UNIVERSITI UTARA
MALAYSIA
COLLAGE OF LAW, GOVERNMENT AND
INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FPP 3073
COMPARATIVE POLITICS
MYANMAR:
EXEC...
INTRODUCTION
 Myanmar
 Military administration
 Systematic Control
 The strength & weaknesses of the
state from variou...
The government was included Executive
Legislative
Judiciary
 Those three branches are separated and balance among themse...
The head of Pyidaungsu (union) government is the head of executive
which is
the President of the state.
 The executive p...
In sharing of the executive power the President will be responsible to the
Pyidaungsu Hluttaw on the other hand the Vice-...
The executive power of leading body of self-administered divisions and self-
administered zones also has some powers :
•p...
Politics is a process where groups of people make collective directions.
 The government of Burma now known as Myanmar i...
Historically, Burma was a monarchy ruled by various previous empires during
the 19th century.
The British colonized Burm...
Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the
general, and almost all aspects of societ...
During the Period of military government ,SLORC has assumed the state
responsibilities in September 1988.
 The Governmen...
Because of this ,the 1990 election was held with the sole objective of
electing the representatives to draft a new consti...
BURMESE WAY TO
SOCIALISM
 In Myanmar, the first military coup was happened in 1962 when
the elected government of U Nu was overthrown by army chie...
Specifically, it is actually an economic treaties written in April
1962 by the revolutionary council as a blueprint for e...
FUNDAMENTAL
 In setting forth their programmes as well as in their execution the
Revolutionary Council will study and app...
In whatever situations and difficulties the Revolutionary Council may find itself
it will strive for advancement in accor...
 all private foreign aid organizations and the public information libraries of
embassies were forced to leave including t...
8888 Uprising
 was a series of marches, demonstrations, protests, and riots in the Socialist
Republic of the Union of Burma
 Occurred ...
 Thousands of deaths have been attributed to the military during
this uprising, while authorities in Myanmar put the figu...
 As a direct consequence of the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the
SLORC announced that key aspects of the ‘Burm...
Political condition
Cont….
 is battle for the democracy
 However, the period of 1848 to 1962, political instability.
 D...
 In 2003, General Khin Nyunt head of SPDC was announced a 7 step road
map to build a “modern, democratic, prosperous stat...
Cont……..
The current political situation in Myanmar
 However, the NLD was decided not to participate in the Convention
be...
 Although, the ethnic groups have signed peace with the SPDC
 But, there are renewed fighting when
• the government trie...
Cont…..
Political culture
 There 3 levels in political culture :- System level
Process level
Policy level
Armed conflict...
The legitimacy in Myanmar political system is low and violated because the
citizens not accepted to obey the laws and the...
The process level is the output of political system, it can be the constitution,
laws or acts and so forth.
For instance...
 Discriminatory and violate on the aspects in freedoms of expression, peaceful
assembly and or association.
 They also a...
EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT
POLICY MAKING
1. Political effectiveness
2. Freedom from internal control
3. Effective, fair p...
EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT
POLICY MAKING
7. Foreign currency transactions
8. Honest government
9. Institutional stability...
ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT
IN MYANMAR
 Economy was disrupted by the World War ll. To recover this
failed economy the Myanmar government’s has been to
rehabilit...
 Economy development in three chronology segments of its political
economy
1) Parliamentary democracy in 1948 until 1962
...
 Donor society took a critical stance toward the military regime on account of
its poor human rights record
 this newly-...
 Myanmar’s trade volume per capita is still lower than those of the other new
ASEAN members or countries, including Cambo...
Period political system economy system
1) 1948-62
(1958-60)
parliamentary democracy
system
(AFPFL)
Military caretaker gove...
CONCLUSION
 The political situation in Myanmar,
Propelled by the military junta effects
the economy and civilian lifestyl...
THANK YOU
Myanmar - Politics
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Myanmar - Politics

  1. 1. UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA COLLAGE OF LAW, GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FPP 3073 COMPARATIVE POLITICS MYANMAR: EXECUTIVE & POLITICAL RELATIONS PRESENTED ON: 26th SEPTEMBER 2010
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Myanmar  Military administration  Systematic Control  The strength & weaknesses of the state from various points of development.
  3. 3. The government was included Executive Legislative Judiciary  Those three branches are separated and balance among themselves.  Those three branches of sovereign state powers are separated and distributed among :Pyidaungsu, :regions, :states, :self administered areas. The executive branch of the federal government will established by the departments and agencies that take political direction from the President, including the cabinet-level departments.
