Re-Shaping Todayand TomorrowKey Trends in PR Practiceand ThinkingDr. Bill NicholsSenior Lecturer PR/MarCom; Deputy Director, CHCR; Director – Astrophel LLPBNU School of Business and ManagementKozara, Bosnia – 23-24 May 2013 Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
1. Welcome To TheBorderlandsAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
Join me on theborderAcademia and PracticeAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
They’re Very Different LanguagesAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsQuel est le futur desrelations publiques?公共关系的未来是什么？
Sometimes morelike a war…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
But breaking downbarriers is the heart ofPR… Let’s call it.. Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Author: Dr. Bill NicholsSuccessful interaction!
Dobrodošli na mojuprezentacijuAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
Today’s Agenda• The Borderlands• Triumph and Expectation• The Empire of Spin• Spin Overwhelmed: Forces ofChange• Consequences: Tomorrow inPR – Theory• Tomorrow: Seven Trends:One Narrative• Final Thoughts: A NewPractitionerAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
2. Triumph and ExpectationAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
.It’s A Great Time for PRAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
On The Up…• Industry growth = 5-10%annually even in recession• Multi-billion business £1.7bn consultancy UK (2005)• Practitioners up X4-5 in 30years (=48K in the UK)• University courses globally (31UK vs. 1 in 1980)• Diversifying and winningcontrol of social media.Author: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: CEBR (2005); Gregory (2011).
And PR Won That War – 5:1PRTraditionalMediaCitizenMediaAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
There’s Lots On The Menu• Media relations• Corporate comms• Community relations• CSR• Issues & crisis management• IR• Public affairs• Internal comms• Digital PR• Branding• Event management• Comms strategyAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: CEBR (2005); Gregory (2011).
3. Context: The Empire of Spin(1980-2000s)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
End of an Era: Triumph of Spin and ControlAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
The Spin Game• Era of ruthless news managers• ‘Bury bad news’• Clearly defined news agendas andschedules• Message, message, message…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Key Words• Persuasion• Advocacy• ControlAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
How It Worked: 1980-2004• Theory of Social Exchange:• Negotiated relationships• Everything has a price.• Relationships 1.0:• Network power• Who you know.• Perceptions Management:• “Convince key audiences that messagesdelivered… are true”.• Expectations control• Synonym for advocacy and persuasion.Author: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: Golomb (1995); Ferrara (1998); Vargo and Maglio (2008); Latane (1981); Leaf (2012:271) .
Driven By Functionalism: All Very Logical• Dominated teaching• Focused on process, causes andeffects• This is PR ‘inside-out’ – founded on:• Systems theory• Commitment to situational theory• Ideal of symmetrical communication• Aspirations of excellence and effectiveness• Role structure (manager-technician)• Quantitative research (e.g. evaluation).Source: L’Etang (2008: C1, 12); Grunig (1984, 2001). Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
All About Measurement and ResultsInputs Outputs Outcomes* Budget Compliance• Resource Compliance• Timeline• Contacts/Media.• Exposure• Coverage/Clipping Count• Readership/ ‘000s• AVE (Advertising Value Equivalent)• Advertising Page Rate Multiplier• Message Count/Weighting• Cost Per Message• Proprietary: e.g. Wordsworth.* Tracking Study• Behaviour/Purchasing• Attitudes• Intentions• Analytic Relationships.HighHighLowLowAccuracy/ValueCostSource: Watson and Noble (2007);McNamara (1992)
.This is the road toBarcelona…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
.Just A Moment: We’reHuman…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Three Variables: Not OnePersonalityMotivationChangePerceptionSource: Schiffman and Kanuk (2007:90ff)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
.AND Change… AlwaysChange…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
4. Spin Overwhelmed:Forces of ChangeAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
1. We Went Digital: The MechanismSweden (1996) Now The #1Author: Dr. Bill NicholsHard-wiring the potential for co-creation.
Obama vs. Romney (Election Night - 2012)• Facebook 32m vs. 12mfans• Twitter 21m vs. 1.7mfollowers• YouTube 260K vs. 29Kviews.Author: Dr. Bill NicholsCo-creation AND Social Influence.
