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PRESENTATION ON
PROJECT MENTOR
Mr. KULDEEP ARYA
INTRODUCTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL
 Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or
drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid.
 It is a powerful psychoactive drug and one of the oldest
recreational drugs. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in
alcoholic beverages and thermometers.
 In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirits.
 Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is
C2H5OH. Its empirical formula is C2H6O.
 The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest organic
reactions employed by humanity. The intoxicating effects of ethanol
consumption have been known since ancient times.
 In modern times, ethanol intended for industrial use is also produced
from by-products of petroleum refining.
• COLOURLESS
• STRONG CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR
• ETHANOL IS A VERSATILE SOLVENT
• ETHANOL AND WATER FORM AN
AZEOTROPE
PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
• Combustion of Ethanol
C2H5OH + 3O2 ==> 2CO2 + 3H2O
• Oxidation of Ethanol
C2H5OH = = ==> CH3CHO + H2O
• Esterification of Ethanol
C2H5OH + CH3COOH ==> CH3COOC2H5 +H2O
CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES:
SUGAR
CROP
STARCH MOLASSES
RAW MATERIALS
Fermentation process utilizes microbiology in producing chemical compounds. The
process involves addition of a specific culture of microorganism to a sterilized liquid
substrate or both in a well designed gas liquid contraction and carrying out the
fermentation to grow micro-organism.
The general equation of fermentation is as follows:
Substrate + Micro-organism ============> More microbial cells + Metabolic products.
STAGES:
Aerobic stage-In aerobic fermentation oxygen is the basic substrate that must be
supplied for growth of yeast. Maximum yeast bio mass is formed during this process.
Anaerobic stage-This stage comes after the aerobic stage when there is required
concentration of yeast cells. In anaerobic stage the conversion of sugar in to ethyl
alcohol and CO2 takes place. At this stage yeast does not get any Oxygen. So further
propagation of yeast biomass reduces and the maximum sugar is converted into
alcohol. The optimum temperature for good fermentation is 32°C in the presence of
yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
C12H22O11+H2O →2C6H12O6
C6H12O6→2 C2H5OH+2CO2
FERMENTATION
Temperature during fermentation 28-340
Settling gravity of yeast vessel 1.045
Settling pH of yeast vessel 4.5-4.9
Settling gravity of pre-fermenters 1.05
Duration of fermentation 24 Hours
% Alcohol after completion 5-8%
CONDITIONS OF FERMENTATION
UREA MOLASSES
SULFURIC ACID YEAST
MEDIA
SCALE UP PROCESS TO INCREASE THE BIOMASS OF
YEAST IN LABORATORY:
• In laboratory pure culture is raised from single yeast cell. Pour plate method is used for propagation of
yeast (pure Culture). This method is based on propagation of yeast.
• In this method six test tubes plugged with cotton containing 9 ml. of sterilized distilled water is taken.
• Then 1 ml. of yeast culture is added in the first test tube. It is mixed well by rolling the test tube
between the hands.
• Now 1 ml. of this is transferred in the 2nd test tube for more dilution. Again 1ml of is transferred in the
third test tube for more dilution. The process is repeated till the test tube (i.e. test tube No. 6) has
sufficient dilution Take a cleaned and sterilized flasks of 250-ml. plugged with cotton and transfer the
weighed.
• The mixture is kept into an autoclave and sterilized for about 15-20 minutes at a pressure of 15 PSI.
After cooling it to 50ºC it is transferred to petridishes. A solid media is formed in the petridishes when
the temperature of media falls below 40ºC.
• To this solid media in the petridish the dilution sample of the 6th test tube is poured under aseptic
condition. In the course of 48 hrs very tiny white or yellowish colonies of yeasts are found.
• Now these colonies are successfully transferred in fresh media of glucose for propagation in the test
tube.
• The slant is kept for 12 hours in incubator. After 12 hrs it is transferred to conical flask for 12 hours liter
agar media (Sp. gr. 1.025). Similarly transfers are made to 5 liter and then 20 liter flask containing gur
of sp. gravity 1.025.
