Information processing theory abd


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Information processing theory abd

  1. 1. Information processingtheoryInformation processing theory is an approach to the cognitive development of a humanbeing, which deals with the study and the analysis of the sequence of events that occurin a person’s mind while receiving some new piece of information. In short, it is theanalysis of the way a human being learns something new. There is a fixed pattern ofevents that take place in such a situation, and by knowing this pattern we can enablechildren and people with special abilities to learn new things faster.This theory, laid down by experts in psychology claims that the human mind is verysimilar to that of computers, as far as information processing and analysis is concerned.They also say that any new piece of information that enters the brain is first analyzedand then put through the test of several benchmarks before being stored in somevestibules of the memory. Since these actions occur at a very fast speed, we are unableto notice them in action.The sensory preceptors of a human being function in the same way as the hardware ofa computer does, and the mindset and the rules and strategies adopted by the personwhile learning is equivalent to the software used by computers. The informationprocessing system of a person can thus be enhanced if these preceptors and rules arealtered.
  2. 2. (1), Sensory Input is all the information you get through your fivesenses: taste, touch, sight, sound, smell. You ignore a lot of sensory input and send some to short-term memory. You could compare sensory input to the input you give your computer throughthe keyboards keystrokes.(2), Short-term or "Working" Memory is a temporary storage area. Information you are currently conscious of, or working on, is held here, usuallyfor very short periods of time. Capacity at any given time is limited to about 7 "slots." (Think of your computerscreen and the information it can display at any one time.) Unless you begin to work on, or rehearse, the information in some way, it can belost very quickly. (You also have to "save" computer input to keep it from beinglost.)(3), Rehearsal is the work you have to do to understand and storeinformation.Effective rehearsal is crucial.You dont remember what you dont understand.- Rehearsal is more effective when it happens over a period of time-Rehearsal must be ACTIVE.-Rehearsal takes EFFORT.1. Paraphrase ideas - put them in your own words instead of memorizing.Sure, this isnt always easy. But its worth it because it shows you understand theconcept.2. Relate new information to what you already know and understand.--Think of your computer again.--Do you have an existing file where this new information can fit?If you do, you can just add to it, creating a richer, more complete file.--If you have no existing file on this topic, you have to start a new one. The newfile will be small at first. As you add to it, it will be more useful.
  3. 3. 3. Organize information into chunks or hierarchies.Grouping ideas into meaningful categories lets you get the big picture and not beswamped by details.4. Use your visual sense.Draw it, chart it, or make a timeline, graph, or diagram to remember what itlooks like, how it works, or when it happened.(4), The Feedback Loop lets you know whether youve learned.- TEST YOURSELF to see if youre getting it.Can you explain or write it in your own words?Can you work the problems without looking?Is the feedback positive? Go on to new material.Is the feedback negative? OK - Keep studying.- OVERLEARN: STUDY BEYOND BASIC UNDERSTANDING.STUDY UNTIL YOU KNOW YOU KNOW IT, NO MATTER WHAT!(5), Long-term Memory files and stores unlimited amounts ofinformation in clusters or schemas. New information that can be linked to existing schema is easier to understand,find and use. Carefully organized and labeled "files" are easier to retrieve. (Think of yourcomputer files!) "Files" that are used often are more up-to-date and easier to locate.(6), Retrieval is the process of finding and bringing informationfrom long-term memory. Retrieval involves problem solving. Asking yourself the right questions isimportant. Memory "cues," or reminders, can help you retrieve. Frequent review keeps memories from "fading" over time.Similar kinds of information can "interfere" with each other and prevent accurateretrieval
  4. 4. BehaviorismBehaviorism,a highly influential academic school of psychology that dominatedpsychological theory between the two world wars. Classical behaviorism, prevalent inthe first third of the 20th century, was concerned exclusively with measurable andobservable data and excluded ideas, emotions, and the consideration of innermental experience and activity in general. In behaviorism, the organism is seen as“responding” to conditions (stimuli) set by the outer environment and by inner biologicalprocesses.Behaviorismis an approach to psychology that combines elements ofphilosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as areaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions thatcould be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of behaviorism,as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is thatpsychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals,not with unobservable events that take place in their minds. The behaviorist school ofthought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically withoutrecourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such asthoughts and beliefs.From early psychology in the 19th century, the behaviorist school of thought ranconcurrently and shared commonalities with the psychoanalytic and Gestalt movementsin psychology into the 20th century; but also differed from the mental philosophy of theGestalt psychologists in critical ways. Its main influences were Ivan Pavlov, whoinvestigated classical conditioning although he did not necessarily agree withbehaviorism or behaviorists, Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. Watson whorejected introspective methods and sought to restrict psychology to experimentalmethods, and B.F. Skinner who conducted research on operant conditioning.In the second half of the 20th century, behaviorism was largely eclipsed as a result ofthe cognitive revolution. While behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychologicalthought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in practicaltherapeutic applications, such as in cognitive–behavioral therapy that has demonstrableutility in treating certain pathologies, such as simple phobias, PTSD, and addiction. Inaddition, behaviorism sought to create a comprehensive model of the stream ofbehavior from the birth of the human to his
