Introduction to Computers


            by




                            1
What Is A Computer?
A computer is an electronic device,
operating under the control of instructions
(software) stored in i...
Flow Diagram
         Central Processing Unit

              Control              Output
Input
               Unit        ...
Characteristics

Versatility            Diligence

Accuracy               No Feelings

Power of remembering
Speed
No IQ
Co...
Evolution of Computers



                         5
History of Computers - Long,
 Long Ago


beads on rods to count and calculate
still widely used in Asia!




             ...
History of Computers - Way
   Back When




Slide Rule 1630
based on Napier’s
rules for logarithms
used until 1970s



   ...
History of Computers - 19th
Century



               first stored program -
               metal cards
               fir...
Charles Babbage - 1792-1871

Difference Engine c.1822
  huge calculator, never
  finished
Analytical Engine 1833
  could s...
Evolution of Microprocessor
In the mid-1940s, John Von Neumann
invented a machine in storing programs
and calculations.
 T...
Evolution of Microprocessor
   The MOS design of a 4004 4-bit chip
  called- Microprocessor in 1971.
   This chip is the h...
The First Microprocessor – 1971



The 4004 had 2,250
transistors
four-bit chunks (four
1’s or 0’s)
108Khz
Called “Microch...
Computer Generations



                       13
First Generations
       1. VACUUM TUBES: 1942-1955

ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator
1946, JP Eckert ...
Vacuum Tubes - 1942 - 1955


 First Generation Electronic
 Computers used Vacuum
 Tubes
 Vacuum tubes are glass tubes
 wit...
First Generations
       1. VACUUM TUBES: 1942-1955

Manchester Mark I
Professor MHA Newmann

UNIVAC     Universal Automat...
UNIVAC - 1951

first fully electronic
digital computer built in
the U.S.
Created at the University
of Pennsylvania
ENIAC w...
Grace Hopper
 Programmed UNIVAC
 Recipient of Computer
 Science’s first “Man of
 the Year Award
          Award”




     ...
First Computer Bug - 1945
                  Relay switches
                  part of computers
                  Grace Hop...
Second Generations
     2. TRANSISTORS: 1955-1964


Uses Silicon                           First Transistor
developed in 1...
Third Generations
   3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1975


         IBM 360 1964
         ALO
         Mini computers
      ...
Third Generation – 1964-1971
 1964-1971
 Integrated Circuit
 Operating System
 Getting smaller, cheaper




              ...
What is a Microchip?
Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit
(VLSIC)
  Transistors, resistors, and capacitors
4004 had 2,250 t...
Fourth Generations
4. VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS:
   1975 onwards


      Large Integration
      Portabl...
Birth of Personal Computers - 1975


256 byte memory
(not Kilobytes or
Megabytes)
2 MHz Intel 8080
chips
Just a box with
f...
IBM PC - 1981
     IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture
     First wide-selling personal
     computer used in business
     ...
Apple Computers
          Founded 1977
          Apple II released 1977
            widely used in schools

          Maci...
Computers Progress

            UNIVAC             Mits     IBM PC    Macintosh            Pentium
           (1951-1970) ...
1990s: Pentiums and Power
  Macs
Early 1990s began penetration of computers into
every niche: every desk, most homes, etc....
Fifth Generations
      5. Ultra LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (USLI) 1991


                Microprocessor based
               ...
Basic Components
 Hardware
 Software
 Peripherals
Basic Operations
 Inputting
 Storing
 Processing
 Outputting
 Controllin...
What Are The Primary
Components Of A Computer ?
Input devices.
Central Processing
Unit (containing the
control unit and th...
Devices that comprise a computer system

                     Monitor               Speaker
                     (output) ...
Input Devices
 Keyboard.
 Punch Card
 Paper tape
 Mouse.
 Light pen
 Touch screen
 MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognitio...
The Keyboard
The most commonly used input device is the
keyboard on which data is entered by manually
keying in or typing ...
The Mouse
Is a pointing device which is used to control the
movement of a mouse pointer on the screen to
make selections f...
The Central processing Unit
The central processing unit (CPU) contains
electronic circuits that cause processing to occur....
Memory
Memory also called Random Access Memory or
RAM (temporary memory) is the main memory of
the computer. It consists o...
Amount Of RAM In Computers
The amount of memory in             SIMM
computers is typically measured
in kilobytes or megaby...
What Does A Computer Do?

