COLLAGE OF LAW, GOVERNMENT AND
EXECUTIVE & POLITICAL
26th SEPTEMBER 2010
The strength & weaknesses of the
state from various points of
The government was included Executive
Those three branches are separated and balance among themselves.
Those three branches of sovereign state powers are separated and
:self administered areas.
The executive branch of the federal government will established by the
departments and agencies that take political direction from the President,
including the cabinet-level departments.
The head of Pyidaungsu (union) government is the head of executive
the President of the state.
The executive power of the state is distributed among the administrative
of Pyidaungsu, regions and states.
Besides that, self-administrative power is distributed to the self-
areas as specify by the State Constitution.
With the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ,The president of the
• elect the Union government ministries.
• allocate the number of Union Ministers as necessary and can
reduce the allocated number.
• can make changes to the elected ministries.
In sharing of the executive power the President will be responsible to the
Pyidaungsu Hluttaw on the other hand the Vice-Presidents will be responsible to
the President and also to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw through the President.
From the executive authority ,The President of the Union, can deal with law,
• when he appoint and recall the diplomats of the country,
• agree on the appointment of foreign diplomats
• send information on the recall and also when accept the letters of
accreditatio presented by foreign diplomats.
The executive power of leading body of self-administered divisions and self-
administered zones also has some powers :
•power to make laws
•power to implement matters in accord with any law enacted by the
Pyidaungsu Hluttaw , respective Region or State Hluttaws.
The President intends to establish or sever diplomatic relations with foreign
nations with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw.
But in the cases which need immediate action, the President shall coordinate
with the National Defence and Security Council to sever diplomatic relations
with foreign nations, and he will seek the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
concerning the action taken by him.
Politics is a process where groups of people make collective directions.
The government of Burma now known as Myanmar is a unitary nation where
controlled by the military (Tatmadaw)or junta which was including seven states
and seven divisions in the form of the State Peace and Development Council
A military dictatorship is a form of government where in the political power
resides with the military.
A parliamentary government was elected in 1990, but the military prevented it
Historically, Burma was a monarchy ruled by various previous empires during
the 19th century.
The British colonized Burma in the late 19th century and it was under the
jurisdiction of the British Raj until 1937. Burma was ruled as a British colony
from the 1820s until 1948.
Later, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma,
with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister.
Finally Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a military
Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the
general, and almost all aspects of society which are business, media, and production
were nationalized or brought under government control.
SLORC changed the country's official English name from the "Socialist Republic
of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989.
Elections were last held in Myanmar in 1990, two years after the 1988 coup staged
by the SLORC.
In 1993 a new Constitution draft by National Convention was established.
SLORC changed its name in 1997 to the State Peace and Development Council
During the Period of military government ,SLORC has assumed the state
responsibilities in September 1988.
The Government has managed to bring 17.5 of the 18 armed insurgent
groups into the legal fold.
This is a major achievement for Myanmar which managed to establish
national unity, peace and stability.
The military government and SLORC after assuming the state responsibilities
rejected the One-Party Socialist System and the Socialist Economy to pursue a
Multi-Party Democratic System with a Market-Oriented Economy.
Because of this ,the 1990 election was held with the sole objective of
electing the representatives to draft a new constitution.
Myanmar had most of the armed groups which have now returned to the
legal fold were active as insurgent groups and the situation was very fluid
In the transition period, Market-Oriented Economy was introduced and
implemented in the economic sector while on the political sector priority was
given to an emergence of a new Constitution which will be compatible with the
Multi-Party democratic system and which will also ensure peace and stability
among the national races in the country.
In Myanmar, the first military coup was happened in 1962 when
the elected government of U Nu was overthrown by army chief
General Ne Win who opposed the idea of federalist constitution.
SO, Burmese Way to socialism is refers to the ideology of the
socialist regime in Burma (1962-1988). It has been described as
Marxist, anti-Western, neutralist and socialist in nature.
PURPOSE: create a socialist based government, economies and
Specifically, it is actually an economic treaties written in April
1962 by the revolutionary council as a blueprint for economic
development, reducing the foreign influence in Burma and
increasing the role of military.
Some scholars has been described it as xenophobic because the
military had turn down the most prosperous state in Asia into the
world most poorest nation.
But, it increased domestic stability and keeping Burma from being
as entangled in the Cold War struggles that affected other
Southeast Asian nations.
