Ethical hacking


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Ethical hacking

  1. 1. COMPUTER SECURITY AND ETHICAL HACKING Presented By: Rishabha Garg ( Ethical Hacker) 0903CS091071
  2. 2. CONTENTS• Overview of Hacking• Types of hacking• Hacker• Types of Hacker• Why do hackers hack?• How can kid hack?• What does a script kid know?• Hackers language• How to translate the hackers’ language
  3. 3. CONTENT CONTINUED…• Ethical Hacking• Ethical Hacking – Process• What hackers do after hacking?• Why can’t defend against hackers?• How can protect the system?• What should do after hacked?• Final words
  4. 4. OVERVIEW OF HACKING• Hack • Examine something very minutely • the rapid crafting of a new program or the making of changes to existing, usually complicated software• Hacker • The person who hacks• Cracker • System intruder/destroyer
  5. 5. TYPES OF HACKING Normal data transfer Interruption Interception Modification Fabrication
  6. 6. HACKER :• Someone who bypasses the system’s access controls by taking advantage of security weaknesses left in the system by developers• Person who is totally immersed in computer technology and programming, and who likes to examine the code of programs to see how they work … then uses his or her computer expertise for illicit purposes such as gaining access to computer systems without permission and tampering with programs and data. At that point, this individual would steal information and install backdoors, virus and Trojans• Hacker means cracker nowadays.
  7. 7. TYPES OF HACKER• White Hat Hackers: • who specializes in penetration testing and in other testing methodologies to ensure the security of an organizations information systems.• Black Hat Hackers: • A black hat is the villain or bad guy, especially in a western movie in which such a character would stereotypically wear a black hat in contrast to the heros white hat.• Gray Hat Hackers: • A grey hat, in the hacking community, refers to a skilled hacker whose activities fall somewhere between white and black hat hackers on a variety of spectra
  8. 8. TYPES OF HACKER CONTINUED…• Script Kiddies: • who use scripts or programs developed by others to attack computer systems and networks and deface websites. [• Phreak • Person who breaks into telecommunications systems to [commit] theft• Cyber Punk • Recent mutation of … the hacker, cracker, and phreak
  9. 9. WHY DO PEOPLE HACK??• To make security stronger ( Ethical Hacking )• Just for fun• Show off• Hack other systems secretly• Notify many people their thought• Steal important information• Destroy enemy’s computer network during the war
  10. 10. HACKERS LANGUAGE :1 -> i or l || -> n3 -> e |/| -> m4 -> a s -> z7 -> t z -> s9 -> g f -> ph0 -> o ph -> f$ -> s x -> ck| -> i or l ck -> x
  11. 11. HACKERS LANGAUGE TRANSLATION• Ex) • 1 d1d n0t h4ck th1s p4g3, 1t w4s l1k3 th1s wh3n 1 h4ck3d 1n • I did not hack this page, it was like this when I hacked in
  12. 12. WHAT IS ETHICAL HACKING• It is Legal• Permission is obtained from the target• Part of an overall security program• Identify vulnerabilities visible from Internet at particular point of time• Ethical hackers possesses same skills, mindset and tools of a hacker but the attacks are done in a non-destructive manner• Also Called – Attack & Penetration Testing,
  13. 13. HACKING - PROCESS1. Preparation2. Foot printing3. Enumeration & Fingerprinting4. Identification of Vulnerabilities5. Attack – Exploit the Vulnerabilities6. Gaining Access7. Escalating privilege8. Covering tracks9. Creating back doors
  14. 14. 1. PREPARATION• Identification of Targets – company websites, mail servers, extranets, etc.• Signing of Contract • Agreement on protection against any legal issues • Contracts to clearly specifies the limits and dangers of the test • Specifics on Denial of Service Tests, Social Engineering, etc. • Time window for Attacks • Total time for the testing • Prior Knowledge of the systems • Key people who are made aware of the testing