.4. AND our culture ischanging rapidlyAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
The Waning of Attention• “It is only lately that thepursuit of distraction has beenembraced as the meaning oflife”.John GrayPhilosopher(2013)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
The Writing of the Elite• “Writing today is like Latin onthe eve of the Renaissance,the language of a scholarlyelite.”Prof. Elizabeth Daley,Uni of Southern California(2013)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
The Age of The Image• “While our culture still relieson words, they areincreasingly wrapped up withimages. And it is images thatpeople remember”Stephen ApkonCultural Historian(2013)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
5. Consequences:Tomorrow in PR - TheoryAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
• Authenticity vs.Perceptions:• The degree to which one istrue to ones own personality,spirit, or character• Co-creation vs. simpleRelationship Management:• Value in use rather than inexchange… Therefore…• Social Influence vs. SocialExchange (SET):• Physical and virtual impactupon another’s emotions,opinions or behaviours.Shaping Theory: A New ParadigmSource: Golomb (1995); Ferrara (1998); Vargo and Maglio (2008); Latane (1981). Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Key Words• Reputation• Relationships• SocialInteraction.Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
.Reputation andRelationships are twosides of the same coin..Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
.By managing socialinteractions whichcreate a web ofrelationships, wesustain and developreputation.Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
6. Tomorrow in PRSeven Trends: One NarrativeAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
Media Convergence – real world and inthe classroomAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
1. Media Convergence: One FocusPaidEarnedOwnedAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsThis is the ‘New Secularism’ (Nichols and Davies 2010)
Rolling up social media as a corecomponent…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
2. Convergence Integrates Social MediaPaid•Digital Ads,Banners•Overlays,AdwordsPromoted•In-stream or•Social paidpromovehiclesOwned•Created or•CustomcontentShared•Collaborativeplatforms•VehiclesEarned•Brand-relatedconversations•User-generatedcontent.Author: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: Giles Peddy, Hotwire (2012)
Powered by Big Data (when enoughpeople are trained to manage it!)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
3. Integrated Seamlessly Via Big Data• Only just begun• Clearing ‘smokeand mirrors’• Transformingunderstanding• Feeding: New businessmeasures for PR.Big DataAnalyticsInsightsCreativeIdeasMultiplePlatformsBusinessPerformanceAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: Giles Peddy.Hotwire (2012)… .
Creating intelligent real-time customerinteractions and relationships…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
• The use of social media requiresorganisations to not just use these tools,but to have a mindset that embracesimmediacy• Some brands have caught on engagequickly though social media – Eurostar,Gatorade, Dell• Brands need to be part of theconversation and decision makingprocess – if not, they are forgotten• Social intelligence creating social capital• RoI advantage = +3%4. Powering Real-Time MarketingAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: David Meerman Scott (2013) .
Supporting intelligent real-timecommunity interaction andengagement…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
5. The 3Ts: Community EngagementSource: Bowen et al (2010); CHCR (2013)Transactional CEOne-wayControlledCompliance-focused.Transitional CEBuilding bridgesDialogue andconsultation/ TownHallsCause-focusedFrequentTransformational CEAchieving sharedvalueRelationalPermanent joint-teamsCo-creation/co-ownership.
Direct contact leaves no hiding-place…Applies a high-value to authenticity…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
6. Corporate Character:Reputation’s Gold Standard• “Character is like atree and reputationlike a shadow. Theshadow is what wethink of it; the treeis the real thing.”Abraham LincolnAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: Giles Peddy.Hotwire (2012)… .
Which are the building blocks of themost crucial trend of all… the creation ofnarrative…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
5. Helping Us Create Master-Narratives• Organisations are good atmessaging, identifying storiesand weaving messages• BUT:• Many forget the master narrative– the red thread that binds thesestories and messages together,day in day outAuthor: Dr. Bill NicholsSource: Peddy/Hotwire (2012)
It’s Human: The Master Storytellers• The way we’rewired• Dream, believe,internalise• Evolve• Re-define.
