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Cryogenic Rocket Engine


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Cryogenic Rocket Engine

  1. 1. Submitted By : Prem Kumar Mech Engg. VIII sem S.C.e. B’GLORE USN:1SE10ME031 TECHNICAL SEMINAR ON Guided By: Prof. Vinaykumar m j Dept. Of Mechanical S.C.e. B’GLORE
  3. 3. Meaning of Cryogenics  Cryogenics originated from two Greek words “kyros” which means cold or freezing and “genes” which means born or produced  Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same  In physics, cryogenics is the study of the operations at very low temperature (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at these temperatures .
  4. 4. Cryogenic technology in rocket engine o Cryogenic technology involves the use of rocket propellants at extremely low temperatures. o The combination:- Liquid Oxygen (LOX) & Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) offers the highest energy efficiency for rocket engines. o Oxygen remains at liquid only at temperatures below -183 ° C and hydrogen below - 253 ° C.
  5. 5. Introduction  Basically Rocket engines are reaction engines.  Use of cryogenic propellants (cryogenic fuel or oxidizer) to produce thrust.  Needs High mass flow rate of propellants.  The liquid oxygen (LOx) oxidizer and liquid hydrogen (LH2) fuel combination is one of the most widely used.
  6. 6. Brief history  Space travel was mainly developed by the Russians and the Americans. The Russians were the first to reach into space.  Solid-fuel rocket engines were the first engines created by man.  The first operational cryogenic rocket engine was the 1961 NASA design the RL-10 LOX LH2 rocket engine, which was used in the Saturn 1 rocket employed in the early stages of the Apollo moon landing program. The first operational cryogenic engine
  7. 7. Cryogenic propellant  In a cryogenic propellant the fuel and the oxidizer are in the form of very cold, liquefied gases.  Liquification done by cooling and compressing them below cryogenic temperatures.  we can vastly increase their density and make it possible to store them in large quantities in smaller tanks.  The propellant combination used is that of LOx & LH2.  Liquid oxygen being the oxidizer and liquid hydrogen being the fuel.
  8. 8. Principle  The basic principle driving a rocket engine are: (i) Newton 's third law of motion (ii) Law of conservation of momentum  In principle, cryogenic rocket engines generate thrust like all other rocket engines-by accelerating an impulse carrier to high speeds.  The chemical energy stored in the fuel is converted into kinetic energy by burning it in the thrust chamber and subsequent expansion in the nozzle, in the process creating thrust.
  9. 9. construction The major components of a cryogenic rocket engine are:  Combustion chamber  Pyrotechnic igniters  Fuel injector  Fuel turbo-pumps  Gas turbine  Cryovalves  Regulators  External fuel tanks  Nozzle
  10. 10. 1.Rocket Engine Nozzle A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities. 2.Pyrotechnic igniter A pyrotechnic initiator (also initiator or igniter) is a device containing a pyrotechnic composition used primarily to ignite other, more difficult-to-ignite materials. Pyrotechnic initiators are often controlled electrically (called electro-pyrotechnic initiators),
  11. 11. 3.THRUST chamber  The thrust chamber is the key subassembly of a rocket engine.  Here the liquid propellants are metered, injected, atomized, vaporized, mixed, and burned to form hot reaction gas products, which in turn are accelerated and ejected at high velocity.  A rocket thrust chamber assembly has an injector, a combustion chamber, a supersonic nozzle, and mounting provisions. All have to withstand the extreme heat of combustion and the various forces, including the transmission of the thrust force to the vehicle. 4.Cooling system Regenerative cooling curtain cooling or film cooling, are employed to give longer nozzle and chamber life.
  12. 12. Combustion in thrust chamber
  13. 13. Schematic Diagram of CRE
  14. 14. 5.cryopump A cryopump is a turbo pump powered by a flow of fuel through gas turbines. Looking at this aspect, engines can be differentiated into two: i. Main Flow Configuration ii. Bypass Flow Configuration 6.Cryogenic valves There are 5 propellant valves in a CRE. They are: i. Oxidizer preburner oxidizer ii. Fuel preburner oxidizer iii. Main fuel iv. Main oxidizer v. Chamber coolant
  15. 15. working  Fuel and oxidizer from the external tank enters the orbiter  orbiter's main propulsion system feed lines the fuel and oxidizer each branch out into three parallel paths, to each engine.  An Oxidizer system provides regular supply of LOX .A Hydrogen fuel system provides regular supply of LH2.  Pre-burners and thrust control system  LH2 partially burnt with a little LOX in a gas generator. The hot gases drive a turbo-pump and are then injected at high pressure into the thrust chamber where the rest of oxygen is introduced and full combustion takes place.  Before going to the gas generator, the incredibly chilly liquid hydrogen is used to cool the thrust chamber
  16. 16. Advantages :  High Energy per unit mass: Propellants like oxygen and hydrogen in liquid form give very high amounts of energy per unit mass due to which the amount of fuel to be carried aboard the rockets decreases.  Clean Fuels: Hydrogen and oxygen are extremely clean fuels. When they combine, they give out only water. This water is thrown out of the nozzle in form of very hot vapour.  Economical: Use of oxygen and hydrogen as fuels is very economical, as liquid oxygen costs less than gasoline.
  17. 17. Drawbacks:  Boil off Rate  Highly reactive gases  Leakage  Hydrogen Embrittlement  Zero Gravity conditions
  18. 18. CONCLUSION  As the world progress new developments are being made more and more new developments are being made in the field of Rocket Engineering.  Now a day cryo propelled rocket engines are having a great demand in the field of space exploration.  Due to the high specific impulse obtained during the ignition of fuels they are of much demand.  Semi-cryogenic engines, Hypergolic engines are being developed.  Hence Cryogenic Rocket Engine proves to be very promising for the future in this world of technology.