Jennifer maestro hw420-unit 5 project


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  • Affirmation: -Simply talking to yourself in a positive tone with a positive message activates specific neural pathways that when strengthened tend to promote self-esteem and well-being (Lazarus, 2011). -Telling yourself that “I am good enough” or “I am ok even if I make mistakes” can instill positive self-regard (Lazarus, 2011).Visualization: -Goal images, such as “seeing” yourself 10 pounds lighter (Lazarus, 2011) -Process images, imagining yourself taking specific action steps needed to achieve a goal (Lazarus, 2011) -Relaxation imagery, such as picturing yourself on the beach (Lazarus, 2011)Relaxation: -Progressive relaxation, such as alternating between tensing muscle groups and then letting them unwind (Lazarus, 2011) -Letting go of tension in their muscles without tensing them first (Lazarus, 2011) -Other methods such as meditation, self-hypnosis, and biofeedback (Lazarus, 2011)
  • This study shows us that with positive lifestyle changes, to include diet and stress management, one can greatly improve physical health over time (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005).
  • It shows us that it is possible that prayer can be scientifically measured and researched (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005).
  • Dr. DavidsonStudied electrical brain activity and variations in brain blood flow and metabolic activity to discover positive and negative activity of the brain (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005). The study shows a direct correlation to the type of lifestyle one has, to include stress levels, and what mitigating factors can do to lower stress and improve the immune system (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005).
  • Three categories of mental imagery: images that replicate peaceful scenes to promote relaxation, images that substitute a less desirable behaviorwith a more healthy one, and images that help to heal damaged body tissue.
  • Idiosyncratic: A term meaning self-generated, such as images used in visualization that are created by the person performing the visualization(Seaward, 2009).Egosyntonic: A visualization expression meaning that images created/suggested in the visualization process must fi t with the values and ideals that aremost beneficial(Seaward, 2009).Kinesthetic: A visualization expression meaning the actual involvement through the five senses in the practice of this technique(Seaward, 2009).
  • When starting out, either sit or lie comfortably with your eyes closed and loosen any constrictive clothing around your neck and waist (Seaward, 2009). Sometimes it helps if you dedicate a special place to the practice of mental imagery (Seaward, 2009).Focus your attention on the image in your mind’s eye; over time you will be able to focus for longer periods of time and in greater detail with each image you work with (Seaward, 2009). As with all relaxation techniques, remind yourself to breath comfortably deep regularly (Seaward, 2009).Once you have decided on the image, build on your purpose and tailor a vision to answer it (Seaward, 2009).Mental imagery can be used in conjunction with other methods to increase effectiveness (Seaward, 2009).
  • A reappraisal is a new assembly or restructuring of the factors involved, and the openness to accept a new frame of mind (Seaward, 2009). It also helps in determining what factors you can control and what you must accept as out of your control (Seaward, 2009). With cognitive restructuring, the new mind frame must often be substituted when the stress is encountered, and repeated again and again (Seaward, 2009).
  • Restrictive meditation: A form of meditation wherein concentration is focused on one object (e.g., mantra, tratak) to the exclusion of all other thoughts, to increase self-awareness and promote relaxation (Seaward, 2009)Opening-up meditation: A form of meditation where all thoughts are invited into awareness without emotional evaluation, judgment, or analysis (Seaward, 2009)Although there are many aspects to meditation, they all have the same basic premise (internal stimuli) (Seaward, 2009)
  • Physical repetition is thought to shift the mind to an altered state of consciousness or relaxed thinking mode (Seaward, 2009)
  • Concept:Robust health can result from the systematic training of our mind through planned, systematic inner development (Lazarus, 2011).Benefits: Understanding how to workout the mind helps one develop a deeper consciousness, developing the mind allows one to reach a higher level of loving-kindness, which enables the ability to display positive emotion and caring for others, and a healthier mind results in a healthier physical being (Dacher, 2006).Three studies: Dr. Ornish and the benefits of lifestyle changes, Dr. Byrd’s study into the effectiveness of intercessory prayer, and Dr. Davidson’s connection between mental fitness and the immune systemTypes and a brief “how-to” of mental fitness: Mental imagery, cognitive restructuring, and meditation**Although this presentation discusses meditation, it is not all inclusive to the types of meditation. Many different types of meditation are available and one must do some research to decide what is right for them.
