Creating Contexts and Using Multiple Property Documentation Forms

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Creating Contexts and Using Multiple Property Documentation Forms

  1. 1. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Creating Contexts and Using Multiple Property Documentation Forms 3-4PM Bureau for Historic Preservation
  2. 2. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Context Information and perspective about related properties organized by theme, place, and time Required for both our Resource Survey Forms and National Register nominations Establishes the framework for evaluating significance NPS White Papers— Evaluating Common Resources & Components of a Historic Context are available to supplement the NR Bulletins and our Guidance Bureau for Historic Preservation
  3. 3. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices History Context Statement of Significance Context Context supplements an individual history, supports the statement of significance, gives us the perspective we need to assess if something is important•Explains role of individual property in relationship to broad historic trends, drawing on specific facts about the property and its community•Briefly describes the prehistory/history of the community as it directly relates—stays concise, relevant•Shows us what types of resources should be found to reflect trends and community, how this compares Bureau for Historic Preservation
  4. 4. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Individual Contexts Bureau for Historic Preservation
  5. 5. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Multiple Property Documentation Forms Bureau for Historic Preservation
  6. 6. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Some Existing BHP Contexts and MPDFs •Adams County Properties Associated with the Battle of Gettysburg •African American Churches of Philadelphia, 1787-1949 •Agricultural Resources of Pennsylvania, c.1700-1960 •Allegheny County Owned River Bridges •Allegheny River Navigation System •Aluminum Industry Resources of SW PA •Bituminous Coal and Coke Resources of PA •Civil War Era National Cemeteries •Covered Bridges (for 22+ Counties) •Emergency Conservation Work in PA State Parks: 1933-1942 •Four Public Squares of Philadelphia •Highway Bridges Owned by PA Department of Transportation •Historic Educational Resources of PA •Industrial Resources of Huntingdon County, 1780-1939 •Iron & Steel Resources of PA Bureau for Historic Preservation
  7. 7. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices AgContext Info Bureau for Historic Preservation
  8. 8. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Lake Erie Fruit & Vegetable Belt Potter County Potato & Cannery Crops Northwestern Woodland, Allegheny Grassland & Northern Tier Grasslands Specialized Mountain Plateau Diversified North & West Branch Susquehanna River Pocono Resort & & Part-Time Diversified Anthracite Coal Diversified Farming Central Southwestern Limestone Diversified & Valleys Sheep Adams County Fruit Belt Bureau for Historic Preservation
  9. 9. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  10. 10. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Ag Context Contents •Intro/User Guide •Agriculture in the Settlement Period (c.1700-c.1840) •Specific Region Descriptions •Property Types & Registration Requirements •Bibliography & Resources Within Each Regional Chapter •Location •Climate, Soils & Topography •Period Overviews (c.1840-1960) Products Labor & Land Tenure Buildings & Landscapes Bureau for Historic Preservation
  11. 11. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Allegheny Mountain Plateau Diversified & Part-Time Farming Bureau for Historic Preservation
  12. 12. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Centre County farm Crops, 1880, ten percent sample. Average farm size 133 acres, 77 tilled 1400 Farm Livestock by Region, 1880 bushels rye per farm bushels buckwheat per farm bushels potatoes per farm 1200 90 bushels wheat per farm 80 bushels oats per farm bushels corn per farm 1000 70 60 Number 800 50 40 Poultry 600 30 Sw ine 20 Sheep 400 Steers 10 0 Milk Cow s 200 Horses a h er y n y ni nc nt ai le Ti va ou nt ra al rn yl ou tB V C he ns e M 0 r es eg n te n rt r n gr sto t y t oo o tte e rW pa en Po P y ia ty n oe or d er n de g n tr F lege nn s ghles g th m on or s sh n s r lfm N ke nt ri gg ne io to o io rin a/ an er e or yl nn twh r ru si sh st pe Li gus lle mi ou ar un al ha po ta ai bo lib sp w rn lv l hu be co ho w m H C ow sy bu al er ha tre nn N sn en A Pe C en C Bureau for Historic Preservation
  13. 13. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  14. 14. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Knees Farm, Clearfield County, FSA/OWI photo, 1940, Library of Congress. Jack Delano, photographer. Digital ID fsa 8c02939 . Bureau for Historic Preservation
  15. 15. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Schrot Family Farm Lawrence Township, Clearfield County c.1896 Bureau for Historic Preservation
  16. 16. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  17. 17. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  18. 18. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  19. 19. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  20. 20. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  21. 21. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  22. 22. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012 Best PracticesAllegheny Mountains Plateau Diversified Part-time Farming Region1830-1850: Farming & Small-scale IndustryProducts—sparsely settled; lackedeasy access to markets; extractiveindustries dominated; acreage mostlywoodedLabor & Land Tenure—farms oftenpart-time; women & childrenresponsible for much farm labor;tenancy rates low; neighborsexchanged services, work, goodsBuildings & Landscape—primarybuilding material wood; modestbuildings; few early outbuildingsremain Bureau for Historic Preservation