  4. 4. The head of Pyidaungsu (union) government is the head of executive which is the President of the state.  The executive power of the state is distributed among the administrative organs of Pyidaungsu, regions and states.  Besides that, self-administrative power is distributed to the self- administered areas as specify by the State Constitution. With the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ,The president of the state will • elect the Union government ministries. • allocate the number of Union Ministers as necessary and can increase or reduce the allocated number. • can make changes to the elected ministries.
  5. 5. In sharing of the executive power the President will be responsible to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw on the other hand the Vice-Presidents will be responsible to the President and also to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw through the President.  From the executive authority ,The President of the Union, can deal with law, • when he appoint and recall the diplomats of the country, • agree on the appointment of foreign diplomats • send information on the recall and also when accept the letters of accreditatio presented by foreign diplomats. CONTT…….
  6. 6. The executive power of leading body of self-administered divisions and self- administered zones also has some powers : •power to make laws •power to implement matters in accord with any law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw , respective Region or State Hluttaws.  The President intends to establish or sever diplomatic relations with foreign nations with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. But in the cases which need immediate action, the President shall coordinate with the National Defence and Security Council to sever diplomatic relations with foreign nations, and he will seek the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw concerning the action taken by him.
  7. 7. Politics is a process where groups of people make collective directions.  The government of Burma now known as Myanmar is a unitary nation where controlled by the military (Tatmadaw)or junta which was including seven states and seven divisions in the form of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).  A military dictatorship is a form of government where in the political power resides with the military.  A parliamentary government was elected in 1990, but the military prevented it from convening. Political relation
  8. 8. Historically, Burma was a monarchy ruled by various previous empires during the 19th century. The British colonized Burma in the late 19th century and it was under the jurisdiction of the British Raj until 1937. Burma was ruled as a British colony from the 1820s until 1948. Later, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Finally Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a military revolution.
  9. 9. Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general, and almost all aspects of society which are business, media, and production were nationalized or brought under government control.  SLORC changed the country's official English name from the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989.  Elections were last held in Myanmar in 1990, two years after the 1988 coup staged by the SLORC.  In 1993 a new Constitution draft by National Convention was established.  SLORC changed its name in 1997 to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).
  10. 10. During the Period of military government ,SLORC has assumed the state responsibilities in September 1988.  The Government has managed to bring 17.5 of the 18 armed insurgent groups into the legal fold.  This is a major achievement for Myanmar which managed to establish national unity, peace and stability.  The military government and SLORC after assuming the state responsibilities rejected the One-Party Socialist System and the Socialist Economy to pursue a Multi-Party Democratic System with a Market-Oriented Economy.
  11. 11. Because of this ,the 1990 election was held with the sole objective of electing the representatives to draft a new constitution.  Myanmar had most of the armed groups which have now returned to the legal fold were active as insurgent groups and the situation was very fluid and tense. In the transition period, Market-Oriented Economy was introduced and implemented in the economic sector while on the political sector priority was given to an emergence of a new Constitution which will be compatible with the Multi-Party democratic system and which will also ensure peace and stability among the national races in the country.
  12. 12. BURMESE WAY TO SOCIALISM
  13. 13.  In Myanmar, the first military coup was happened in 1962 when the elected government of U Nu was overthrown by army chief General Ne Win who opposed the idea of federalist constitution.  SO, Burmese Way to socialism is refers to the ideology of the socialist regime in Burma (1962-1988). It has been described as Marxist, anti-Western, neutralist and socialist in nature.  PURPOSE: create a socialist based government, economies and social development.
  14. 14. Specifically, it is actually an economic treaties written in April 1962 by the revolutionary council as a blueprint for economic development, reducing the foreign influence in Burma and increasing the role of military. Some scholars has been described it as xenophobic because the military had turn down the most prosperous state in Asia into the world most poorest nation. But, it increased domestic stability and keeping Burma from being as entangled in the Cold War struggles that affected other Southeast Asian nations.
  15. 15. FUNDAMENTAL  In setting forth their programmes as well as in their execution the Revolutionary Council will study and appraise the concrete realities and also the natural conditions peculiar to Burma objectively. On the basis of the actual findings derived from such study and appraisal it will develop its own ways and means to progress.  In its activities the Revolutionary Council will strive for self-improvement by way of self-criticism. Having learnt from contemporary history the evils of deviation towards right or left the Council will with vigilance avoid any such deviation.
