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THE USE OF TWITTER DURING THE 2014 CRISIS IN UKRAINE:
A TALE OF THREE LANGUAGES
ANATOLIYGRUZD (@GRUZD)
2015 Summer Special...
Social Media Lab, Ryerson University (Toronto, Canada)
Social Media Support Social Activism and Political Engagement
#OccupyGezi Supporters in Victoria, BC
From this…
Photo cred...
Photo credit: Karl Schönswetter
Social Media Help to Organize Social Movements
… to this
#OccupyGezi: Gezi Parki Protest, ...
Today’s focus:
2014 EuroMaidan Revolution | Revolution of Dignity
5
"2014-02-21 11-04 Euromaidan in Kiev" by Amakuha. Lice...
Outline
• Background
• Review of Social Media Platforms
• Twitter Use
• Conclusions
6@gruzd
Today’s focus:
2014 EuroMaidan Revolution | Revolution of Dignity
7
"2014-02-21 11-04 Euromaidan in Kiev" by Amakuha. Lice...
February 18-19, 2014: Protests in Kyiv (capital) Turned Deadly
9
source: http://liveuamap.com
RUSSIA
UKRAINE
@gruzd 2014 E...
February 18-19, 2014: Protests in Kyiv Turned Deadly
10
"Barricade line separating interior troops and protesters. Clashes...
February 18-19, 2014: Protests in Kyiv Turned Deadly
11
"Euromaidan in Kiev 2014-02-19 12-06" by Amakuha. Licensed under C...
February-March, 2014: Pro & Anti-Maidan Protests SpreadAcross
Ukraine
12
source: http://liveuamap.com
@gruzd 2014 EuroMaid...
February-April 2014:Awave of Anti-Maidan protests in South-East
13@gruzd
Photo credit: Andriy Makukha. Licensed under CC B...
March 2014: Annexation of Crimea by Russia
14
source: http://liveuamap.com
@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
April 2014:Anti-Terrorist Operation (ATO) against pro-Russian Self-proclaimed
republics: Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) &...
Outline
• Background
• Review of Social Media Platforms
• Twitter Use
• Conclusions
16@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
Review of Social Media Platforms:
Websites – still important, linking to social media accounts
http://euromaidansos.org/
1...
Review of Social Media Platforms: Blogs
http://fakecontrol.org/blog/2014/03/04/george-bush/
18@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revol...
Review of Social Media Platforms: Blogs
Example: CombatingMisinformation
http://www.stopfake.org/
Source: http://visual.ly...
Review of Social Media Platforms
Youtube & ustream.tv:Activists, News agencies, Gov.officials
https://www.youtube.com/watc...
Review of Social Media Platforms
Instagram: Photo Sharing during Rallies
21
http://www.the-everyday.net
@gruzd 2014 EuroMa...
Review of Social Media Platforms
Wikipedia: Editors’ Debate about the Status of Crimea
22@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
Review of Social Media Platforms
Facebook Groups & Pages:Activists
https://www.facebook.com/groups/223479324489867 https:/...
Review of Social Media Platforms
Vkontakte & Odnoklassniki.ru (Facebook alike)
24@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
Gruzd, A. & Tsyganova, K. (2014). Politically Polarized
Online Groups and their Social Structures formed
around the 2013-2...
Outline
• Background
• Review of Social Media Platforms
• Twitter Use
• Conclusions
26@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
1) Represent data as a network
Nodes = People
Edges /Ties = Relations (ex. Who is a friend with whom,
Who replies to whom,...
• Reduce the large quantity of data into a
more concise representation
• Makes it easier to understand what is
going on in...
@John
@Peter
@Paul
• Nodes = People
• Ties = “Who retweeted/
replied/mentioned whom”
• Tie strength = The number of
retwee...
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/18/ukraine-
police-storm-kiev-protest-camp-live-updates#start-of-
comments
Examp...
Source: Twitter Search API
Request Rate: Hourly, up to 1000 tweets
Time frame: Feb 18, 2014 – March 14, 2014
Tweeting abou...
Netlytic – Data collection and analysis tool
http://netlytic.org
@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution 33
Україна 2014-02-18 - 2014-03-14
• Dataset Name: Україна
• Total Messages: 200,956
• Unique Posters : 46,641
Deadly clashes...
Twitter Communication Network
@gruzd
Украина 2014-02-18 - 2014-03-14
• Dataset Name:Украина
• Total Messages: 527,112
• Unique Posters : 141,541
@gruzd
Twitter Communication Network
@gruzd
LIFENEWS - @lifenews_ru
Informatsionnyy kanal LIFENEWS – pervyy
po srochnym novostyam! Eksklyuzivnyye
video po samym glavn...
