with the fist. The players in the offensive team should keep the ball in bounds. If they fail to do so, then the opponents get controlof the ball. If the players in the offensive team cross half court, then they are not allowed to return to the backcourt. This is referred to as 'a backcourt violation'. If the defense team knocks the ball into the backcourt, then the opponents legally get control of the ball. Rules for the Defense: Major rule for the defensive team is not to foul. The defensive players should strictly avoid any physical contact with the opponents. They should not push, hold, shoulder or strike the opponent in any way. The first violation of this rule is known as a foul. In case of second violation, the player is disqualified till the next goal is scored. If noticed that the defense player has an intention to injure his opponent, then that player is suspended from the game. In such a case, a substitute is not allowed. Fouls: A foul is any illegal action committed by a player, of either team. Any physical contact with other players is strictly prohibited in the game. If any player attempts to hit, push, slap or hold another player, then it is considered as a foul. It results in one or more free throws awarded to the opponents. If any player has committed six fouls, then that player is eliminated from the game. Violations:When the player breaks rules, then it is referred to as violation. Violations are of different types such as walking/traveling, carrying/palming, double dribble, goaltending and backcourt violation. When the player takes more than 2 steps without bouncing the ball, then it is known as traveling/walking. When the player stops dribbling once and restarts dribbling, or bounces the ball using two hands at once, then it is called as a double dribble. When any kind of violation occurs, the ball is passed on to the opponent team. 6. The distinct and precise movements necessary for the sport.
  4. 4. C. IMPORTANCE OF FWTEAMS IN DEVELOPING PHYSICAL FITNESS FWTEAMS (Fitness and Wellness in Team Sports) The course aims to provide an opportunity to introduce fundamentals skills of specific team sports and strategies of organized team sports, their history and development, international amateur rules, system of play plus the facts and concepts of cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, muscolus-skeletalfitness like flexibility, muscular strength, endurance and common team sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation. D. HISTORY OF BASKETBALL Dr. James Naismith is known world-wide as the inventor of basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay Township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born out of his early schooldays when he played a simple game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his schoolhouse. The game involved attempting to knock a "duck" off the top of a large rock by tossing another rock at it. This is the beginning of a brief history of basketball as we know it. Naismith served as at the YMCA Training Schoolin Springfield, Massachusetts, USA in 1891, and this is where the sport of basketball was born. Naismith was faced with the challenge of finding a sport that was suitable for play inside during the winter for the students. Naismith wanted to create a game of skill that could be played indoors in a relatively small space. The very first game of basketball was played with a soccer ball and two peach baskets used as goals. James Naismith devised set rules for these early games as follows: „« The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. „« A player cannot run with the ball, but instead the player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it. „« The ball must be held in or between the hands, not any other body parts. „« No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent is permitted. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is scored. „« If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive in these rules means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul of their own). „« A goal is scored when the ball is thrown from the ground into the basket and stays there. If the ball rests on the edge of the basket and the opponents move the basket, it shall also count as a goal. „« When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. „« The umpire shall be judge and have the power to disqualify or foul players as required. „« The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. „« The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between. „« The side scoring the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners. E. 2006 FIBA RULE 1: The GAME (Article 1) E. 2006 FIBA RULE 2: Court and Equipment (Articles 2 & 3)