  23. 23. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012 Best PracticesAllegheny Mountains Plateau Diversified Part-time Farming Region1850-1920: Farming & Large-scale IndustryProducts—diversified; farm size varies/improved land increasing; livestockholding steady; low mechanization.Labor & Land Tenure—industrializationof lumbering; rise of coal mining;charcoal production continues;corresponding family labor or neighborparticipation; tenancy rates low.Buildings & Landscapes—balloonframing & manufactured brickreplacing log & plank; houses still small,additions more common than new;barns more modest than other regions;typical outbuildings; fields small andsquare-ish, woodlots prominent. Bureau for Historic Preservation
  24. 24. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  25. 25. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  26. 26. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012 Best PracticesAllegheny Mountains Plateau Diversified Part-time Farming Region1920-1960: Allegheny Mountain Industrial RegionsProducts: Subsistence level; croplandemphasis on hayLabor & Land Tenure: Part-timefarming accounts for 18% of familyincome; relatively unmechanized;conveniences more common; moresouthern/eastern EuropeanimmigrantsBuildings & Landscapes: small plots;multi-purpose buildings; similarconstruction and modestappearance; intertwining withindustry Bureau for Historic Preservation
  27. 27. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  28. 28. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Joe Schrot, RD 4, Clearfield Owner 2 males age 10 or older 3 females age 10 or older 17 acres total 10 acres in crops, all in “other tame hay” 50 apple trees, 4 peach trees, 5 pear trees 1 milk cow, 2 swine, 35 laying hens and 15 other chickens Furnace, automobile, telephone, electricity from power station Bureau for Historic Preservation
  29. 29. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices farm cows milk cows other sows & other sheep pullets chickens bee hives animals cattle breeding swine gilts # animals 618 705 201 102 913 75 8287 6017 155 Figure #12 1927: Lawrence Township - Kind and Number of Farm Animals (1927, Records of the Department of Agriculture Division of Crop Reporting Farm Census Returns, Clearfield County) Bureau for Historic Preservation
  30. 30. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices # of fruit trees/ farm 1 - 5 trees 6 - 10 trees 11 - 20 trees 21 - 30 trees 31 - 50 trees over 50 trees bearing apple/ farm 17 16 12 1 1 1 peach/ farm 9 1 1 1 1 1 pear/ farm 28 5 2 1 0 0 Schrot Farm bearing apple 0 0 0 0 1 0 Schrot Farm pear 1 0 0 0 0 0 Schrot Farm peach 1 0 0 0 0 0 Figure #11 1927: Lawrence Township - Kind and Number of Fruit Trees Planted (1927, Records of the Department of Agriculture Division of Crop Reporting Farm Census Returns, Clearfield County) Bureau for Historic Preservation
  31. 31. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  32. 32. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices 1940 www.pennpilot.psu.edu Bureau for Historic Preservation
  33. 33. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices 1958 Bureau for Historic Preservation
  34. 34. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices 1968 Bureau for Historic Preservation
  35. 35. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Bureau for Historic Preservation
  36. 36. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices Buildingsthis an important example multi-purpose, reflect history of Is are modest, frame, some of farming trends in the Landscape reflects field patterns, products, products and livestock, gender for a small portion of family income Diversified; farmingPlateau Diversified & Part-time Region? level of Allegheny only accounts roles/labor patterns and woodlots, orchards mechanization Bureau for Historic Preservation
  37. 37. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best Practices A context should help us understand how a property fits into the bigger picture, and provide us with the information we need to assess if it is an important example of a specific type of resource within a specific place and time. Bureau for Historic Preservation
  38. 38. Cultural Resources Essentials 2012Best PracticesBest Practice Recommendations:•Current aerial views, close-up and surrounding area•Historic aerial views, ditto, and circle the subject property•“Relationship” photos•Specific references to existing contexts, and how this “fits” or doesn’t•Concise summaries•Focus the history & context on what’s relevant•Continue the history/use up to present-day (briefly)•Census data for specific property, and how it measures up to township/compares to surrounding farms•Summary of similar properties nearby•Could the property be eligible for other reasons? Bureau for Historic Preservation
  39. 39. EVALUATING RAILROADS
  40. 40. A. Pennsylvania Railroad: Schuylkill Valley Branch(West Philadelphia to New Boston Junction)B. Bangor & Portland Railroad (Ackermanville segment)
  41. 41. B. Bangor & Portland Railroad (Ackermanville segment)
  42. 42. A. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad: Pittsburgh Division (Maryland line to city of Pittsburgh)B. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad: Philadelphia Branch (Philadelphia to Delaware State Line)
  43. 43. A. B&O Pittsburgh Division
  44. 44. A. Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad [Western PA coal and steel industries]B. Reading Railroad [Northeastern PA anthracite coal industries]
  45. 45. A and B
  46. 46. A. Signals B. Track C. Sign D. Rolling StockE. Buildings and Structures
  47. 47. E. Major Built Elements
  48. 48. A B
  49. 49. A. Switchback Gravity Railroad
  50. 50. A. Trolley lineB. InterurbanC. Streetcar lineD. All of the above
  51. 51. D. All of the Above
  52. 52. Questions?