7. Tomorrow: The NewPractitionerAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
Working As Influencers• Traditional media outreach issubsumed by: Influencer outreach.• The world of engagement andnew emerging models.Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Engaging Live As Brand Journalists• The creation of videos, blog posts,photos, charts, graphs, essays, ebooks,and other information that deliver valueto your marketplace..BJ•• A product pitch• An advertorial• An egotistical spewing of gobbledygook-laden, stock-photo enhanced corporate drivel.Not• Marketers using the tools of digitalpublishing and social media to speakdirectly to consumers.BJ or ContentMarketingSource: Meerman Scott (2010); Forbes (10 March 2012)Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Leading on Customer Service…• Customer service• Empowerment• Social mediamanagement andexecution.Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
.It may be a great time…But here comes thescary bit…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
• His time is fading…• After Leveson in the UK, we will benext in the spotlight..• How will they seek to regulate the‘hidden manipulators‘?• Are we ready?• Are we professional enough?We Are The Publishers Now…Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
Who Will Win The Next War??PRTradMediaCitizenMediaAuthor: Dr. Bill Nichols
Thank you for listening.Any questions?Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
References 1• Apkon, S. (2013), The Age of the Image: Redefining Literacy in aWorld of Screens. New York NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.• Bowen, F., Newenham-Kahindi, A., and Herremans, A. (2010).When Suits Meet Roots: The Antecedents and Consequences ofCommunity Engagement Strategy, Journal of Business Ethics, 95297:318.• CEBR (2005), The Economic Significance of Public Relations. LondonUK: CIPR.• Cornelissen, J. (2008). Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theoryand Practice. 2nd Ed, London UK: Sage.• Daley, E. (2013). Unpublished Lecture. USC.• Ferrara, A. (1998), Reflective Authenticity. Rethinking the Project ofModernity. London UK: Routledge.• Fruchter, G.E., and Sigue, S.P. (2004). Managing relationalexchanges, Journal of Service Research, 7 (2), 142:154.• Golomb, J. (1995), In Search of Authenticity: From Kierkegaard toCamus. London UK: Routledge.• Gordon, A.E. (2011), Public Relations. Oxford UK: Oxford UP.• Gottman, J. (1998). Psychology and the study of marital processes.Annual Review of Psychology, Vol.49, pp. 169-197.• Government Communications Network (2010), Engage Handbook forthe Communications Community. London UK: Cabinet Office.• Gray, J. (2013), The Silence of the Animals: On Progress and OtherModern Myths. London UK: Allen Lane.Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
References 2• Gregory, A. (2011). The State of the Public Relations Profession inthe UK, Corporate Communications, 16 (2) 89-104.• Grunig, J.E. and Hunt, T.E. (1984), Managing Public Relations. NewYork, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Wilson.• Grunig, J.E. (2001). Two-Way Symmetrical Public Relations: Past,Present and Future. In: Heath, R. (ed), Handbook of PublicRelations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.• Kelley, H.H., and Thibaut, J.W. (1978), Interpersonal Relations: ATheory of Interdependence. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons.• Latané, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact, AmericanPsychologist, 36, 343-356.• Leaf, R. (2012), The Art of Perception. London UK: Atlantic.• L’Etang, J. (2008), Public Relations: Concepts, Practice and Critique.London UK: Sage Publications.• McNamara, J. (1992). Evaluation of public relations: the Achilles heelof the PR profession, International Public Relations Review, 15 (24),17-31.• Moorman, C, Zaltman, G., and Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationshipsbetween providers and users of market research: the dynamics oftrust within and between organisations, Journal of MarketingResearch, 29, August, 314:328.• Moss, D and DeSanto, B (2011), Public Relations: A ManagerialPerspective. Los Angeles CA: Sage.• Oliver R.L., (1997), Satisfaction: A Behavioural Perspective on theConsumer. New York, NY, McGraw Hill. Author: Dr. Bill Nichols
References 3• Oliver, R.L. (1999). Whence customer loyalty, Journal of Marketing,Vol. 63, Special Issue, pp. 33-44.• Schiffman, L. and Kanuk, L. (2007), Consumer Behavior. UpperSaddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.• Spreng, R. and Page, T. A. Jr. (2003). A test of alternative measuresof disconfirmation, Decision Sciences, 34, (1) 31:62.• Tench, R and Yeomans, L. (2009), Exploring Public Relations. 2nd Ed,London UK: Kogan Page.• Vargo, S.L., and Maglio, P.P. (2008). On value and value co-creation:A service systems and service logic perspective, European Journal ofMarketing 26 (3) 145-152.• Watson, T., and Noble, P. (2007), Evaluating Public Relations: A BestPractice Guide to Public Relations Planning, Research and Evaluation.2nd Edition, London UK: Kogan Page.Author: Dr. Bill Nichols