BSMH 5093Managing Change &CommunicationArticle ReviewOPPORTUNITY TOREDUCE RESISTANCE TO CHANGEIN A PROCESS OFORGANIZATIONAL CHANGEBy;PRIDHIVRAJ NAIDU814284UNIVERSITI UTARAMALAYSIAOTHMAN YEOP ABDULLAHGRADUATE SCHOOL OFBUSINESS
Presentation Overview1. IntroductionChange Model as a 3 part process2. Research results Kotter’s 8 step model J. Ivancevich, James H. Donnely and JamesGibson (1989) model The Prediscon model3. Factors of Resistance4. Steps Emergency Change
Research results• Many models that do not contain explicitly the step ofreducing resistance to changeA relevant example is the model Florescu and Popescu(1988)• In many models the phase of reducing resistance tochange can be inferred from the presentation of actions• Discussed in the article:1. Kotters eight step change model2. J. Ivancevich, James H. Donnely and JamesGibson (1989)3. The Prediscan Model
1. Kotter’s 8 step model• Increase urgency• Build the guiding team• Get the vision right• Communicate to buy-in• Empower action• Create short term-wins• Don’t let up• Make change stick
2. J. Ivancevich, James H.Donnely and James Gibson (1989)1.Understanding the factors that trigger change2.Recognition the need for change3.Diagnosis of the problem4.Identification of the methods and alternativesthat will make the change5.Presenting the existing conditions6.Selecting the method7.Overcome the resistance to change8.Implementing and coordination ofchange.
3. The Prediscan Model1. Awareness of the need for change1.1. Data collection and analysis;1.2. Identifying the need for change;1.3. Evaluation of change and choice of the bestvariant(s).2. Design of the change2.1. Develop the implementation schedule of the change;2.2. Reducing resistance to change;3. Implementing change3.1. The actual implementation3.2. Monitoring, analysis and evaluation of the results3.3. Improving the change
Factors of resistance• The employees opposition to the managers proposalsmay strengthen or weaken• Depending on the expressions of the following elements:1. organizational culture2. characteristics of the environment3. the nature of the activities of the organization4. emergency of change5. the extent to which the rhythm of change required bymanagers is supported by employees6. management style7. type of organizational structure8. the quality of the organizations information system, etc.
Emergency changeThe reversal of the order of the stagesof a process of organizational change1. Identify necessary changes2. Implementing change3. Reducing resistance to change
UNIVERSITI UTARAMALAYSIAOTHMAN YEOP ABDULLAHGRADUATE SCHOOL OFBUSINESSBSMH 5093Managing Change &CommunicationResistance to OrganizationalChangeA Case StudyOti Yeboah Complex Limited(OYCL)PRIDHIVRAJ NAIDU814284
The Case• 1986 to 2008, it was operating sawmill embarked on achange process from 2008 – 2010• changing from sawmilling to plywood production• affected the strategy, the structure, the technology, andthe work processes of the organization• Brought to resistance due to new roles, redundancy andresponsibilities• employees carried out strikes, boycott and lockoutsbecause of fear of the unknown and possible loss of job(Bohene.R and Williams.A.A, 2011)
Q1 Model usedThree step Change Model (Lewin, 1951)RefreezeMoveUnfreezeTake action, make changesinvolving the peopleExamine status quo,increase the driving forces forchange and decrease resistanceMake changes permanent,establish new ways,reward desired outcomes
Q2 Reducing resistanceResistance is because of :- Fear of new roles, redundancy and responsibilities- Fear of not knowing- Fear of loosing the jobTo reduce resistance:- Recruiting for specific and new functions (Skilled)- Training (Unskilled)- Ensure continues communication, keeping theemployees in the know