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Social media data stewardship: The ethics of social media data use for research

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Panel presented as part of the 2017 Data Power Conference (Ottawa, ON, June 23, 2017)

Anatoliy Gruzd (@gruzd), Jenna Jacobson (@jacobsonjenna), Priya Kumar (@link_priya), Philip Mai (@phmai)

Published in: Social Media
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Social media data stewardship: The ethics of social media data use for research

  1. 1. TheEthics of Social Media Data Use for Research Anatoliy Gruzd Jenna Jacobson Priya Kumar Philip Mai @gruzd @jacobsonjenna @link_priya @phmai 1 Funded by:
  2. 2. Outline 4.Research Results 3. Group Activity 2. Social Media Data Stewardship 1. About the Social Media Lab @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 2
  3. 3. We are an interdisciplinary academic research laboratory
  4. 4. ▪ Online Communities ▪ Social Network Analysis (SNA) ▪ Information Visualization & Dashboard ▪ Text Mining ▪ Distributed Computing ▪ Computer Mediated Communication ▪ Director of Research ▪ Director of Business & Communications ▪ Post Docs, Project Manager, PhD Students, Master and Undergraduate students ▪ Faculty Research Collaborators across Canada and abroad (USA, UK, Russia, Brazil, HK, S. Korea) @SMLabTO Our ExpertiseOur Team
  5. 5. At the Social Media Lab We Study… How can social media support online communities, social activism & political engagement? What does it mean to be “influential” online? How can social media help to enhance teaching & learning in higher education? Is happiness/swearing contagious online? What predicts user engagement on social media? Is information privacy dead in the social media age? @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org @SMLabTO
  6. 6. At the Social Media Lab We Organize… International Conferences and Events SocialMediaAndSociety.org AltmetricsConference.com @SMLabTO
  7. 7. At the Social Media Lab We Develop… Social Media Analytics Software @SMLabTO
  8. 8. Anatoliy Gruzd @SMLabTO SOCIAL MEDIA RESEARCH TOOLKIT socialmediadata.org A Curated List of 50+ Peer Tested & Peer Reviewed Social Media Research Tools. No Coding Required (OK…maybe some coding req.)
  9. 9. Outline 4.Research Results 3. Group Activity 2. Social Media Data Stewardship 1. About the Social Media Lab @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 9
  10. 10. 1.8B users 600M users 300M users Growth of Social Media Data
  11. 11. How to Access | Collect | Analyze | Preserve the Full Stream of Social Media Data? @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 11
  12. 12. Social Media Data Stewardship Defined Social Media Data + Data Stewardship = processes related to all aspects of managing social media data including Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 12
  13. 13. Self- collected/ reported Public APIs Data Resellers Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Collection @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 13
  14. 14. Social Media Data Stewardship: Storage and Analysis Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Cloud & Distributed Computing Data & Information Organization Analytics Visualization
  15. 15. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Last update in 2013 Social Media Data Stewardship: Publishing & Preservation + Cost prohibitive, constraints on data sharing outside the team = Limited scope / "Spritzer" version ofTwitter grabs + = = ? @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 15
  16. 16. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 16
  17. 17. Social Feed Manager https://gwu-libraries.github.io/sfm-ui/ Tweet ID Datasets http://www.docnow.io/catalog/ Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Publishing & Preservation @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 17
  18. 18. Ethical Considerations Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Ethics @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 18
  19. 19. Human Subject Research • In Canada research that involves human participants is governed by the Tri-Council Policy Statement •Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) http://pre.ethics.gc.ca/ Ethical Considerations
  20. 20. TCPS on Internet Research •REB review is also not required where research uses exclusively publicly available information that may contain identifiable information, and for which there is no reasonable expectation of privacy. •Cyber-material such as documents, records, performances, online archival materials or published third party interviews to which the public is given uncontrolled access on the Internet for which there is no expectation of privacy is considered to be publicly available information. (TCPS 2014 Ed,p.16) REB - Research Ethics Boards Ethical Considerations @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 20
  21. 21. •There are publicly accessible digital sites where there is a reasonable expectation of privacy. •When accessing identifiable information in publicly accessible digital sites, such as Internet chat rooms, and self-help groups with restricted membership, the privacy expectation of contributors of these sites is much higher. •Researchers shall submit their proposal for REB review (see Article 10.3). (TCPS 2014 Ed, p.16) Ethical Considerations @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 21 TCPS on Internet Research