  16. 16. In whatever situations and difficulties the Revolutionary Council may find itself it will strive for advancement in accordance with the times, conditions, environment and the ever changing circumstances, keeping at heart the basic interests of the nation. The Revolutionary Council will diligently seek all ways and means whereby it can formulate and carry out such programmes as are of real and practical value for the well-being of the nation. In doing so it will critically observe, study and avail itself of the opportunities provided by progressive ideas, theories and experiences at home, or abroad without discrimination between one country of origin and another.
  17. 17.  all private foreign aid organizations and the public information libraries of embassies were forced to leave including the World bank.  Some 15,000 firms and businesses were nationalized.  Few Burmese were allowed to leave legally, while visas for foreigners were severely restricted—to 24-hours for part of that period.  However, the government sponsored travel of students, scientist and technicians to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe to receive a training .  Outside information was obstructed through controlled imports of news and a state-dominated press, while there were few shortwave radios at that time.  Economic system collapsed within five years.  A rebellion from the Burmese people – the 8888 incident.
  18. 18. 8888 Uprising
  19. 19.  was a series of marches, demonstrations, protests, and riots in the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma  Occurred on August 8, 1988, and from this (1988-08-08), it is known as the "8888 Uprising".  was started by students in Yangon (Rangoon) on August 8, 1988. Student protests spread throughout the country.  Hundreds of thousands of ochre-robed monks, young children, university students, housewives, and doctors demonstrated against the regime.  Ended on September 18, after a bloody military coup by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC).
  20. 20.  Thousands of deaths have been attributed to the military during this uprising, while authorities in Myanmar put the figure at around 350 people killed.  During the crisis, Aung San Suu Kyi emerged as a national icon.  It was the impact from the nationalization policies .  In September a group of generals organized by Ne Win and led by General Saw Maung took power, announced the formation of the State Law and Order Restoration Committee (SLORC), and imposed martial law.
  21. 21.  As a direct consequence of the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the SLORC announced that key aspects of the ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’ were to be abandoned in favors of greater private sector participation, its so-called ‘Open-Door’ program of economic reforms.  Applied to foreign trade, a move seen by some as designed to lessen international criticism of the regime, and it was followed by a slow process of market reforms that created a new business class tied to the generals.  Elections were held in 1990 to increase international legitimacy and foreign aid but the landslide victory the leading opposition group, the National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Aung San Suu Kyi, was entirely unanticipated by the junta who refused to hand over power.  Ended by the time of the Asian financial crisis of1997 and yet failed to restore an economy stability in Myanmar.
  22. 22. Political condition Cont….  is battle for the democracy  However, the period of 1848 to 1962, political instability.  Democratic Parliamentary Gov Military gov + socialist economic policies Prime Minister U NU 1962 General Ne Win
  23. 23.  In 2003, General Khin Nyunt head of SPDC was announced a 7 step road map to build a “modern, democratic, prosperous state”.  Besides the Roadmap, a new constitution was drafted in 2007/2008 and a referendum was held on 10 May 2008.  The 1st step of road map is the National Convention was reconvened in 2004 Cont…………  In March1988 :- student demonstration  In 1990 :- elections by the SLORC  The victory of the election is Aung San Suu Kvi’s National League for Democracy (NLD)
  24. 24. Cont…….. The current political situation in Myanmar  However, the NLD was decided not to participate in the Convention because:- • the SPDC was refused to meet their conditions • including the release of ASSK and • U Tin Oo and the re-opening of NLD offices  The structure of road map headed by the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) Thousands of Burmese refugees to flee to neighbor countries to survive their life.  More than 30 ethnic armed groups have been against the central government since 1948
  25. 25.  Although, the ethnic groups have signed peace with the SPDC  But, there are renewed fighting when • the government tries to force the ethnic armies to surrender their weapons • form a special Border Guard Force under Burmese military control.  If the political situation in Myanmar is continuous like this, it may be new refugees around 200,000 would happen and also increased in the armed within the minorities  On August 2007 :- pro-democracy groups started marches & demonstration  On 28 August 2007 :- demonstration by monks
  26. 26. Cont….. Political culture  There 3 levels in political culture :- System level Process level Policy level Armed conflict continues although government had ceasefire arrangements with several armed groups. The system level is poor because the citizens have a low pride and the sense of their nationality is not respect by the military rule. The military regime is discriminated the minorities in the political system through the participation in nation’s politics.
