INTERNATIONAL THEORATICAL STATEMENT HANS.J.MORGENTHAU S.P.HUNTINGTON I WALLERSTEIN ALVIN & HEIDI TOFLER J.E.STIGLITZ
INTRODUCTION• THEORIES VARYING IN FIELDS• IMPACT: GOVERNMENT : ECONOMY : EDUCATION : SOCIAL SYSTEM
HANS J MORGENTHAU:• JEWISH THINKER; A REFUGEE OF THE GERMAN TO US• THINKING ON THE EFFECTS AND AFTERNATHS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
• There are six types of foreign aid that all have in common the transfer of money, goods and services from one state to another.1. Humanitarian2. Subsistence3. Military4. Bribery5. Prestige6. Economic Development
• A REALIST IN NATURE• SUPORTED ACTIONS OF STATE TO PROTECT ITS SOVEREIGNITY, INCLUDING WAR
BIOGRAPHY• Born: April 18, 1927 ( New York)• American political scientist• known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coup detats, and his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states. More recently, he garnered widespread attention for his analysis of threats posed to the United States by modern-day immigration.• professor at Harvard University.• came to prominence as a scholar in the 1960s with the publication of Political Order in Changing Societies, a work which challenged the conventional view of modernization theorists that economic and social progress would bring about stable democracies in recently decolonized countries.• Most known for The Clash of Civilizations.• Died: September 24, 2008 at age 81.
COLLAPSE OF USSR• The collapse of USSR in 1990 sees that the only one superpower; The United States.• He recognized the US as the lonely superpower in post cold- war and the world. Meaning that the world have unipolar system and no longer bipolar system as during the cold war. He mentioned about the emergenced of US as a lone superpower in every aspects in his article, The Lonely Superpower.• According to him, due to its superpower or hegemon in a unipolar system, The US simply give order and make control over economic and other aspect. The others are not allowed or prevent to do it. This situation much differs when the USSR or Soviet Union are along the same power with US and this limit the emphasizing power by the US.
• To him, the collapse of Soviet Union or USSR and the end of the Cold War produced changes in three central aspects of the global geopolitical and strategic environment: the global power structure; the bases for the alignment and antagonism of states;and the prevailing of type of war in the world.• These developments have significantly affected the American role in global affairs.
POST COLD WAR• In his famous article, The clash of civilization its describe about peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. Meaning that the great division among people all over the world would be because of the Civilization(cultural, western, religion and etc.• To him, it is no longer because of different ideologies as it was the main conflict during the cold war. What is matter in the post-Cold war is cultural problems and misunderstood among others.
EMERGENCE OF NEW CHINA• After the Cold War, the rising of China are captured by many attentions to the world.• China shifted from closed policies to open policies and this brought this country onto the economic world of stage. Due to this effective and massive emergence of China, Huntington called this as “the Rising of China”.• He also saw that there will be most potentially rivalries or competitions between The United States and China
I WALLERSTEIN• Key idea:• World system theory• Dependency theory
Dependency theory• Periphery & core• Developed nation & underdeveloped nation• Creation of semi periphery• Involvement and effects on the economy• Cause and effects
ALVIN & HEIDI TOFFLER• KEY IDEAS:• In his three famous book work is Future Shock (1970), The Third Wave (1980), and Power Shift (1990).• Future Shock.• -is the process of change on affects people and organizations.• -he define the disorientation the loss of proper bearings or a sate of mental confusion as to time, place or identity and breakdown of decision making capacity that afflicts the individuals, groups, and the whole society when they are overwhelmed.
2. power shift:• -Toffler tries to analysis with make explore on how individuals, organizations and nations will e affected by inevitable changes in the way power is perceived and applied.• -power shift here means big level changing in the very nature.• 3)The third wave.• -in this book, Toffler describes three types societies based on waves concepts which each wave pushes the older societies and cultures aside.• -for the first wave, society is arising after agrarian culture.• -for second waves, the society involved in the industrial revolution.(1600-1900).• For the third wave, the society involved in the post industrial industry.
THE COLLAPSE OF USSR-He predicted the collapse of USSR would become about due primarily to its authoritarian control and limiting of information .-this old habit has continued for them beyond the collapse of USSR.-This is happened when its social relations of production obstruct the further development of its means of production.
THE EMERGENCE OF NEW CHINA-the impact of the third wave to China to change their country.-china accept new goods and technology-everything come from education.
J E STIGLITZ Joseph Eugene Stiglitz was born on February 9,1943. Stiglitz received a Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences on 2001 and the John Bates Clark Medal 0n 1979.
• He was known for his critical view of the management of globalization and free-market economists.• Stiglitz founded the Iniative for Policy Dialogue (IPD).• He held the rank of University Professor since 2003 and also chairs the University of Manchester’s Brooks World Poverty Institute
BIOGRAPHY• Stiglitz was born in Gary,Indiana to Jewish parents .• He received his education from Amherst College in 1960 untill 1963.• Yet, he went to the Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT) for his fourth year as an undergraduate, where he later pursued graduate work.
• then he moved to the University of Chicago to do research under Hirofumi Uzawa.• had received an NSF grant from 1965 to 1966 and continued his studies in order to get PhD in MIT which took one year to finish.
CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMY1. Information asymmetry -Screening’ which is a technique used by one economic agent to extract otherwise private information from another is one of Stiglitzs most famous research. -He was assumed that "whenever markets are incomplete or information is imperfect (which are true in virtually all economies), even competitive market allocation is not constrained Pareto efficient.
2. Efficiency wages: the Shapiro-Stiglitz model -Stiglitz also did some research on efficiency wages where it was called as the "Shapiro- Stiglitz model“ -humans can choose their level of effort unlike other forms of capital and it is costly for firms to determine how much effort workers are exerting.
-there are several key implications of this model like Wages do not fall enough during recessions to prevent unemployment from rising. -another key implications of this model is‘possible corollary’ where firms cannot cutwages until unemployment rises sufficiently (acoordination problem).
3. Some possible practical implications of Stiglitz theorems. -Stiglitzs use of rational-expectations equilibrium assumptions to achieve a more realistic understanding of capitalism. -Yet, the effect of Stiglitzs influence is to make economics even more presumptively interventionist than Samuelson preferred.
According to Stiglitz, financial markets had lent on the basis of a bubble which a bubble in large part of their making. -The Lehmans episode demonstrates that incompetence has a price. That there would be serious problems in our financial institutions was apparent since early 2007, with the bursting of the bubble.
CONCLUSION• Interelated• Effects every one in the system