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Exploring Prehistory in the Lower Delaware Valley


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Jennifer Rankin, URS Corporation

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Exploring Prehistory in the Lower Delaware Valley

  1. 1. Exploring Prehistory in the Lower Delaware Valley: A Look at Native American Occupations in Philadelphia Jennifer C. Rankin (URS Corporation) jennifer.rankin@urs.comPresented at the 2012 Preservation Combination | July 15-19, 2012 | Lancaster, PAByways to the Past XIII | Heritage Partnership Conference XXXIV | TRB ADC50Session: “Under the Pavement: Urban Archaeology in American Cities”
  2. 2. Delaware RiverCramp Shipyard & Port Richmond Coal Yard ca. 1940 View of northeastern Philadelphia during industrial development. (n.d.,)
  3. 3. Locating Prehistoric Sites2009 Shackamaxon #2 Excavation 2012 Dyottville Glassworks Excavation Example at Shackamaxon #2: Areas shaded blue within this city block represent areas of the highest probability for identifying prehistoric occupations. Sanborn 1916
  4. 4. Locating Prehistoric Sites (con’t) Phase II Systematic Testing at Gunnars Run South 2012 Tumananaraming #1 Excavations 2009 Shackamaxon #1 Excavations
  5. 5. Village of Shackamaxon and Penn’s Treaty Treaty Wampum Belt Hills 1810William Penns Treaty with the Indians, When Swedish encounter with the Lenape, ca 1700he Founded the Province of Pennsy, 1681., byBenjamin West (1771)
  6. 6. ( Hills 1796
  7. 7. Shackamaxon #1 Historic Barrel/Box Features (cross-cutting) Excavations in Progress I-95 Project Boundary BasementArchaeological Feature (Historic) 1026 I-95 Construction Disturbance ShackamaxonHistorical Foundation Street
  8. 8. Shackamaxon #1Reworked and Contracting Stem Bifaces Various Finished Bifaces Colonoware: Native Americans??
  9. 9. Shackamaxon #2 (36Ph163) Reworked Groundstone Tool Site Excavation in Progress
  10. 10. Shackamaxon #2 (36Ph163) Utilized Flakes and Spokeshaves Microwear: Woodworking Trace at 150xFinished Bifaces (Brewerton and Meadowood)
  11. 11. Gunnars Run South (36Ph162) Netsinker View of the Project Area prior to Excavation Various Projectile Points and Finished Bifaces (including knives and scrapers)
  12. 12. Gunnars Run South (36Ph162) Steatite Bannerstone Projectile Point (Fragment) (Argillite)
  13. 13. Hope Farm/Richmond Hall (36Ph160) Railroad Fill (Coal Ash and River Dredge) ranged Excavation in Progress from 2 to 12 feet. Gorget Adze
  14. 14. Ceramic Sherd from F-96
  15. 15. Tumananaraming #2Ceramic Pipe Stem (Fragment)
  16. 16. Tumananaraming #1 Ab-horizon Located below portions of the Dyottville GlassWorks, the first Ab-horizon and prehistoric occupations were ca. 8 feet below the current ground surface.
  17. 17. Tumananaraming #1
  18. 18. Tumananaraming #1 Utility Disturbance (Sewer) with Intact Soil Horizons Post Feature
  19. 19. Starch Grain and Phytolith Analysis Tumananaraming #1 Tumananaraming #2 Hope Farm/Richmond HallDayflower (Commelina virginica) Foxtail (Setaria spp.) Marine diatom frustule Winter Squash (Cucurbita spp.)