  5. 5. CognitivismIn psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind thatgained credence in the 1950s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, whichcognitivists said neglected to explain cognition. Cognitive psychology derived its namefrom the Latin cognoscere, referring to knowing and information, thus cognitivepsychology is an information processing psychology derived in part from earliertraditions of the investigation of thought and problem solving. Behavioristsacknowledged the existence of thinking, but identified it as a behavior. Cognitivistsargued that the way people think impacts their behavior and therefore cannot be abehavior in and of itself. Cognitivists later argued that thinking is so essential topsychology that the study of thinking should become its own field.Cognitivismis the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences express propositions andcan therefore be true or false (they are truth-apt), which nocognitivists deny. Cognitivism is so broad a thesis that it encompasses (among otherviews) moral realism (which claims that ethical sentences express propositions aboutmind-independent facts of the world), moral subjectivism (which claims that ethicalsentences express propositions about peoples attitudes or opinions), and errortheory (which claims that ethical sentences express propositions, but that they are allfalse, whatever their nature).Cognitive psychologists challenge the limitations of behaviorism in its focus onobservable behavior. They incorporate mental structure and process into their learningtheories. Like behaviorists, they engage more in the hypotheico-deductive scientificinquiry. The primary focus of the research study in cognitive psychology emphasizes theinternal processes and structures processes inferred through the observation ofbehavior. However, the focus on the mental structures and processes in cognitivepsychology does not explicitly indicate its philosophical position.The internal representation of the learners can echo the external reality, which asserts aposition of objectivism that the mind can stand separate and independent from thebody. Thus, knowledge can be transferred from the outside of the mind into the inside ofthe mind. Knowledge is transferred from the outside of the mind into the inside of themind. Wilson and Meyers (2000) illustrate such a position pretty well by indicating itsimpact on instructional design that "Instructional designers could now think of learning interms of taking experts cognitive structures and mapping that knowledge into the headsof learners. The degree of similarity in cognitive structure between expert and novicewas a good measure of whether learning objectives were being met." However, theinternal representation of learners can also be regarded as a subjective construction of
  6. 6. integrating incoming information and the existing knowledge structures, which entails aposition of constructivism that knowledge cannot exist independently from the knower.The central issues that interest cognitive psychologists include the internal mechanismof human thought and the processes of knowing. Cognitive psychologists haveattempted to find out the answers to mental structures, such as what is stored and howit is stored, and to mental processes concerning how the integration and retrieval ofinformation is operated. The theoretical assumptions in cognitive psychology lendinstructional systems a hand in the design of efficient processing strategies for thelearners to acquire knowledge, e.g. mnemonic devices to reduce the workload of theshort-term memory, rehearsal strategies to maintain information, and the use ofmetaphors and analogies to relate meaning of the new information to prior knowledge.Theoretical FoundationsThe date cited as marking the beginning of psychology as a science is 1879, whenWilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.Introspection, the method of inquiry used by Wundt, is claimed to be a cognitiveapproach, since it is a tool of self-observation to examine the working of the mind. Winnand Snyder (1996) claimed that Wundts methodological contribution was "thedevelopment of introspection as a means for studying the mind". Many ideas andassumptions of cognitive psychology can be traced back to the early decades oftwentieth century, i.e. Gestalt psychology, Edward Tolmans cognitive learning (1932),and Jean Piagets cognitive development theory.Anderson (1985) lists three main influences for the modern development of cognitivepsychology:1. Information processing approach: Broadbents information (1958) processingmodel gives consideration to perception and attention. The importantcharacteristic of an information-processing analysis is that it involves a tracing ofthe sequence of mental operations and their products in the performance of aparticular cognitive task2. Artificial Intelligence: Allen Newell and Herbert Simons work in cognitivepsychology has promoted use of concepts from computer science in thedevelopment of psychological theories.3. Linguistics: Noam Chomsky asserted that language learning must includeinternal constructs. A theory that only considers the observable stimuli andresponses in linguistic interaction is not sufficient.
