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Seminar

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Seminar

  1. 1. Tissue engineering scaffolds for cleft palate Nachanadar Rujimarmahasan 1
  2. 2. content I. II. III. IV. Cleft lip and palate Stem cell research Tissue model constructs & lab techniques Craniofacial research 2
  3. 3. Objectives • The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects • Design and Modifying Model to create Smart biomaterial scaffolds that improve tissue regeneration • Biocompatible and biodegradable • Biomaterial scaffolds that are immunologically inert • Stem cell can be patient specific using their own isolated cells, reducing risk of rejection 3
  4. 4. Understanding cleft lip and palate. 1: An overview • The normal anatomy of the face 4
  5. 5. Anatomy cleft palate normal cleft lip and cleft palate 5
  6. 6. Cleft lip and palate Patients with clefts: (A) incomplete unilateral cleft of the lip, (B) unilateral cleft of the lip, alveolus, and palate, (C) bilateral cleft of the lip, alveolus, and palate, (D) isolated (median) cleft palate. 6
  7. 7. Problems with Disorder • • • • • • • • • Breastfed hearing the Eustachian tube glue ear Speech Functions Cosmetic Psychology Dental Swallowing facial growth 7
  8. 8. Obturator 8
  9. 9. Care plan timetable • birth to 6 weeks: counseling for parents, hearing test and feeding assessment • 3 months: surgery to repair a cleft lip • 6-12 months: surgery to repair a cleft palate • 18 months: speech assessment • 3 years: speech assessment • 5 years: speech assessment • 8-11 years: bone graft to the cleft in the gum area (alveolus) • 11-15 years: orthodontic treatment and monitoring jaw growth • 18 years+: if needed, jaw surgery, lip and nose revision surgery, and final replacements for any missing teeth 9
  10. 10. Problems Be the angel for cleft lip and cleft palate children: What you can do to help? If orthodontic and the oral surgeon treatment failure Decreases the extent of surgery required for repairing the lip and palate. 10
  11. 11. OUTCOME • Developed a biomimetic scaffold for tissue engineering • That provides a cell-instructive structural framework • For inducing differentiation of stem cells into osteogenic cells. • This porous and matrix have increaded stiffness • Which can facilitate its use in load-bearing bone tissue engineering. 11
  12. 12. Hypothesis Tissue engineering 12
  13. 13. Tissue model constructs & lab techniques 13
  14. 14. biomimetic biomimetic of bone regeneration 14
  15. 15. Biomimetic Scaffold Fabrication 15
  16. 16. Engineering bone grafts • Change stem cells into bone cells – with proper growth factors in cell culture media • This scaffold can’t be too big or the cells inside will die since they will not get enough oxygen A 3D calcium phosphate scaffold From Becton Dickinson 16
  17. 17. Biomimetic Platforms for Human Stem Cell Research Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic,Volume 8, Issue 3, 4 March 2011, Pages 252–261 17
  18. 18. stem cell science and bioengineering 18
  19. 19. Biomimetic Paradigm Stem cell fate and function 19
  20. 20. Scaffold-Bioreactor Systems for Human Stem Cells 20
  21. 21. Craniofacial Bone regeneration • • • • clinically sized anatomically shaped viable human bone grafts stem cells biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. 21
  22. 22. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts Warren L. Grayson, 2010 22
  23. 23. Tissue engineering of anatomically shaped bone grafts. Grayson W L et al. PNAS 2010;107:3299-3304 ©2010 by National Academy of Sciences 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Tissue Development and Mineral Deposition Grayson W L et al. PNAS 2010;107:3299-3304 ©2010 by National Academy of Sciences 25
  26. 26. Bone formation was markedly by perfusion Grayson W L et al. PNAS 2010;107:3299-3304 ©2010 by National Academy of Sciences 26
  27. 27. Architecture of the mineralized bone matrix 27
  28. 28. Bone matrix morphology 28
  29. 29. Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering Fergal J. O'Brien, Volume 14, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 88–95 29
  30. 30. Confocal micrograph Fig. 1. Confocal micrograph showing osteoblast cells (green) attached to a highly porous collagen-GAG scaffold (red). 30
  31. 31. composite scaffolds Fig. 2. Comparative SEM images of (a) collagen-GAG (CG) scaffold (b) hydroxyapatite (HA) and (c) composite collagen-HA (CHA) scaffold. 31
  32. 32. collagen scaffolds for bone tissue engineering Fig. 3. Effect of hydroxyapatite addition on (a) stiffness and (b) permeability of collagen scaffolds. 32
  33. 33. cell-mediated mineralization Fig. 4. Quantitative cell-mediated mineralization by osteoblasts on the CHA scaffolds containing differing amounts of HA 33
  34. 34. degradation in rat calvarial defect Fig. 5. Example of core degradation in a rat calvarial defect treated with a tissue engineered collagen-calcium phosphate scaffold 4 weeks post implantation. 34
  35. 35. engineer microvasculature Fig. 6. In vitro microvessel formation by endothelial cells on the scaffold. 35
  36. 36. conclusion Scaffold requirements • • • • Biocompatibility Biodegradability Mechanical properties Scaffold architecture 36
  37. 37. conclusion • ideal scaffold should have several characteristics: – (i) high porosity for cell/tissue growth, nutrient diffusion, matrix production and vascularization; – (ii) controllable degradation to match tissue growth once implanted in body and – (iii) reasonable mechanical strength to match the tissues at the site of implantation 37
  38. 38. 38

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