In setting forth their programmes as well as in their execution the
Revolutionary Council will study and appraise the concrete realities and also
the natural conditions peculiar to Burma objectively. On the basis of the actual
findings derived from such study and appraisal it will develop its own ways
and means to progress.
In its activities the Revolutionary Council will strive for self-improvement by
way of self-criticism. Having learnt from contemporary history the evils of
deviation towards right or left the Council will with vigilance avoid any such
In whatever situations and difficulties the Revolutionary Council may find itself
it will strive for advancement in accordance with the times, conditions,
environment and the ever changing circumstances, keeping at heart the basic
interests of the nation.
The Revolutionary Council will diligently seek all ways and means whereby it
can formulate and carry out such programmes as are of real and practical value
for the well-being of the nation. In doing so it will critically observe, study and
avail itself of the opportunities provided by progressive ideas, theories and
experiences at home, or abroad without discrimination between one country of
origin and another.
all private foreign aid organizations and the public information libraries of
embassies were forced to leave including the World bank.
Some 15,000 firms and businesses were nationalized.
Few Burmese were allowed to leave legally, while visas for foreigners were
severely restricted—to 24-hours for part of that period.
However, the government sponsored travel of students, scientist and
technicians to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe to receive a training .
Outside information was obstructed through controlled imports of news and a
state-dominated press, while there were few shortwave radios at that time.
Economic system collapsed within five years.
A rebellion from the Burmese people – the 8888 incident.
was a series of marches, demonstrations, protests, and riots in the Socialist
Republic of the Union of Burma
Occurred on August 8, 1988, and from this (1988-08-08), it is known as the
was started by students in Yangon (Rangoon) on August 8, 1988. Student
protests spread throughout the country.
Hundreds of thousands of ochre-robed monks, young children, university
students, housewives, and doctors demonstrated against the regime.
Ended on September 18, after a bloody military coup by the State Law and
Order Restoration Council (SLORC).
Thousands of deaths have been attributed to the military during
this uprising, while authorities in Myanmar put the figure at
around 350 people killed.
During the crisis, Aung San Suu Kyi emerged as a national icon.
It was the impact from the nationalization policies .
In September a group of generals organized by Ne Win and led by
General Saw Maung took power, announced the formation of the
State Law and Order Restoration Committee (SLORC), and
imposed martial law.
As a direct consequence of the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the
SLORC announced that key aspects of the ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’ were
to be abandoned in favors of greater private sector participation, its so-called
‘Open-Door’ program of economic reforms.
Applied to foreign trade, a move seen by some as designed to lessen
international criticism of the regime, and it was followed by a slow process of
market reforms that created a new business class tied to the generals.
Elections were held in 1990 to increase international legitimacy and foreign aid
but the landslide victory the leading opposition group, the National League for
Democracy (NLD) led by Aung San Suu Kyi, was entirely unanticipated by the
junta who refused to hand over power.
Ended by the time of the Asian financial crisis of1997 and yet failed to restore
an economy stability in Myanmar.
is battle for the democracy
However, the period of 1848 to 1962, political instability.
Democratic Parliamentary Gov Military gov + socialist economic policies
In 2003, General Khin Nyunt head of SPDC was announced a 7 step road
map to build a “modern, democratic, prosperous state”.
Besides the Roadmap, a new constitution was drafted in 2007/2008 and a
referendum was held on 10 May 2008.
The 1st step of road map is the National Convention was reconvened in 2004
In March1988 :- student demonstration
In 1990 :- elections by the SLORC
The victory of the election is Aung San Suu Kvi’s National
League for Democracy (NLD)
The current political situation in Myanmar
However, the NLD was decided not to participate in the Convention
• the SPDC was refused to meet their conditions
• including the release of ASSK and
• U Tin Oo and the re-opening of NLD offices
The structure of road map headed by the Union Solidarity and Development
Thousands of Burmese refugees to flee to neighbor countries to survive their life.
More than 30 ethnic armed groups have been against the central government
Although, the ethnic groups have signed peace with the SPDC
But, there are renewed fighting when
• the government tries to force the ethnic armies to surrender their weapons
• form a special Border Guard Force under Burmese military control.
If the political situation in Myanmar is continuous like this, it may be new
refugees around 200,000 would happen and also increased in the armed within
On August 2007 :- pro-democracy groups started marches & demonstration
On 28 August 2007 :- demonstration by monks
There 3 levels in political culture :- System level
Armed conflict continues although government had ceasefire arrangements
with several armed groups.