• Once the yeast cell gets fully propagated in the 20 liter container it is then poured into yeast vessel for
further propagation at Fermentation House
FERMENTATION HOUSE PROCESS
Yeast vessels:
• Preparation of wert(diluted molasses).
C12H22O11+H2O →2C6H12O6
• Urea and sulphuric Acid is used as nutrient and to maintain pH of the medium.
The pH is kept between 4.5 - 4.8.
Pre-fermenters –
• We are concerned mainly with the growth of yeast culture and adaptation of
cells in a large cylindrical metallic vessels.
• Low dilution is maintained to avoid alcohol formation for 7 to 8 hours in
anaerobic conditions.
• The specific gravity of the medium is 1.050 and optimum temperature for the
growth of S. cerevisiae is 30 0C but somewhat higher temperatures (35 - 38C)
are tolerated.
Fermenters-
• The media which has been prepared is introduced in the prefermenter.
• After 7 – 8 hours it is transferred into fermenter where fermentation is carried out.
• The formation of ethyl with the evolution of CO2 takes place in fermenters;
cooling coils are provided to maintain the temperature during the process.
DISTILATION FOR THE RECOVERY OF ALCOHOL
VARIOUS PARTS IN THE DISTILLATION PLANTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:-
• Analyzer column: It analyses the more volatile vapor (Alcohol) from the
fermented wash leaving behind less volatiles liquid at a certain temperature.
• Degasifying column: The main function of degasifying column is to carry impure
and uncondensed gas (More volatile) to head column, for improving the
quality of spirit. The Alcohol vapors are drawn from the top of the analyzer to
the rectification column.
• Aldehyde column:The vapors coming from the top of the degasifying column
are introduced in the middle of the Head column.Thus acetaldehyde sulphur
dioxide and carbon dioxide gas get removed through the vent. The aldehyde
column has bubble cap type of plates.
• Rectifier column:The rectifier rectifies the different product of the vapour
(mixture) at their boiling points.The vapours from the top of the Rectifier are
quite rich in alcohol and get condensed in condensers.
• Exhaust column:It is just like a small Rectifier column with lesser diameter and
vaporization area.Spent less from the bottom of the exhaust is drained to spent
less tank from where it is pumped to the analyzer top of the column, to recover
the last drop of alcohol.
• Beer heater: It is hollow metallic cylindrical vessels having metal tubes inside it.
Wash is taken inside the tubes while vapours are passed in the shell (i.e. outside
the tubes). The use of beer Heater economizes the steam by heating the
wash.
• Condensers:The function of condensers is same as beer Heater but instead of
wash water is passed through the tubes. The vapours are passed in the shell of
condenser.
• Coolers:The condensate from the beer heater and condensers is taken back
to the rectifier to plate as reflux, from the top of the rectifier the final product
(i.e. Rectified sprit) taken out.
• Heat exchangers:Heat exchangers play an important role in the economy of
steam.This heated wash in the fed at the top of the Analyzers column.
• Syphon:Syphon is used to keep a very steady flow of wash.
• Fusel oil decanter:The fusel oil tends to collect at the plates having
temperature of 89ºC-92ºC. The fusel Oil tapped is cooled in the Decanter in
which the connection of water is also provided this fusel Oil separates as a
separate layer from the water in the decanter. Finally it is decanted to the
storage tanks.