  53. 53. Postwar Suburbs 1945-1965Urban Development 1945-1974 Modern Suburbs 1965-1975+ Bureau for Historic Preservation
  54. 54. Lancaster, PA 1910 The issues involved in addressing urban renewal projects are hardly new. The underlying challenge is to approach the task with an open mind, checking one’s assumptions at the door as it were, and acquiring a strong base of knowledge of pertinent source material. The widespread prejudices against urban renewal and much of the legacy of the second half of the 20th century generally must be set aside in order to assess the real significance of such initiatives. Our cities and towns changed dramatically during the postwar era, and we can ill afford to dismiss those transformations out of hand. Richard LongstrethLancaster, PA 1971 The Difficult Legacy of Urban Renewal
  55. 55. “Plans for Downtown Renaissance” ca 1950 – Model of downtown Pittsburgh showing proposals for Point State Park, the Manchester and Point Bridges, Gateway Center, the ALCOA Building and Crosstown Boulevard Courtesy of Paul Slantis Photograph Collection, Historic Pittsburgh Image Collection
  56. 56. Thousands of people who were formerly the victims of scurrilous, profit-greedy landlords, that provided dwellings of the most dilapidated sub-standard grade, many being potential fire traps and breeding places for diseases, now live, laugh, and are happier with a new lease on life in the clean, modern, and healthful surroundings of the Raymond Rosen Projects. Lloyd King Philadelphia Tribune, July 30, 1955 Immigrants and Suburbs: Growth and Distribution in Greater Philadelphia, 1970- 2000: A Tract-Level AnalysisPhiladelphia - Modern DesignThematic Historic Context 1945-1980(Malcolm Clendenin, PhD)
  57. 57. Olivetti Underwood Typewriter FactoryLower Paxton Twp, Dauphin County,Louis Kahn, 1970
  58. 58. Pittsburgh area 1970 Population 2,401,362 Developed land 212,200 acresPittsburgh area1990Population 2,094,447Developed land 249,100 acres
  59. 59. Modern Suburbs
  60. 60. Railroad Resources Bureau for Historic Preservation
  61. 61. Railroad Resources in Pennsylvania
  62. 62. DERAILED• No consistency in naming resources – Baltimore and Ohio (Philadelphia Branch) – B&O Rr – Branch of the Balt.&Ohio RR• Resource type unclear – A bridge – A station – A segment of right of way (ROW)• New naming standardization – Baltimore & Ohio Railroad: Philadelphia Branch: trestle – Baltimore & Ohio Railroad: Station (Connellsville) – Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (West Homestead to Pittsburgh) Bureau for Historic Preservation
  63. 63. DERAILED• NO consistency with resource types – Stations recorded as structures, sites, and objects• New resource standardization – Stations – buildings – Bridges – structures – Right of Ways – districts – Yards – districts – Tunnels – structures Bureau for Historic Preservation
  64. 64. DERAILED• NO consistency in recording “historic function”• Engine House – Historic Function: • Domestic – Historic Sub-function and Particular Use: • Single Dwelling, Engine House• ALL railroad resources should at least have „Transportation: Rail-Related‟ as the Historic Function and Sub-function Bureau for Historic Preservation
  65. 65. DERAILED• NO way of linking a railroad‟s “associated resources”• Key# 086386 Lehigh Valley Railroad: Station (Bethlehem)• Key# 078945 Lehigh Valley Railroad: Station (Sayre) Bureau for Historic Preservation
  66. 66. Key# 102978 Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley Railroad (Muhlenberg to Hamburg)Berks Montgomery Key# 124898 Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley Railroad (Plymouth Twp. To Norristown)
  67. 67. Central Railroad of New JerseyLehigh Valley Railroad Key# 155754 Key# 156109 Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern Railroad Key# 156193 Pittsburg & Shawmut Railroad Cumberland Valley Railroad Monongahela RailwayKey# 156194 Key# 155448 Philadelphia &156260 Key# Columbia Railroad Bessemer & Lake ErieWestern New York & Pennsylvania Railway Railroad Philadelphia & Erie Railroad 156141 156895 Key# Key# Key# 155731 Key# 155661
  68. 68. TRACKS AHEAD• Continue to “clean up” database entries – Naming standardization, historic function, etc.• Continue researching and mapping “aggregate files”• Map unmapped, previously surveyed railroad resources• Apply “Aggregate File” blueprint to historic roads and waterways Bureau for Historic Preservation
  69. 69. Bureau for Historic Preservation

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