  • Jennifer maestro hw420-unit 5 project

    1. 1. Jennifer Maestro Kaplan University Dr. R. Watson HW420
    2. 2. Introduction: What we will learn  The concept of mental fitness  The benefits of mental fitness through research and how it relates to physical well-being  Exercises, activities, and practices that can enhance mental fitness (Seaward, 2009)
    3. 3. The Concept of Mental Fitness Mental Fitness is just as important as physical fitness  We know that the mind is trainable and that robust health can result from the systematic training of our mind through planned, systematic inner development (Lazarus, 2011)  Research shows the effectiveness of mental fitness  Just as physical fitness has three parts as the basic foundation (stretching, cardio, and strength training), so does mental fitness (Lazarus, 2011): Affirmation, visualization, and relaxation (Lazarus, 2011)
    4. 4. The Benefits of Mental Fitness  Understanding how to workout the mind helps one develop a deeper consciousness (Dacher, 2006)  Developing the mind allows one to reach a higher level of loving-kindness, which enables the ability to display positive emotion and caring for others (Dacher, 2006)  A healthier mind results in a healthier physical being (Dacher, 2006) (Seaward, 2009)
    5. 5. Research: Study 1-Lifestyle and the Mind  Dr. Ornish, 1990 (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005):  Study involved patients with heart disease  Placed a randomized group into the “Lifestyle Heart Trial”; a controlled environment that enhanced a healthy lifestyle  After one year, patients reduced their cholesterol levels by 40%, noted a 91% reduction in chest pain levels, and an overall reversal of coronary artery build-up  Patients following the conventional group continued to decline (Seaward, 2009)
    6. 6.  Dr. Byrd, 1988 (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005)  A double-blind study of intercessory prayer for heart patients  Groups outside the hospital instructed to pray, with no details of how much or often  No doctors, nurses or patients knew who was receiving prayer  Patients who received prayer faired better on several counts, to include less deaths, less likely to be intubated or require ventilation, required less drugs, experienced a lower incidence of pulmonary edema, and required less cardiopulmonary resuscitation Research: Study 2-Prayer (Seaward, 2009)
    7. 7. Research: Study 3- Physical  Dr. Davidson, 2003 (Schlitz, Amorok, & Micozzi, 2005)  Conducted studies on two groups of people  One group was given instruction on stress reduction and relaxation techniques, one was given the instruction at a later time  After four months, the first group showed a reduction in anxiety and negative emotions, a corresponding enhancement of well-being ensued, and the immune system showed a significantly greater, more robust immune response  Shift in mental state was found to be responsible due to the activation of the left, prefrontal cortex associated with positive emotion (Seaward, 2009)
    8. 8. Mental Exercises  Mental imagery- Using the imagination to observe, in the first person, images created by the unconscious mind; falls into three categories (Seaward, 2009)  Cognitive restructuring- A coping technique; substituting negative, self-defeating thoughts with positive, affirming thoughts that change perceptions of stressors (Seaward, 2009)  Meditation- A practice of increased concentration that leads to increased awareness; a solitary practice of reflection on internal rather than external stimuli (Seaward, 2009)
    9. 9. Mental Imagery  Eight effective points (Seaward, 2009)  Visualization needs to be idiosyncratic  Imagery must be egosyntonic  There must be a positive connotation to the imagery  Imagery must be kinesthetic and somatic  Imagery must be anatomically correct and accurate  There must be constancy and dialogue  There must be a strategy  There must be treatment included in the imagery
    10. 10. Mental Imagery: How-to (Seaward, 2009)  Find a quiet place  Assume a comfortable position. Mental imagery can be done anywhere you can close your eyes momentarily  Decide the purpose of your visualization  Focus your attention on the image in your mind’s eye (the image you see with your eyes closed)  A positive attitude is crucial to the effectiveness of mental imagery (Seaward, 2009)
    11. 11. Cognitive Restructuring  Changing the way one views a situation  Favorably alter the current mind frame to a less threatening perception, from a negative, self- defeating attitude to a positive one, which may then allow the initiation of the steps toward a peaceful resolution (Seaward, 2009)
    12. 12. Cognitive Restructuring: How-to  Awareness (Seaward, 2009)  Identify Stressors, situations leading to stressors, acceptance of what the stressor is and the feelings associated with it  Reappraisal (Seaward, 2009)  Generate in your mind to offer a different viewpoint  Get a second or third opinion, which involves choosing a positive stance to favorably deal with the issue or issues  Adoption or substitutions (Seaward, 2009)  The hardest part is change and implementation  Like other skills, improvement comes with practice
    13. 13. Meditation  A solitary practice of reflection on internal rather than external stimuli (Seaward, 2009)  An increased concentration and awareness, process of living in the present moment to produce and enjoy a tranquil state of mind (Seaward, 2009)  It is the oldest recognized relaxation technique known (Seaward, 2009)  It has become tightly integrated into virtually every relaxation technique known and practiced today (Seaward, 2009)  Two Types (Seaward, 2009):  restrictive meditation  opening-up meditation (Seaward, 2009)
    14. 14. Meditation: Basic How-to  Mental repetition, or mantra (Seaward, 2009)  Close eyes to prevent visual distractions  The use of a one-syllable word over and over while exhaling (the mantra)  Visual concentration, or tratak (Seaward, 2009)  Focusing on or staring at an object or image from about 3 to 5 feet away, about one minute  Close your eyes ad visualize the object  Repeated sounds, or nadam (Seaward, 2009)  Beating drums, chimes, chants, rolling thunder, waterfalls, or ocean waves help to focus the mind’s attention (Seaward, 2009)
    15. 15. Meditation: Basic How-to (cont.)  Physical repetition (Seaward, 2009)  Rhythmic aerobic exercise (such as running or walking) and breathing  Concentrate on rhythm of movement and make it steady  Tactile repetition (Seaward, 2009)  Holding a small object can bring focus in the mind  Feeling the object, such as rosary beads or a shell, allow the mind to focus on internal stimuli (Seaward, 2009)
    16. 16. Summary  What is mental fitness?  The benefits of mental fitness  Research backing the benefits of mental fitness  Types of mental fitness exercises (Seaward, 2009)
    17. 17. References:  Dacher, E. S. (2006). Integral Health: The Path to Human Flourishing. Laguna Beach: Basic Health Publications.  Lazarus, C. N. (2011, May 21). Three Keys to Optimum Mental Fitness. Retrieved from Psychology Today: http://m.psychologytoday.comblog/think-well/201105/three- keys-optimum-mental-fitness  Schlitz, M., Amorok, T., & Micozzi, M. S. (2005). Consciousness and Healing. St. Louis: Elsevier.  Seaward, B. L. (2009). Managing Stress, 6th Edition. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.