ESTIMATION OF FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT-
Purchased equipment delivered, E = Rs.30×106
Purchased equipment installation 39%E = Rs.11.7×106
Instrumentation (installed), 28%E = Rs.8.4×106
Electrical installed, 10% E = Rs.3×106
Piping (installed), 31%E = Rs.9.5×106
Buildings including services, 22%E = Rs.6.60 ×106
Yard improvement, 10%E = Rs.3×106
Service facilities installed, 55%E = Rs.16.5×106
Land, 6% E =1.80×106
TOTAL DIRECT PLANT COST, D =Rs. 90.3×106
Engineering and Supervision, 32%of E =Rs.9.6×106
Construction expenses, 34 % of E =Rs.10.2×106
TOTAL DIRECT AND INDIRECT COST,
D + I = Rs.110.10×106
Contractors fee’s, 5% of (D+I) =Rs. 5.51×106
Contingency, 10% of (D+I) =Rs. 11.01×106
Fixed capital investment =Rs. 126.62×106
Working capital cost, (10-20) % of total capital investment = Rs 14.07×106
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT = Rs.140.69×106
COST ESTIMATION
TOTAL PRODUCT COST
Total Product cost = Manufacture cost + General Expenses
Total product cost X=Rs. 37,82,38,993.7
GROSS EARNING/ INCOME
Wholesale selling price of ethanol/liter=Rs.17
Total Income = Selling price × Quantity of product manufactured
= 17 × (100,000 L/day) × (325 days/year)
=Rs.55,25,00,000
Gross income = Total Income – Total Product Cost
= (552500000 – 378238993.7)
Gross Income = Rs.174261006.3
Let the Tax rate be 40% (common)
Net Profit = Gross income - Taxes = Gross income× (1- Tax rate)
Net profit = 174261006.3 × (1- 0.4)
Net profit = Rs.104556603.8
Rate of Return:
Rate of return = (Net profit/ Total Capital Investment)×100
Rate of Return = (104556603.8 / (140.69x106)×100
Rate of Return = 74.31%
A preliminary survey gives an indication of the probable success of the project and
also shows what additional information is necessary to make a complete evaluation.
Following is a list of items that should be considered in making a feasibility survey:
• Raw materials (availability, quantity, quality, cost)
• Thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions involved (equilibrium, yields,
rates, optimum conditions)
• Facilities and equipment available at present
• Estimation of production costs and total investment
• Profits (probable and optimum, per pound of product and per year, return on
investment)
• Materials of construction
• Safety considerations
• Markets (present and future supply and demand)
• Competition (comparison of various manufacturing processes, product
specifications of competitors)
• Sales and sales service (method of selling and distributing, advertising required)
• Shipping restrictions and containers
• Plant location
• Patent situation and legal restrictions
FEASIBILTY SURVEY
The choice of the final site should first be based on a complete survey of the
advantages and disadvantages of various geographical areas and, ultimately, on
the advantages and disadvantages of available real estate. The following factors
should be considered in selecting a plant site:
• Raw materials availability
• Markets
• Energy availability
• Climate
• Transportation facilities
• Water supply
• Waste disposal
• Labor supply
• Taxation and legal restrictions
• Site characteristics
• Flood and fire protection
• Community factors
PLANT LOCATION
Proper layout in each case will include arrangement of processing areas, storage
areas, and handling areas in efficient coordination and with regard to such factors
as:
• New site development or addition to previously developed site
• Type and quantity of products to be produced
• Type of process and product control
• Operational convenience and accessibility
• Economic distribution of utilities and services
• Type of buildings and building-code requirements
• Health and safety considerations
• Waste-disposal requirements
• Auxiliary equipment
• Space available and space required
• Roads and railroads
• Possible future expansion
PLANT LAYOUT
•AS FUEL
•ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
•FEEDSTOCK
•ANTISEPTIC
•ANTIDOTE FOR METHANOL POISIONING
•SOLVENT
•HISTORICAL USES
USES AND APPLICATIONS
Every liter of alcohol produced gives 1.30-1.40 kg of total solids. The investment in
effluent is anywhere between Rs.500-1000 per kl. of alcohol produced. Yeast sludge
containing about 30% solids settles down in the fermentation vats and constitutes
another major source of waste.
The treatment of effluent takes place in the following steps:
• Anaerobic treatment i.e. biogas generation.
• Aerobic treatment i.e. secondary treatment.
• Classification unit with chemical treatment.
• Extended (secondary stage) aeration unit with chemical treatment.
• Sludge decanter (press leg dewatering machine).
• Classification by two M.S. classifiers.
• Ferti irrigation in the zeal of zero discharge
• Fountain with atomization technique.