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
Ukraine 2014-02-18 - 2014-03-14
• Dataset Name: Ukraine
• Total Messages: 591,394
• Unique Posters : 246,113
@gruzd
@gruzd
Euromaidan PR - @EuromaidanPR
Official International Public Relations
Secretariat for the Headquarters of
National Resista...
Topics over Time in Tweets that mentioned “Ukraine”
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
@gruzd
Summary: Social Media Use during the 2014 EuroMaidan
Revolution
• First “Social Media” Revolution in Ukraine
• 2004 “Orang...
Україна (in Ukrainian) Украина (in Russian) Ukraine (in English)
Source: Twitter Search API
Request Rate: Hourly, up to 10...
Photo credit: Karl Schönswetter
#OccupyGezi: Gezi Parki Protest, Turkey (2013)
58
#OccupyGezi Supporters in Victoria, BC
?...
Future Work
• Explore the roles of isolates
–lurkers, spammers, trolls, or
fake accounts?
59
?
@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revo...
THE USE OF TWITTER DURING THE 2014 CRISIS IN UKRAINE:
A TALE OF THREE LANGUAGES
ANATOLIYGRUZD (@GRUZD)
2015 Summer Special...
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The Use of Twitter during the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine: A Tale of Three Languages

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This is a work-in-progress paper presented at the 2015 Summer Specialist Meeting, hosted by the Center for Human Dynamics in the Mobile Age (HDMA) at San Diego State Universality. The extended abstract is available at http://socialmedia.sdsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Gruzd_paper.pdf

Also see http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/poi3.91/abstract

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The Use of Twitter during the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine: A Tale of Three Languages

  1. 1. THE USE OF TWITTER DURING THE 2014 CRISIS IN UKRAINE: A TALE OF THREE LANGUAGES ANATOLIYGRUZD (@GRUZD) 2015 Summer Specialist Meeting Hosted by the Center for Human Dynamics in the Mobile Age (HDMA) NSF-CDI and NSF-IBSS Project San Diego, CA, August 11-12, 2015 Associate Professor, Ted Rogers School of Management Director of the Social Media Lab Ryerson University
  2. 2. Social Media Lab, Ryerson University (Toronto, Canada)
  3. 3. Social Media Support Social Activism and Political Engagement #OccupyGezi Supporters in Victoria, BC From this… Photo credit: Anatoliy Gruzd In the Social Media Lab, we’re interesting in studying how social media …. @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  4. 4. Photo credit: Karl Schönswetter Social Media Help to Organize Social Movements … to this #OccupyGezi: Gezi Parki Protest, Turkey (2013) 4 In the Social Media Lab, we’re interesting in studying how social media …. @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  5. 5. Today’s focus: 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution | Revolution of Dignity 5 "2014-02-21 11-04 Euromaidan in Kiev" by Amakuha. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia @gruzd
  6. 6. Outline • Background • Review of Social Media Platforms • Twitter Use • Conclusions 6@gruzd
  7. 7. Today’s focus: 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution | Revolution of Dignity 7 "2014-02-21 11-04 Euromaidan in Kiev" by Amakuha. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia November 21, 2013 - Ukraine gov. suspended the trade & association agreement with EU @gruzd
  8. 8. February 18-19, 2014: Protests in Kyiv (capital) Turned Deadly 9 source: http://liveuamap.com RUSSIA UKRAINE @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  9. 9. February 18-19, 2014: Protests in Kyiv Turned Deadly 10 "Barricade line separating interior troops and protesters. Clashes in Kyiv, Ukraine. Events of February 18, 2014-2" by Mstyslav Chernov/Unframe/http://www.unframe.com/ - Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  10. 10. February 18-19, 2014: Protests in Kyiv Turned Deadly 11 "Euromaidan in Kiev 2014-02-19 12-06" by Amakuha. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  11. 11. February-March, 2014: Pro & Anti-Maidan Protests SpreadAcross Ukraine 12 source: http://liveuamap.com @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  12. 12. February-April 2014:Awave of Anti-Maidan protests in South-East 13@gruzd Photo credit: Andriy Makukha. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  13. 13. March 2014: Annexation of Crimea by Russia 14 source: http://liveuamap.com @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  14. 14. April 2014:Anti-Terrorist Operation (ATO) against pro-Russian Self-proclaimed republics: Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) & Lugansk People’s Republic (LPR) 15 source: http://liveuamap.com @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  15. 15. Outline • Background • Review of Social Media Platforms • Twitter Use • Conclusions 16@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  16. 16. Review of Social Media Platforms: Websites – still important, linking to social media accounts http://euromaidansos.org/ 17@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  17. 17. Review of Social Media Platforms: Blogs http://fakecontrol.org/blog/2014/03/04/george-bush/ 18@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  18. 18. Review of Social Media Platforms: Blogs Example: CombatingMisinformation http://www.stopfake.org/ Source: http://visual.ly/top-7-false-statements-russian-media-about-Ukraine 19@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  19. 19. Review of Social Media Platforms Youtube & ustream.tv:Activists, News agencies, Gov.officials https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_cNDGU7k98 http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/44404145 20@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution Future unrests: Twitter's Periscope?