Computers can perform four
general     operations,     which
comprise      the     information
p...
Storage Devices
Auxiliary storage devices are used to
store data when they are not being
used in memory. The most common
t...
Floppy Disks
A floppy disk is a
portable,     inexpensive
storage medium that
consists of a thin,
circular, flexible plast...
Structure Of Floppy Disks
A folly disk is a magnetic disk, which means
that it used magnetic patterns to store data.
Data ...
Structure Of Floppy Disks
The disk’s storage locations are divided into pie-
shaped sections called sectors.
A sectors is ...
Hard Disks
A hard disk consists of one or more rigid
metal plates coated with a metal oxide
material that allows data to b...
Compact Discs
A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a
flat round, portable storage medium that is usually
4...
Output Devices
Output devices make the information
resulting from the processing available for
use. The two output devices...
Output devices

• Convert from electronic form to some other form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information...
Motherboard

Contains built-in electronic
components
All components like
keyboard, mouse, printers
and disk drives are
att...
Motherboard

Intel
AMD Atholon




                50
Power Supply Unit
The power supply is one of the
most important parts that needs to
be understood. The power supply
unit p...
Power Supply Unit
There are two basic types of
power supplies:
  AT power supplies –
  Designed to support AT-
  compatibl...
Printers
 Impact Printer.- DOT matrix, Daisy
 Wheel, Line
 Non – Impact Printer – Laser, Ink jet
 COM (Computer output to ...
Data and Information
All computer processing requires data, which is a
collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such ...
Why Is A Computer So Powerful?
The ability to perform the information
processing cycle with amazing speed.
Reliability (lo...
How Does a Computer
Know what to do?
It must be given a detailed list of instructions,
called a compute program or softwar...
Computer Applications
Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI).
Computer Assisted Learning (CAL).
Computer Aided Learning & Te...
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1 introdcution tocomputernursing [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Introduction to Computers by 1
  2. 2. What Is A Computer? A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Computer comes form the word compute Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Training Education and Research 2
  3. 3. Flow Diagram Central Processing Unit Control Output Input Unit Device Device Memory ALU Unit 3
  4. 4. Characteristics Versatility Diligence Accuracy No Feelings Power of remembering Speed No IQ Common data used Storage 4
  5. 5. Evolution of Computers 5
  6. 6. History of Computers - Long, Long Ago beads on rods to count and calculate still widely used in Asia! 6
  7. 7. History of Computers - Way Back When Slide Rule 1630 based on Napier’s rules for logarithms used until 1970s 7
  8. 8. History of Computers - 19th Century first stored program - metal cards first computer manufacturing still in use today! 8
  9. 9. Charles Babbage - 1792-1871 Difference Engine c.1822 huge calculator, never finished Analytical Engine 1833 could store numbers calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions powered by steam! accurate to six decimal places 9
  10. 10. Evolution of Microprocessor In the mid-1940s, John Von Neumann invented a machine in storing programs and calculations. The last 20 years has seen a rapid development of the smallest computers, which is so called – Microcomputers. This IC computer was designed by Hoff and Stanley Mazor. 10
  11. 11. Evolution of Microprocessor The MOS design of a 4004 4-bit chip called- Microprocessor in 1971. This chip is the heart of the computer system, commonly referred as CPU (Central processing unit). The latest generation Intel pentium processor have a speed up to 200 MHz. 11
  12. 12. The First Microprocessor – 1971 The 4004 had 2,250 transistors four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s) 108Khz Called “Microchip” 12
  13. 13. Computer Generations 13
  14. 14. First Generations 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1942-1955 ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator 1946, JP Eckert and JW Mauchly EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer Dr.John Von Neumann EDSAC Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator 1949, Professor Maurica Wilkes VACUUM TUBES: 1942-1955 14
  15. 15. Vacuum Tubes - 1942 - 1955 First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside. Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry. 15
  16. 16. First Generations 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1942-1955 Manchester Mark I Professor MHA Newmann UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer 1951 . UNIVAC I in 1952 by IBM. UNIVAC II in 1954 by GEC VACUUM TUBES: 1942-1955 16
  17. 17. UNIVAC - 1951 first fully electronic digital computer built in the U.S. Created at the University of Pennsylvania ENIAC weighed 30 tons contained 18,000 vacuum tubes Cost a paltry $487,000 17