  15. 15. 2. FOOT PRINTINGCollecting as much information about the target DNS Servers IP Ranges Administrative Contacts Problems revealed by administratorsInformation Sources• Search engines• Forums• Databases – whois,• Tools – PING, whois, Traceroute, nslookup
  16. 16. 3. ENUMERATION & FINGERPRINTING• Specific targets determined• Identification of Services / open ports• Operating System EnumerationMethods Banner grabbing Responses to various protocol (ICMP &TCP) commands Port / Service Scans – TCP Connect, TCP SYN, TCP FIN, etc.Tools• Nmap, FScan, Hping, Firewalk, netcat, tcpdump, ssh, telnet, SNMP Scanner
  17. 17. 4. IDENTIFICATION OF VULNERABILITIESVulnerabilities:It is a weakness which allows an attacker to reduce a systems information assurance.• Insecure Configuration• Weak passwords• Unpatched vulnerabilities in services, Operating systems, applications• Possible Vulnerabilities in Services, Operating Systems• Insecure programming• Weak Access Control
  18. 18. IDENTIFICATION OF VULNERABILITIES CONT..ToolsVulnerability Scanners - Nessus, ISS, SARA, SAINTListening to Traffic – Ethercap, tcpdumpPassword Crackers – John the ripper, LC4, PwdumpIntercepting Web Traffic – Achilles, Whisker, Legion
  19. 19. 5. ATTACK – EXPLOIT THE VULNERABILITIESNetwork Infrastructure Attacks Connecting to the network through modem Weaknesses in TCP / IP, NetBIOS Flooding the network to cause DOSOperating System Attacks Attacking Authentication Systems Exploiting Protocol Implementations Exploiting Insecure configuration Breaking File-System Security
  20. 20. 6. GAINING ACCESS:• Enough data has been gathered at this point to make an informed attempt to access the target• Techniques • Password eavesdropping • File share brute forcing • Password file grab • Buffer overflows
  21. 21. 7. ESCALATING PRIVILEGES• If only user-level access was obtained in the last step, the attacker will now seek to gain complete control of the system• Techniques • Password cracking • Known exploits
  22. 22. 8. COVERING TRACKS• Once total ownership of the target is secured, hiding this fact from system administrators becomes paramount, lest they quickly end the romp.• Techniques • Clear logs • Hide tools
  23. 23. 9. CREATING BACK DOORS• Trap doors will be laid in various parts of the system to ensure that privileged access is easily regained at the whim of the intruder• Techniques • Create rogue user accounts • Schedule batch jobs • Infect startup files • Plant remote control services • Install monitoring mechanisms • Replace apps with trojans
  24. 24. WHAT DO HACKERS DO AFTER HACKING? (1)• Patch security hole • The other hackers can’t intrude• Clear logs and hide themselves• Install rootkit ( backdoor ) • The hacker who hacked the system can use the system later • It contains trojan virus, and so on• Install irc related program • identd, irc, bitchx, eggdrop, bnc
  25. 25. WHAT DO HACKERS DO AFTER HACKING? (2)• Install scanner program • mscan, sscan, nmap• Install exploit program• Install denial of service program• Use all of installed programs silently
  26. 26. WHY CAN’T DEFEND AGAINST HACKERS?• There are many unknown security hole• Hackers need to know only one security hole to hack the system• Admin need to know all security holes to defend the system
  27. 27. HOW CAN PROTECT THE SYSTEM? Patch security hole often Encrypt important data  Ex) pgp, ssh Do not run unused daemon Remove unused setuid/setgid program Setup loghost• Backup the system often Setup firewall Setup IDS  Ex) snort
  28. 28. WHAT SHOULD DO AFTER HACKED?• Shutdown the system • Or turn off the system• Separate the system from network• Restore the system with the backup • Or reinstall all programs• Connect the system to the network
  29. 29. PLEASE SEND SUGGESTIONS AND FEEDBACKS• Many topics of hacking is still remains to cover• People who are interested can send me a message or can mail me at Thank You !!!