  27. 27. The legitimacy in Myanmar political system is low and violated because the citizens not accepted to obey the laws and the minorities often resort to violence in the country in order to oppose the disagreement with military government Cont….  The process level in Myanmar , the citizen’s role in political process at the level of subjects and parochial.  Where the some citizens of Myanmar as a subject which they obey government official and law, however they do not vote or actively involved in politics. Besides that, the ethnic minorities citizens as a parochial, where they uneducated people, mostly living in remote areas and they also not care about Myanmar politics.
  28. 28. The process level is the output of political system, it can be the constitution, laws or acts and so forth. For instance, the seven steps road map was drafted by the military government came up with a new constitution Human Rights  Among the human rights violations against the individuals and groups of represent political activity :- arbitrary arrest, unfair trials resulting imprisonment, torture & executions  For instance, Myanmar’s estimated 400,000 Buddhist monks are also explicitly barred from voting.
  29. 29.  Discriminatory and violate on the aspects in freedoms of expression, peaceful assembly and or association.  They also against the human rights on women and there are a child soldiers in the country.
  30. 30. EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY MAKING 1. Political effectiveness 2. Freedom from internal control 3. Effective, fair police force 4. Communication System 5. Transportation 6. Social Mobility PRIDIV
  31. 31. EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY MAKING 7. Foreign currency transactions 8. Honest government 9. Institutional stability 10. High wage policies 11. Foreign trade impact 12. International security agreements PRIDIV
  32. 32. ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT IN MYANMAR
  33. 33.  Economy was disrupted by the World War ll. To recover this failed economy the Myanmar government’s has been to rehabilitate, modernize, and diversify the economy.  Foreign companies, all banks, the entire transport system and much domestic trade, and all the main branches of industry have been nationalized Showed declines in output, while others were hard pressed to hold their own  Economic development preceded slowly under the four-year plan for 1974–1978 and the 1978–1982 development programs
  34. 34.  Economy development in three chronology segments of its political economy 1) Parliamentary democracy in 1948 until 1962 2) Socialist period under military rule in 1962 until 1988 3) Market – Orientated under military rule in 1988 until the present  Socialist period-Myanmar government pursued self-reliance in both political and economic terms for many years.  idea was translated into a closed-door or inward-looking policy actually adopted from the control-oriented socialist economic system as the political policy and guideline for the future development of the nation  Militarily came to power and rule the government replace the Myanmar socialist government, ODA
  35. 35.  Donor society took a critical stance toward the military regime on account of its poor human rights record  this newly-born government encountered a serious foreign currency shortage.  This military regime government shifted its policy from Socialist to liberalizing international trade which allowed the foreign investment in the Myanmar state. This transition to an open market economy in Myanmar means the adoption of an open-door policy as regards the international economy.  The external trade to a private enterprise greatly increased the number of exporters and importers in Myanmar. Accordingly, the trade volume grew state that Myanmar’s exports increased by 6.8 times between 1985 and 2003 and during the same period its imports grew by 5.5 times.
  36. 36.  Myanmar’s trade volume per capita is still lower than those of the other new ASEAN members or countries, including Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam where this all country have launched their drive toward a market economy at the same time as Myanmar.  Myanmar economy growth became slower because the trade and the foreign direct investment which is more important for countries development never increase and it led to slow growth.  The decrease in trade caused by the slow growth of exports is thought the lie in the government’s maintenance of a monopoly and restrictions on major export items  The slower growth of exports combined with the rapid expansion of import generated a huge trade deficit which in 1997 reached US $ 1879.9 million, 1.7 times larger than Myanmar’s exports in that year. At the same time, the inflow of foreign direct investment dropped sharply because of the Asian Economic Crisis of 1997 this confronted occur by a several shortage of foreign currency where the government reacted by applying a series of restrictions on trade and on the foreign exchange system.
  37. 37. Period political system economy system 1) 1948-62 (1958-60) parliamentary democracy system (AFPFL) Military caretaker government A mix of nationalism, socialism market Same as above 2) March 1962 to (1964-74) (1974-88) Socialist military revolutionary council of the Military Burmese way to socialism under military rule one party system (BSPP) nationalization and Burmanizatiton 1988 command economy, self- reliance isolation same as above except for re re-acceptance of ODA loans and partial reforms 3) Sept 1988 to present military rule (SLORC/SPDC) transition toward a market –oriented economy in the first half of the 1990s.
  38. 38. CONCLUSION  The political situation in Myanmar, Propelled by the military junta effects the economy and civilian lifestyle of the state severely  Also the iron fist of the government badly affected the economic growth, also the
  39. 39. THANK YOU

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