  20. 20. Review of Social Media Platforms Instagram: Photo Sharing during Rallies 21 http://www.the-everyday.net @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  21. 21. Review of Social Media Platforms Wikipedia: Editors’ Debate about the Status of Crimea 22@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  22. 22. Review of Social Media Platforms Facebook Groups & Pages:Activists https://www.facebook.com/groups/223479324489867 https://www.facebook.com/EvromaidanSOS 23@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  23. 23. Review of Social Media Platforms Vkontakte & Odnoklassniki.ru (Facebook alike) 24@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  24. 24. Gruzd, A. & Tsyganova, K. (2014). Politically Polarized Online Groups and their Social Structures formed around the 2013-2014 crisis in Ukraine. Internet, Politics, Policy 2014: Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy. September 25–26, 2014, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Recent papers on Pro- and Anti-Maidan VK groups Gruzd, A. & Tsyganova, K. (2015). Information Wars and Online Activism During the 2013/2014 Crisis in Ukraine: Examining the Social Structures of Pro- and Anti-Maidan Groups. Policy & Internet 2(7): 121-158. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/poi3.91/abstract 25@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution source: http://en.wikipedia.org
  25. 25. Outline • Background • Review of Social Media Platforms • Twitter Use • Conclusions 26@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  26. 26. 1) Represent data as a network Nodes = People Edges /Ties = Relations (ex. Who is a friend with whom, Who replies to whom, etc.) •2) Apply Social Network Analysis (SNA) We Study Online Groups from a Network Perspective @gruzd 282014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  27. 27. • Reduce the large quantity of data into a more concise representation • Makes it easier to understand what is going on in a group Advantages of Using Social Network Analysis Once the network is discovered, we can find out: • How do people interact with each other, • Who are the most/least active members of a group, • Who is influential in a group, • Who is susceptible to being influenced, etc… @gruzd 292014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  28. 28. @John @Peter @Paul • Nodes = People • Ties = “Who retweeted/ replied/mentioned whom” • Tie strength = The number of retweets, replies or mentions Building Twitter Communication Network Anatoliy Gruzd Twitter: @gruzd
  29. 29. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/18/ukraine- police-storm-kiev-protest-camp-live-updates#start-of- comments Example: Twitter Communication Network about Ukraine 31 Tweetsabout
  30. 30. Source: Twitter Search API Request Rate: Hourly, up to 1000 tweets Time frame: Feb 18, 2014 – March 14, 2014 Tweeting about Ukraine in 3 languages Україна Украина Ukraine Presumed Language Ukrainian Russian English # Tweets 200,956 527,112 591,394 # Unique Users 46,641 141,541 246,113
  31. 31. Netlytic – Data collection and analysis tool http://netlytic.org @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution 33
  32. 32. Україна 2014-02-18 - 2014-03-14 • Dataset Name: Україна • Total Messages: 200,956 • Unique Posters : 46,641 Deadly clashes on Euromaidan in Kiev Russia approved the use of military in Ukraine Ukrainian interim Prime Minister of Ukraine visited the US @gruzd
  33. 33. Twitter Communication Network @gruzd
  34. 34. Украина 2014-02-18 - 2014-03-14 • Dataset Name:Украина • Total Messages: 527,112 • Unique Posters : 141,541 @gruzd
  35. 35. Twitter Communication Network @gruzd
  36. 36. LIFENEWS - @lifenews_ru Informatsionnyy kanal LIFENEWS – pervyy po srochnym novostyam! Eksklyuzivnyye video po samym glavnym temam dnya lifenews.ru ЄВРОМАЙДАН - @euromaidan #Євромайдан #Евромайдан #Euromaidan Ukrainian Revolution СРОЧНЫЕ НОВОСТИ (“Breaking News”) - @molnia_me First to know! Subscribe to the major topics of the day, photos, videos from the event! Голос России (“Golos Rossii”) - @ruvr_ru The official account radio "Voice of Russia" - exclusive interviews, analysis and expert commentary, Russia Alexey Venediktov - @aavst Chief editor of Ekho Moskvy radio station Fedor Shchepetov - @ruredaktor Freelance journalist, Moscow RT in Russian Verified account - @RT_russian RT news, Moscow Вести.ru Verified account - @vesti_news News TV program and television channels ''Russia 1'' and ''Russia 24‘, Russia Maxim Ponomarev - @maximcpk ⓂⒶⓧⓘⓂⒸⓅⓚ Ilya Varlamov Verified account - @varlamov Journalist, architect, photographer, founder of Urban Projects. Moscow @gruzd Top 10 Mentioned Users (mostly Russian news agencies & journalists)