• Flocculation unit with R.C.C classifiers for chemical treatment.
• Recycling of treated trade effluent for cooling purpose.
EFFLUENTS AND WASTES
EFFLUENT TREATMENT
Project Mentor Kuldeep Arya Intro Ethyl Alcohol

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Project Mentor Kuldeep Arya Intro Ethyl Alcohol

  • 2. INTRODUCTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL  Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid.  It is a powerful psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and thermometers.  In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirits.  Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is C2H5OH. Its empirical formula is C2H6O.  The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest organic reactions employed by humanity. The intoxicating effects of ethanol consumption have been known since ancient times.  In modern times, ethanol intended for industrial use is also produced from by-products of petroleum refining.
  • 3. • COLOURLESS • STRONG CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR • ETHANOL IS A VERSATILE SOLVENT • ETHANOL AND WATER FORM AN AZEOTROPE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Combustion of Ethanol C2H5OH + 3O2 ==> 2CO2 + 3H2O • Oxidation of Ethanol C2H5OH = = ==> CH3CHO + H2O • Esterification of Ethanol C2H5OH + CH3COOH ==> CH3COOC2H5 +H2O CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES:
  • 5. Fermentation process utilizes microbiology in producing chemical compounds. The process involves addition of a specific culture of microorganism to a sterilized liquid substrate or both in a well designed gas liquid contraction and carrying out the fermentation to grow micro-organism. The general equation of fermentation is as follows: Substrate + Micro-organism ============> More microbial cells + Metabolic products. STAGES: Aerobic stage-In aerobic fermentation oxygen is the basic substrate that must be supplied for growth of yeast. Maximum yeast bio mass is formed during this process. Anaerobic stage-This stage comes after the aerobic stage when there is required concentration of yeast cells. In anaerobic stage the conversion of sugar in to ethyl alcohol and CO2 takes place. At this stage yeast does not get any Oxygen. So further propagation of yeast biomass reduces and the maximum sugar is converted into alcohol. The optimum temperature for good fermentation is 32°C in the presence of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. C12H22O11+H2O →2C6H12O6 C6H12O6→2 C2H5OH+2CO2 FERMENTATION
  • 6. Temperature during fermentation 28-340 Settling gravity of yeast vessel 1.045 Settling pH of yeast vessel 4.5-4.9 Settling gravity of pre-fermenters 1.05 Duration of fermentation 24 Hours % Alcohol after completion 5-8% CONDITIONS OF FERMENTATION UREA MOLASSES SULFURIC ACID YEAST MEDIA
  • 7. SCALE UP PROCESS TO INCREASE THE BIOMASS OF YEAST IN LABORATORY: • In laboratory pure culture is raised from single yeast cell. Pour plate method is used for propagation of yeast (pure Culture). This method is based on propagation of yeast. • In this method six test tubes plugged with cotton containing 9 ml. of sterilized distilled water is taken. • Then 1 ml. of yeast culture is added in the first test tube. It is mixed well by rolling the test tube between the hands. • Now 1 ml. of this is transferred in the 2nd test tube for more dilution. Again 1ml of is transferred in the third test tube for more dilution. The process is repeated till the test tube (i.e. test tube No. 6) has sufficient dilution Take a cleaned and sterilized flasks of 250-ml. plugged with cotton and transfer the weighed. • The mixture is kept into an autoclave and sterilized for about 15-20 minutes at a pressure of 15 PSI. After cooling it to 50ºC it is transferred to petridishes. A solid media is formed in the petridishes when the temperature of media falls below 40ºC. • To this solid media in the petridish the dilution sample of the 6th test tube is poured under aseptic condition. In the course of 48 hrs very tiny white or yellowish colonies of yeasts are found. • Now these colonies are successfully transferred in fresh media of glucose for propagation in the test tube. • The slant is kept for 12 hours in incubator. After 12 hrs it is transferred to conical flask for 12 hours liter agar media (Sp. gr. 1.025). Similarly transfers are made to 5 liter and then 20 liter flask containing gur of sp. gravity 1.025. • Once the yeast cell gets fully propagated in the 20 liter container it is then poured into yeast vessel for further propagation at Fermentation House
  • 8. FERMENTATION HOUSE PROCESS Yeast vessels: • Preparation of wert(diluted molasses). C12H22O11+H2O →2C6H12O6 • Urea and sulphuric Acid is used as nutrient and to maintain pH of the medium. The pH is kept between 4.5 - 4.8. Pre-fermenters – • We are concerned mainly with the growth of yeast culture and adaptation of cells in a large cylindrical metallic vessels. • Low dilution is maintained to avoid alcohol formation for 7 to 8 hours in anaerobic conditions. • The specific gravity of the medium is 1.050 and optimum temperature for the growth of S. cerevisiae is 30 0C but somewhat higher temperatures (35 - 38C) are tolerated. Fermenters- • The media which has been prepared is introduced in the prefermenter. • After 7 – 8 hours it is transferred into fermenter where fermentation is carried out. • The formation of ethyl with the evolution of CO2 takes place in fermenters; cooling coils are provided to maintain the temperature during the process.