  22. 22. •Where data linkage of different sources of publicly available information is involved, it could give rise to new forms of identifiable information that would raise issues of privacy and confidentiality when used in research, and would therefore require REB review (see Article 5.7). (TCPS 2014 Ed, p.16) Ethical Considerations @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 22 TCPS on Internet Research
  23. 23. Ethical Considerations Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Ethics • Objective: Develop a conceptual model of Social Media Data Stewardship based on both industry & research practices as well as social media users’ attitudes and perceptions. @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 23
  24. 24. Systematic Review of Relevant Literature (Golder et al., 2017) • Review of empirical studies on attitudes toward the ethics of research using social media • 1996 onwards, 16 databases, 2 Internet search engines • Search strategy: “social media”, “ethics”, “qualitative research” • Excluded: non-research discussion papers, individual look-ups, privacy, or security (cyberbullying, bank fraud) papers 3895 records retrieved after duplicates removed 3783 records excluded by title+abstract 132 full-text papers examined 112 papers excluded based on full-text 17 studies @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 24
  25. 25. User’s AttitudesTowardThe Ethics of Research Using Social Media What explains these discrepancies? • Research project focus • Different Methodologies • Surveys, interviews, observational • Type of Platform • Type of Data/Information • Who are the participants? • users, lurkers, researchers From Golder et al. 2017 @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 25
  26. 26. KeyTakeaways from the Literature • Social Media Research Ethics → not a one size fits all framework • Complex boundaries between publicly available data and privacy • Lack of understanding of how to uphold anonymity @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 27
  27. 27. Some factors we are examining in the Social Media Data Stewardship initiative… Whether/how users’ privacy expectations depend on … 1. Who is using their information? 2. For what purposes? and 3. What types of information? @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 28 Our focus is on publicly available social media data!
  28. 28. Outline 4.Research Results 3. Group Activity 2. Social Media Data Stewardship 1. About the Social Media Lab @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 29
  29. 29. Focus of Today’s Workshop @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 30 Who For what purpose What information
  30. 30. Examples of Social Media Data Use Facebook Who Block inappropriate content For what purpose Photos What information https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/5/15189618/facebook-revenge-porn-photo- matching
  31. 31. Examples of Social Media Data Use Security Agency Who Identify real or potential threats For what purpose Location- based information What information https://www.forbes.com/sites/kalevleetaru/2016/10/12/geofeedia-is-just-the-tip- of-the-iceberg-the-era-of-social-surveillence/#10b6941a40e2
  32. 32. Examples of Social Media Data Use Car insurance company Who Price car insurance For what purpose Facebook posts and likes What information https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/02/admiral-to-price-car- insurance-based-on-facebook-posts
  33. 33. Group Activity In a group, discuss user’s comfort level with a third-party accessing information about them or posted by them publicly on social media based on: Group1:Who • Academic researcher • Marketer • Financial institution • Employer • Journalist • Government • Legal professional • … Group2:Forwhatpurpose • Credit check • Insurance claim • Public health monitoring • Law enforcement • Political polling • Suicide prevention • Tenant application review • … Group3:Whatinformation • Posting frequency • Location • Photos • Posts • Topics • Sentiments • Communication network • Friends’ list • …
  34. 34. Prompts 1. How do you think the public would respond? 1. How do you foresee this data sensitivity might change over time? 1. Has this activity impacted your thinking of how to handle public social media data in your research? Activity • In groups, you will be given a social media activity deck • Discuss the sensitivity and comfort of social media data with your group • Place your groups’ answers on the map
  35. 35. Get Involved! Specialist Meeting (Toronto, July 27, 2017) http://socialmediadata.org/2017/specialist-meeting/ Social Media LabVisiting Scholar Program http://socialmedialab.ca/visit/ @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 38
  36. 36. Image Credit • StartupDepot [CC BY-SA 4.0] viaWikimedia Commons • https://www.flickr.com/photos/losangelesdistrict/4910928280 @SMLabTO SocialMediaData.org 39
  37. 37. TheEthics of Social Media Data Use for Research Anatoliy Gruzd Jenna Jacobson Priya Kumar Philip Mai @gruzd @jacobsonjenna @link_priya @phmai 40 Funded by:

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