  37. 37. @gruzd
  38. 38. @gruzd
  39. 39. @gruzd
  40. 40. @gruzd
  41. 41. @gruzd
  42. 42. Ukraine 2014-02-18 - 2014-03-14 • Dataset Name: Ukraine • Total Messages: 591,394 • Unique Posters : 246,113 @gruzd
  43. 43. @gruzd
  44. 44. Euromaidan PR - @EuromaidanPR Official International Public Relations Secretariat for the Headquarters of National Resistance of the EuroMaidan, Kyiv, Ukraine RT - @RT_com RT (Russia Today) is a global news channel broadcasting from Moscow and Washington studios to over 100 countries around the globe. Anonymous - @YourAnonNews YourAnonNews supports digital and AFK activism. BBC News (World) Verified - @BBCWorld News, features and analysis from BBC News (World edition). London, UK Agence France-Presse Verified - @AFP News - and the stories behind the news - from AFP's reporters around the world. France East of Brussels - @EastOfBrussels Personal Blog about the European Neighbourhood/ Association Policy (ENP/EAP) KyivPost Verified - @KyivPost The Kyiv Post is Ukraine’s leading English-language newspaper. #Kyiv, #Ukraine Christopher Miller Verified - @ChristopherJM Editor at leading English-language newspaper @KyivPost. Also freelance correspondent covering Ukraine. RPCV (Ukraine). Kyiv, Ukraine Wall Street Journal Verified - @WSJ In our 125th year, breaking news and features from the WSJ. New York, NY Reuters Top News Verified - @Reuters Top and breaking news, pictures, and videos from Reuters. Around the world @gruzd Top 10 Mentioned Users (mostly news accounts)
  45. 45. Topics over Time in Tweets that mentioned “Ukraine” @gruzd
  46. 46. @gruzd
  47. 47. @gruzd
  48. 48. @gruzd
  49. 49. @gruzd
  50. 50. @gruzd
  51. 51. @gruzd
  52. 52. @gruzd
  53. 53. Summary: Social Media Use during the 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution • First “Social Media” Revolution in Ukraine • 2004 “Orange Revolution” (Pre-social media) • Internet penetration in Ukraine ~12% (Lysenko & Desouza, 2010) • Facebook was founded in 2004, Youtube-2005, Twitter-2006, Instagram-2010 • Use of multiple social media platforms • Prior social media “revolutions” primarily focused on a single platform: Facebook revolution in Tunisia (2010/2011); Twitter revolution in Iran (2009/2010) • Content is often duplicated across multiple platforms • Social media used by both Pro & Anti Maidan activists • Pro-Western vs Pro-Russian groups • Twitter use by news agencies, activist groups, governments, elective officials and politicians • Twitter use for “locals” vs. for Westerners (in English) 56@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  54. 54. Україна (in Ukrainian) Украина (in Russian) Ukraine (in English) Source: Twitter Search API Request Rate: Hourly, up to 1000 tweets Time frame: Feb 18, 2014 – March 14, 2014 Who is Tweeting about Ukraine in 3 languages Most mentioned TwitterAccounts in public tweets that mentioned: 56@gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  55. 55. Photo credit: Karl Schönswetter #OccupyGezi: Gezi Parki Protest, Turkey (2013) 58 #OccupyGezi Supporters in Victoria, BC ? Study Implications: Can we predict a successful social movement? Can we predict movement’s longevity? @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  56. 56. Future Work • Explore the roles of isolates –lurkers, spammers, trolls, or fake accounts? 59 ? @gruzd 2014 EuroMaidan Revolution
  57. 57. THE USE OF TWITTER DURING THE 2014 CRISIS IN UKRAINE: A TALE OF THREE LANGUAGES ANATOLIYGRUZD (@GRUZD) 2015 Summer Specialist Meeting Hosted by the Center for Human Dynamics in the Mobile Age (HDMA) NSF-CDI and NSF-IBSS Project San Diego, CA, August 11-12, 2015 Associate Professor, Ted Rogers School of Management Director of the Social Media Lab Ryerson University

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