  • 9. DISTILATION FOR THE RECOVERY OF ALCOHOL VARIOUS PARTS IN THE DISTILLATION PLANTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:- • Analyzer column: It analyses the more volatile vapor (Alcohol) from the fermented wash leaving behind less volatiles liquid at a certain temperature. • Degasifying column: The main function of degasifying column is to carry impure and uncondensed gas (More volatile) to head column, for improving the quality of spirit. The Alcohol vapors are drawn from the top of the analyzer to the rectification column. • Aldehyde column:The vapors coming from the top of the degasifying column are introduced in the middle of the Head column.Thus acetaldehyde sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide gas get removed through the vent. The aldehyde column has bubble cap type of plates. • Rectifier column:The rectifier rectifies the different product of the vapour (mixture) at their boiling points.The vapours from the top of the Rectifier are quite rich in alcohol and get condensed in condensers. • Exhaust column:It is just like a small Rectifier column with lesser diameter and vaporization area.Spent less from the bottom of the exhaust is drained to spent less tank from where it is pumped to the analyzer top of the column, to recover the last drop of alcohol.
  • 10. • Beer heater: It is hollow metallic cylindrical vessels having metal tubes inside it. Wash is taken inside the tubes while vapours are passed in the shell (i.e. outside the tubes). The use of beer Heater economizes the steam by heating the wash. • Condensers:The function of condensers is same as beer Heater but instead of wash water is passed through the tubes. The vapours are passed in the shell of condenser. • Coolers:The condensate from the beer heater and condensers is taken back to the rectifier to plate as reflux, from the top of the rectifier the final product (i.e. Rectified sprit) taken out. • Heat exchangers:Heat exchangers play an important role in the economy of steam.This heated wash in the fed at the top of the Analyzers column. • Syphon:Syphon is used to keep a very steady flow of wash. • Fusel oil decanter:The fusel oil tends to collect at the plates having temperature of 89ºC-92ºC. The fusel Oil tapped is cooled in the Decanter in which the connection of water is also provided this fusel Oil separates as a separate layer from the water in the decanter. Finally it is decanted to the storage tanks.
  • 11.