  18. 18. Grace Hopper Programmed UNIVAC Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award Award” 18
  19. 19. First Computer Bug - 1945 Relay switches part of computers Grace Hopper found a moth stuck in a relay responsible for a malfunction Called it “debugging” a computer 19
  20. 20. Second Generations 2. TRANSISTORS: 1955-1964 Uses Silicon First Transistor developed in 1948 won a Nobel prize on-off switch Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956 VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS: 1955- 1942-1955 1964 20
  21. 21. Third Generations 3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1975 IBM 360 1964 ALO Mini computers ECIL- TDC 316 , 332 VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS: 1955- IC 1942-1955 1964 1964-1975 21
  22. 22. Third Generation – 1964-1971 1964-1971 Integrated Circuit Operating System Getting smaller, cheaper 22
  23. 23. What is a Microchip? Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC) Transistors, resistors, and capacitors 4004 had 2,250 transistors Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters) 23
  24. 24. Fourth Generations 4. VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS: 1975 onwards Large Integration Portable Minimum maintenance on Hardware Heat generated is negligible No AC is required Much faster VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS: 1955- IC VLSI 1942-1955 1964 1964-1975 1975 24
  25. 25. Birth of Personal Computers - 1975 256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes) 2 MHz Intel 8080 chips Just a box with flashing lights cost $395 kit, $495 assembled. 25
  26. 26. IBM PC - 1981 IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture First wide-selling personal computer used in business 8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors 4.77 Mhz processing speed 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard One or two floppy disk drives 26
  27. 27. Apple Computers Founded 1977 Apple II released 1977 widely used in schools Macintosh (left) released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse) 27
  28. 28. Computers Progress UNIVAC Mits IBM PC Macintosh Pentium (1951-1970) Altair (1981) (1984) IV (1968 vers.) (1975) Circuits Integrated 2 Intel Intel 8088 Motorola Intel P-IV Circuits 8080 Microchip 68000 Microchip Microchip - 29,000 Transistors - 7.5 million transistors RAM 512 K 265 Bytes 256 KB 256 MB Memory Speed 1.3 MHz 2 KHz 4.77 MHz 3200 MHz = 3.2 GHz Storage 100 MB 8” Floppy Floppy Floppy Hard Hard Drive Drive Drive Drives Drive, Floppy, CD-Rom Size Whole Briefcase Briefcase Two Small Room (no monitor) + Monitor shoeboxes Tower (integrated monitor) Cost $1.6 million $750 $1595 ~$4000 $1000 - $2000 28
  29. 29. 1990s: Pentiums and Power Macs Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk, most homes, etc. Faster, less expensive computers paved way for this Windows 95 was first decent GUI for “PCs” Macs became more PC compatible - easy file transfers 29
  30. 30. Fifth Generations 5. Ultra LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (USLI) 1991 Microprocessor based PROLOG may be used Multimedia, KBS Basic, Fortran, COBOL KIPS, DIPS/LIPS AI VACUUM TUBES: TRANSISTORS: 1955- IC VLSI USLI 1942-1955 1964 1964-1975 1975 1991 30
  31. 31. Basic Components Hardware Software Peripherals Basic Operations Inputting Storing Processing Outputting Controlling 31
  32. 32. What Are The Primary Components Of A Computer ? Input devices. Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit). Memory. Output devices. Storage devices. Power Supply Unit Motherboard 32
  33. 33. Devices that comprise a computer system Monitor Speaker (output) (output) System unit (processor, memory…) Printer (output) Storage devices (CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk, zip,…) Mouse (input) Scanner Keyboard (input) (input) 33
  34. 34. Input Devices Keyboard. Punch Card Paper tape Mouse. Light pen Touch screen MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) Bar Code Reader OCR (Optical Character Recognition) 34
  35. 35. The Keyboard The most commonly used input device is the keyboard on which data is entered by manually keying in or typing certain keys. A keyboard typically has 101 or 105 keys. 35
  36. 36. The Mouse Is a pointing device which is used to control the movement of a mouse pointer on the screen to make selections from the screen. A mouse has one to five buttons. The bottom of the mouse is flat and contains a mechanism that detects movement of the mouse. 36
  37. 37. The Central processing Unit The central processing unit (CPU) contains electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The CPU interprets instructions to the computer, performs the logical and arithmetic processing operations, and causes the input and output operations to occur. It is considered the “brain” of the computer. 37
