FPA 2023 POLITICAL THEORY (TUTORIAL GROUP 1) JOHN LOCKE & IBNU KHALDUNUNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA BY; PRIDHIVRAJ NAIDU (127445) COLLAGE OF LAW GOVERNMENT AND PRESENTED ON;INTERNATIONAL STUDIES 24TH August 2009
CONTENTS BACKGROUND JOHN LOCKE JOHN LOCKE’S WORK JOHN LOCKE’S KEY IDEAS WHY IT LAST ? BACKGROUND IBN KHALDUN IBN KHALDUN’S WORK IBN KHALDUN’S KEY IDEAS WHY IT LAST ? COMPARING THE PHILOSOPHERS CONCLUSION
BACKGROUND OF JOHN LOCKE John Locke was born into a middle-class family on August 28, 1634, in Somerset, England. Locke received an extraordinarily diverse education from early childhood on. Born during the twenty-year English Civil War, which culminated in 1649 with the execution of Charles I and the dissolution of the House of Lords. He was born in and grew up in one of the most extraordinary centuries of English political and intellectual history. England then reinvented herself as a commonwealth where both royalty and an elected parliament would work together to govern the country.
THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR THE MAJOR EVENTS: -THE EXECUTION OF CHARLES 1 -THE DISSOLUTION OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS
JOHN LOCKE’S WORK TWO TREATIES OF GOVERNMENT John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Government. His political theory was founded on social contract theory. Social contract theory: Human nature allows men to be selfish. In a natural state all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his “life, health, liberty, or possessions.” Locke assumed that the sole right to defend in the state of nature was not enough, so people established a civil society to resolve conflicts in a civil way with help from government in a state of society.
KEY IDEAS John Locke Much of Lockes work is characterized by opposition to authoritarianism. This opposition is both on the level of the individual person and on the level of institutions such as government and church.
THE TWO TREATIES OFGOVERNMENT Consists of the 1st treaty and the 2nd treaty of government 1st treaty: the power and sovereignty of the monarchs 2nd treaty: limited power of the monarchs, :the power of the bourgeoisie,
CONSTITUTIONALMONARCHY Breaking from the second treaty, Locke have developed and created a compromising governance system. The Constitutional Monarchy . A Social contract by Locke.
BACKGROUND OF IBN KHALDUN Abu Zayd Abd al-Rahman Ibnu Khaldun received a good education. served as assistant and secretary to several government officials. career was dependent on the good will of his superiors, changed jobs frequently when political winds shifted. led an extremely eventful life, traveling to, among other places, Mecca, Damascus. Palestine and Seville, and occasionally finding enough leisure time to teach, study, and write. Among the notable personalities Ibn Khaldun encountered in his adventures were King Pedro I of Castile and Timur.
Qasr Al Kharaneh - Desert Castle (Jordan) -As shelter for traders -Located in the middle of trading route -Importance of traders to the world -As emphasized by Ibn Khaldun himself
IBN KHALDUN WORKS: THE MAGNUM OPUS "AL-MUQADDIMAH" This impressive document is a gist of his wisdom and hard earned experience. use his political and first had knowledge of the people of Maghrib to formulate many of his ideas. discussion of Tribal societies and social forces would be the most interesting part of his thesis. His theories of the science of Umran (sociology) are all pearls of wisdom
The Structure of Muqaddimah Chap 1 : Human civilization in general Chap 2 : Bedouin civilization, savage nation and tribes and their condition of life, including several basic and explanatory statements Chap 3 : On dynasties, royal authority, the caliphate, government ranks and all the goes with these things (basic & supplementary propositions) Chap 4 : Countries & cities and all forms sedentary civilization. The conditions occurring there. Primary and secondary considerations in this connection Chap 5 : On the various aspects of making a living, such as profit and the crafts. The conditions that occur in this connection. A number of problems are connected with this subject. Chap 6 : The various kinds of sciences. The methods of instruction. The conditions that obtain in these condition
IBN KHALDUN’STHOUGHTS SIASAH: Aqilah Diniyah Madaniyah
SIASAH AQILAH>THE BUILDING OF TAMADUNi) Uniting groupsii) Developing Tamadun
SIASAH DINIYAH>APEX:i) Having Free Trade Marketii) Having attractive locationiii) Submerged Tribalism
SIASAH MADANIYAH>CRACK:i) The breaking down of systemii) Increasing cheating, corruption and so oniii) Power struggle takes heed
COMPARING COMPARINGJOHN LOCKE& IBN KHALDUN JOHN LOCKE & IBN KHALDUNPRO: >The Situation now Locke : Widely accepted Ibn Khaldun: Steps are visibleCONTRA: > Background : location : time : social situation
Development Changes In use Some contra Concerning governance Is in use as an model