  • 12. ESTIMATION OF FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT- Purchased equipment delivered, E = Rs.30×106 Purchased equipment installation 39%E = Rs.11.7×106 Instrumentation (installed), 28%E = Rs.8.4×106 Electrical installed, 10% E = Rs.3×106 Piping (installed), 31%E = Rs.9.5×106 Buildings including services, 22%E = Rs.6.60 ×106 Yard improvement, 10%E = Rs.3×106 Service facilities installed, 55%E = Rs.16.5×106 Land, 6% E =1.80×106 TOTAL DIRECT PLANT COST, D =Rs. 90.3×106 Engineering and Supervision, 32%of E =Rs.9.6×106 Construction expenses, 34 % of E =Rs.10.2×106 TOTAL DIRECT AND INDIRECT COST, D + I = Rs.110.10×106 Contractors fee’s, 5% of (D+I) =Rs. 5.51×106 Contingency, 10% of (D+I) =Rs. 11.01×106 Fixed capital investment =Rs. 126.62×106 Working capital cost, (10-20) % of total capital investment = Rs 14.07×106 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT = Rs.140.69×106 COST ESTIMATION
  • 13. TOTAL PRODUCT COST Total Product cost = Manufacture cost + General Expenses Total product cost X=Rs. 37,82,38,993.7 GROSS EARNING/ INCOME Wholesale selling price of ethanol/liter=Rs.17 Total Income = Selling price × Quantity of product manufactured = 17 × (100,000 L/day) × (325 days/year) =Rs.55,25,00,000 Gross income = Total Income – Total Product Cost = (552500000 – 378238993.7) Gross Income = Rs.174261006.3 Let the Tax rate be 40% (common) Net Profit = Gross income - Taxes = Gross income× (1- Tax rate) Net profit = 174261006.3 × (1- 0.4) Net profit = Rs.104556603.8 Rate of Return: Rate of return = (Net profit/ Total Capital Investment)×100 Rate of Return = (104556603.8 / (140.69x106)×100 Rate of Return = 74.31%
  • 14. A preliminary survey gives an indication of the probable success of the project and also shows what additional information is necessary to make a complete evaluation. Following is a list of items that should be considered in making a feasibility survey: • Raw materials (availability, quantity, quality, cost) • Thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions involved (equilibrium, yields, rates, optimum conditions) • Facilities and equipment available at present • Estimation of production costs and total investment • Profits (probable and optimum, per pound of product and per year, return on investment) • Materials of construction • Safety considerations • Markets (present and future supply and demand) • Competition (comparison of various manufacturing processes, product specifications of competitors) • Sales and sales service (method of selling and distributing, advertising required) • Shipping restrictions and containers • Plant location • Patent situation and legal restrictions FEASIBILTY SURVEY
  • 15. The choice of the final site should first be based on a complete survey of the advantages and disadvantages of various geographical areas and, ultimately, on the advantages and disadvantages of available real estate. The following factors should be considered in selecting a plant site: • Raw materials availability • Markets • Energy availability • Climate • Transportation facilities • Water supply • Waste disposal • Labor supply • Taxation and legal restrictions • Site characteristics • Flood and fire protection • Community factors PLANT LOCATION
  • 16. Proper layout in each case will include arrangement of processing areas, storage areas, and handling areas in efficient coordination and with regard to such factors as: • New site development or addition to previously developed site • Type and quantity of products to be produced • Type of process and product control • Operational convenience and accessibility • Economic distribution of utilities and services • Type of buildings and building-code requirements • Health and safety considerations • Waste-disposal requirements • Auxiliary equipment • Space available and space required • Roads and railroads • Possible future expansion PLANT LAYOUT
  • 17.
  • 18. •AS FUEL •ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES •FEEDSTOCK •ANTISEPTIC •ANTIDOTE FOR METHANOL POISIONING •SOLVENT •HISTORICAL USES USES AND APPLICATIONS
  • 19. Every liter of alcohol produced gives 1.30-1.40 kg of total solids. The investment in effluent is anywhere between Rs.500-1000 per kl. of alcohol produced. Yeast sludge containing about 30% solids settles down in the fermentation vats and constitutes another major source of waste. The treatment of effluent takes place in the following steps: • Anaerobic treatment i.e. biogas generation. • Aerobic treatment i.e. secondary treatment. • Classification unit with chemical treatment. • Extended (secondary stage) aeration unit with chemical treatment. • Sludge decanter (press leg dewatering machine). • Classification by two M.S. classifiers. • Ferti irrigation in the zeal of zero discharge • Fountain with atomization technique. • Flocculation unit with R.C.C classifiers for chemical treatment. • Recycling of treated trade effluent for cooling purpose. EFFLUENTS AND WASTES EFFLUENT TREATMENT