  38. 38. Memory Memory also called Random Access Memory or RAM (temporary memory) is the main memory of the computer. It consists of electronic components that store data including numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics and sound. Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. Read Only Memory or ROM is memory that is etched on a chip that has start-up directions for your computer. It is permanent memory. 38
  39. 39. Amount Of RAM In Computers The amount of memory in SIMM computers is typically measured in kilobytes or megabytes. One kilobyte (K or KB) equals approximately 1,000 memory DIMM locations and one megabyte (M or MB) equals approximately one million locations A memory location, or byte, usually stores one character. SODIMM Therefore, a computer with 8 MB of memory can store approximately 8 million characters. One megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text information. 39
  40. 40. What Does A Computer Do? Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. Input Process Output Storage 40
  41. 41. Storage Devices Auxiliary storage devices are used to store data when they are not being used in memory. The most common types of auxiliary storage used on personal computers are floppy disks, hard disks and CD-ROM drives. 41
  42. 42. Floppy Disks A floppy disk is a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic disk with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell. 42
  43. 43. Structure Of Floppy Disks A folly disk is a magnetic disk, which means that it used magnetic patterns to store data. Data in floppy disks can be read from and written to. Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing. A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk. 43
  44. 44. Structure Of Floppy Disks The disk’s storage locations are divided into pie- shaped sections called sectors. A sectors is capable of holding 512 bytes of data. A typical floppy stores data on both sides and has 80 tracks on each side with 18 sectors per track. 44
  45. 45. Hard Disks A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters. The hard disk platters spin at a high rate of speed, typically 5400 to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM). Storage capacites of hard disks for personal computers range from 10 GB to 120 GB (one billion bytes are called a gigabyte). 45
  46. 46. Compact Discs A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a flat round, portable storage medium that is usually 4.75 inch in diameter. A CD-ROM (read only memory), is a compact disc that used the same laser technology as audio CDs for recording music. In addition it can contain other types of data such as text, graphics, and video. The capacity of a CD-ROM is 650 MB of data. 46
  47. 47. Output Devices Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. The two output devices more commonly used are the printer and the computer screen. The printer produces a hard copy of your output, and the computer screen produces a soft copy of your output. 47
  48. 48. Output devices • Convert from electronic form to some other form • May display the processed results • Usable information Monitor or screen Printer Text Black and white Numbers Color Symbols Art Photographs Video 48
  49. 49. Motherboard Contains built-in electronic components All components like keyboard, mouse, printers and disk drives are attached. 49
  50. 50. Motherboard Intel AMD Atholon 50
  51. 51. Power Supply Unit The power supply is one of the most important parts that needs to be understood. The power supply unit provides electrical power for every component inside the system unit. The power supply plays the critical role of converting commercial electrical power (AC), into DC required by the components of the computer. 51
  52. 52. Power Supply Unit There are two basic types of power supplies: AT power supplies – Designed to support AT- compatible motherboards. ATX power supplies – Designed according to newer ATX design specifications to support the ATX motherboard. 52
  53. 53. Printers Impact Printer.- DOT matrix, Daisy Wheel, Line Non – Impact Printer – Laser, Ink jet COM (Computer output to microfilm) 53
  54. 54. Data and Information All computer processing requires data, which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase. Computers manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report. The information can also be put in computer storage for future use. 54
  55. 55. Why Is A Computer So Powerful? The ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed. Reliability (low failure rate). Accuracy. Ability to store huge amounts of data and information. Ability to communicate with other computers. 55
  56. 56. How Does a Computer Know what to do? It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a compute program or software, that tells it exactly what to do. Before processing a specific job, the computer program corresponding to that job must be stored in memory. Once the program is stored in memory the compute can start the operation by executing the program instructions one after the other. * 56
  57. 57. Computer Applications Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI). Computer Assisted Learning (CAL). Computer Aided Learning & Teaching Medical 57

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