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Howard wm2ec ppt-ch07 (1)

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critical reading

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Howard wm2ec ppt-ch07 (1)

  1. 1. Writing Matters by Rebecca Moore Howard Thinking and Reading Critically7 ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1
  2. 2. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Comprehending Purpose of reading material? • To inform • To persuade • To record • To interest Can you name some examples for each?
  3. 3. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Comprehending Understanding text takes careful thought. 1. Preview/scan • Title/subtitle • Abstract/introduction/conclusion • First sentences and paragraphs • Key terms • Headings/subheadings • Figures/illustrations
  4. 4. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 Comprehending Understanding text takes careful thought. 1. Preview/scan 2. Get the gist • Read through once from beginning to end. • Circle unfamiliar words or phrases. • After finishing, close the book and paraphrase (put it in your own words) from memory.
  5. 5. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 Comprehending Understanding text takes careful thought. 1. Preview/scan 2. Get the gist/paraphrase 3. Summarize in your own words • Restate main idea and key support. • 10% to 50% as long as original. • Helps you remember. • Provides a helpful reference for later writing.
  6. 6. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 Comprehending Understanding text takes careful thought. 1. Preview/scan 2. Get the gist/paraphrase 3. Summarize 4. Enjoy • Think as you read. • Consider details. • Note words and phrases. • Connect to your life.
  7. 7. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 Reflecting Connects reading the text to understanding it.
  8. 8. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Look up words.
  9. 9. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Concepts • Underline all that is interesting, important, or difficult.
  10. 10. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Concepts • Tone • Is the writer sincere? Sarcastic? Witty?
  11. 11. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Concepts • Tone • Biases • What is the writer’s opinion? • What is your opinion?
  12. 12. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Concepts • Tone • Biases • Fallacies • Errors in logic? • Misleading?
  13. 13. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Concepts • Tone • Biases • Fallacies • Responses • Ask questions. • Note your reactions.
  14. 14. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Reflecting 1. Annotate • Definitions • Concepts • Tone • Biases • Fallacies • Responses • Connections • Relate to experience or other texts
  15. 15. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 Reflecting 1. Annotate Don’t forget footnotes or parenthetical text.
  16. 16. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Reflecting 1. Annotate When annotating an image rather than a text, follow the steps outlined in the Self- Assessment checklist on p. 115 to focus your efforts.
  17. 17. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 Reflecting 1. Annotate 2. Journal • Analyze the writer’s purpose. • Freewrite your reactions. • Brainstorm related ideas. • Outline the text. • Connect the material to your own ideas.
  18. 18. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Reflecting 1. Annotate 2. Journal A double-entry journal will help you avoid plagiarism by keeping your own ideas separate from the ideas you have found in the text.
  19. 19. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze To analyze means to break down—to tear apart and consider components. • What do the parts mean? • How do the parts work together as a whole?
  20. 20. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze • Consider the major claims. • Evidence?
  21. 21. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze • Consider the major claims. • Consider the development. • Counterevidence? • Sources?
  22. 22. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze • Consider the major claims. • Consider the development. • Consider the organization. • Patterns? • Classical • Rogerian • Toulmin
  23. 23. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze • Consider the major claims. • Consider the development. • Consider the organization. • Consider the rhetorical appeals. • Logos? • Ethos? • Pathos?
  24. 24. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze • Consider the major claims. • Consider the development. • Consider the organization. • Consider the rhetorical appeals. • Consider the tone and style. • What do they indicate about purpose? Audience?
  25. 25. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze • Consider the major claims. • Consider the development. • Consider the organization. • Consider the rhetorical appeals. • Consider the tone and style. • Consider the logical pattern. • Inductive? Exploratory argument. • Deductive? Persuasive argument.
  26. 26. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret What is the significance?
  27. 27. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret • Assumptions • Omissions • Conclusions • Influences • Context
  28. 28. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret 3. Synthesize Connect material to the “real world.”
  29. 29. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret 3. Synthesize • Compare to other texts • Compare author’s other works • Consider outside forces • Connect various ideas • Claims as evidence • Compare to your own understanding
  30. 30. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret 3. Synthesize 4. Critique A critique is a well-informed evaluation, positive and/or negative.
  31. 31. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret 3. Synthesize 4. Critique • Evaluation • Evidence • Judgments based on analysis • Informed by other texts and/or own knowledge and experience
  32. 32. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret 3. Synthesize 4. Critique the author • What are the author’s goals? • What are the author’s claims? • How credible is the evidence? • What is the author’s expertise?
  33. 33. ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33 Preparing to Write 1. Analyze 2. Interpret 3. Synthesize 4. Critique yourself • What is your purpose? • What judgments do you have? • What are your readers’ interests?
  34. 34. Writing Matters by Rebecca Moore Howard Thinking and Reading Critically7 ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34

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