The system level is poor because the citizens have a low pride and the sense of
their nationality is not respect by the military rule.
The military regime is discriminated the minorities in the political system
through the participation in nation’s politics.
The legitimacy in Myanmar political system is low and violated because the
citizens not accepted to obey the laws and the minorities often resort to violence
in the country in order to oppose the disagreement with military government
The process level in Myanmar , the citizen’s role in political process at the level
of subjects and parochial.
Where the some citizens of Myanmar as a subject which they obey
government official and law, however they do not vote or actively involved in
Besides that, the ethnic minorities citizens as a parochial, where they
uneducated people, mostly living in remote areas and they also not care about
The process level is the output of political system, it can be the constitution,
laws or acts and so forth.
For instance, the seven steps road map was drafted by the military government
came up with a new constitution
Among the human rights violations against the individuals and groups of represent
political activity :- arbitrary arrest,
unfair trials resulting imprisonment,
torture & executions
For instance, Myanmar’s estimated 400,000 Buddhist monks are also explicitly
barred from voting.
Discriminatory and violate on the aspects in freedoms of expression, peaceful
assembly and or association.
They also against the human rights on women and there are a child soldiers in the
EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT
1. Political effectiveness
2. Freedom from internal control
3. Effective, fair police force
4. Communication System
6. Social Mobility
EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT
7. Foreign currency transactions
8. Honest government
9. Institutional stability
10. High wage policies
11. Foreign trade impact
12. International security agreements
Economy was disrupted by the World War ll. To recover this
failed economy the Myanmar government’s has been to
rehabilitate, modernize, and diversify the economy.
Foreign companies, all banks, the entire transport system and
much domestic trade, and all the main branches of industry have
Showed declines in output, while others were hard pressed to
hold their own
Economic development preceded slowly under the four-year
plan for 1974–1978 and the 1978–1982 development programs
Economy development in three chronology segments of its political
1) Parliamentary democracy in 1948 until 1962
2) Socialist period under military rule in 1962 until 1988
3) Market – Orientated under military rule in 1988 until the present
Socialist period-Myanmar government pursued self-reliance in both political
and economic terms for many years.
idea was translated into a closed-door or inward-looking policy
actually adopted from the control-oriented socialist economic
system as the political policy and guideline for the future
development of the nation
Militarily came to power and rule the government replace the Myanmar
socialist government, ODA
Donor society took a critical stance toward the military regime on account of
its poor human rights record
this newly-born government encountered a serious foreign currency
This military regime government shifted its policy from Socialist to
liberalizing international trade which allowed the foreign investment in the
Myanmar state. This transition to an open market economy in Myanmar
means the adoption of an open-door policy as regards the international
The external trade to a private enterprise greatly increased the number of
exporters and importers in Myanmar. Accordingly, the trade volume grew
state that Myanmar’s exports increased by 6.8 times between 1985 and 2003
and during the same period its imports grew by 5.5 times.
Myanmar’s trade volume per capita is still lower than those of the other new
ASEAN members or countries, including Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam where
this all country have launched their drive toward a market economy at the same
time as Myanmar.
Myanmar economy growth became slower because the trade and the foreign
direct investment which is more important for countries development never
increase and it led to slow growth.
The decrease in trade caused by the slow growth of exports is thought the lie in
the government’s maintenance of a monopoly and restrictions on major export
The slower growth of exports combined with the rapid expansion of import
generated a huge trade deficit which in 1997 reached US $ 1879.9 million, 1.7
times larger than Myanmar’s exports in that year. At the same time, the inflow of
foreign direct investment dropped sharply because of the Asian Economic Crisis
of 1997 this confronted occur by a several shortage of foreign currency where the
government reacted by applying a series of restrictions on trade and on the foreign
Period political system economy system
Military caretaker government
A mix of nationalism,
Same as above
2) March 1962
revolutionary council of the
Burmese way to socialism
military rule one party system
command economy, self-
same as above except for
re-acceptance of ODA
loans and partial
3) Sept 1988 to
military rule (SLORC/SPDC) transition toward a market
economy in the first half of
The political situation in Myanmar,
Propelled by the military junta effects
the economy and civilian lifestyle of
the state severely
Also the iron fist of the government
badly affected the economic growth,