  7. 7. The Difference betweenBehaviorism and CognitivePsychologyBehaviorism and cognitive psychology are two schools of psychology.Behaviorism is conducted by Watson and then becomes popular in the wholepsychology field, as the mainstream of psychology research. Behavioristicpsychology believes that the mind is unknown, and psychology should study atthe behavior. According to the Ivan Pavlovs reflex system, human behavior isshaped entirely by the environment. Human generate conditioned reflex in theprocess, and all the acts can be decomposed into a series of conditioned reflex.There are several important conceptions, such as stimulus, reinforcement andoperant conditioning. They ty to control the act by stimulus and reinforcement.Cognitive psychology is gradually developed with the science and the agreementagainst behavioral psychology and has become the most popular mainstream ofpsychology. Cognitive psychology was originally to take human as computer, andthe process of information management by the human brain as computerprocessing. The biggest advances of cognitive psychology is to focus on theeffect of human internal mental process on behavior. E.g. behavioralpsychologists believe that learning is to control the behavior of students to studyhard through rewards, reinforcement, and some stimulus. The cognitivepsychologists pay more attention to the students self-evaluation of learningability, the students awareness of the importance of learning, and the studentslearning experience and other cognitive factors.Anyway behaviorism and cognitive psychology reflect the two aspects of modernspirit. Behaviorism refers to the arrogance that human can control the all, nature,society and human, while cognitive psychology indicates theIntrospection.Behaviorism vs Cognitivism
  8. 8. They are both a good way of teaching and learning processes, however, there aresome differences between them which is very significant.ControlBehaviorist: presentation of “scientifically” graded language items.Cognitivist: grading, but not so “scientifically” controlled. Cognitive grading is alsoimportant, in terms of what the learner brings to the activity of learning.ErrorBehaviorist: should not be made at all.Cognitivist: can be made, since through errors one can learn.ExposureBehaviorist: necessary, but in a linguistically controlled way.Cognitivist: plenty, and it’s necessary.PracticeBehaviorist: drills and drills, constant repetition is definitely necessary.Cognitivist: is important, but rote learning and meaningless repetition is out.Role of the LearnerBehaviorist: a passive recipient of planned instruction.Cognitivist: an active processor of learning. One whose internal data processingmechanism operate.Role of the TeacherBehaviorist: one who teaches, plans, presents language items and exercises,makes students repeat drills and gives correct language forms.Cognitivist: one who creates opportunities for learning to occur with the help of thelearner’s data processing mechanism.
  9. 9. The Language SyllabusBehaviorist: based on the structures and vocabulary of language presentedsystematically.Cognitivist: could be less systematically presented structures and vocabulary,functions, notions, situations, and cognitive functions.Grading of ItemsBehaviorist: Strict, clear, step by step (lock-step method)Cognitivist: no so definite, since the individual language learner is involved.In EndBehaviorism and Cognitivism are two learning theories that even though they havetheir differences, both theories emphasize the role that environmental conditions play infacilitating learning, as well as emphasis on the role of practice with correctivefeedback.