BIOMETRIC SMART CARD POLLING SYSTEM - A Project ReportGuided By ,Ms.K.Vadivukkarasi Assistant Professor (O.G) RTOS and CAN Prepared By , AMS.SYED ADBUL CADER(Reg.No:10406203) N.SIVAKUMAR (Reg.No:10406199) M.VAZHVANDI (Reg.No:10406205)
Introduction: Now-a-days, the technologies in electronics has brought modernization and as intervention to face human difficulty. Especially when considering the currently used voting system has flaws in system by means of Security, Casting Vote anywhere, and also manpower involved in counting the votes. This motivated as to design Voting System which incorporates technologies like Biometric and RFID Reader to get a interface with user. Abstract: The main objective of our project is to render user interface system with easy way of voting system and also inaddition to that it provides safe and secured system thus by preventing unauthorized person to cast the vote. The projectinvolves finger print sensor to authenticate user , RFID card to identify user and display information to user using LCDdisplay. The information about user casting the vote is stored in EEPROM and also to retrieve the data for processingthe votes. The entire process of communication between the each devices is done by microcontroller which doesmanipulation data which is fed into it. The main theme of this project is to use existing ATM as voting machines withsecured voting system. Each ATM machine will additionally be fitted with a finger print sensor and RFID reader. During the votingperiod the user has to place RFID card near the reader, the micro controller will identify and display the informationabout the user using LCD , and ask him to authenticate the user by placing his finger in the finger print sensor. A list willbe displayed in the LCD, indicating the number of candidates contesting in the poll. The user has to cast his vote bypressing corresponding number of a candidate. After the voting the LCD will display the successful casting of vote.When ever the user try to cast the second time, the LCD will display a warning message informing that the vote isalready casted.
BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM: POWER SUPPLY BIOMETRIC FINGER LCD DISPLAY PRINT SENSOR EEPROM ALARM INDICATION 89s52 RFID READER KEYPADRFID – RADIO FREQUENCY: RFID tags, along with sensors and microprocessors are transforming everyday objects intothose that are smart and interactive. When you add the Internet into the mix, what you get is SilentCommerce, with objects communicating directly and monetary transactions taking place. RFID tags allowyou to scan and keep track of items from the factory to the consumer; identify merchandise authenticity;traces items of inventory; helps to prevent theft and piracy; and act to monitor product environmentalconditions
RFID Consisted of: Magnetic Coil RF Receiver Serial outputCard Consisted of: RF Antenna Chip RF TransmiterCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
RFID Module and Principle of working: RFID Reader Module, are also called as interrogators. They convert radio waves returned fromthe RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to Controllers, which can make use of it. RFID tags andreaders have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. RFID systems use many differentfrequencies, but the most common and widely used & supported by our Reader is 125kHz frequency range. An RFID system consists of two separate components: a tag and a reader. Tags are analogous tobarcode labels, and come in different shapes and sizes. The tag contains an antenna connected to a smallmicrochip containing up to two kilobytes of data. The reader, or scanner, functions similarly to a barcodescanner; however, while a barcode scanner uses a laser beam to scan the barcode, an RFID scanner useselectromagnetic waves. To transmit these waves, the scanner uses an antenna that transmits a signal,communicating with the tags antenna. The tags antenna receives data from the scanner and transmits itsparticular chip information to the .The data on the chip is usually stored in one of two types of memory. Themost common is Read-Only Memory (ROM); as its name suggests, read-only memory cannot be alteredonce programmed onto the chip during the manufacturing process. The second type of memory isRead/Write Memory; though it is also programmed during the manufacturing process, it can later be alteredby certain devices. The RFID tag consists of a powered or non powered microchip and an antenna. The three differenttypes of tag. Passive tags are the simplest, smallest and cheapest version of an RFID tag as they do notcontain a built-in power source and consequently cannot initiate communication with a reader. As theavailable power from the reader field diminishes rapidly with distance, passive tags have practical readranges that vary up to 10 mm to above 5 mm. Semi-passive tags have built-in batteries and do not requireenergy from the reader field to power the microchip. This allows them to function with much lower signalpower levels and act over greater distances.
Serial communication It is the process of transmitting data bits one by one serially, i.e. only one line is used for serialcommunication. For e.g. 8051 is a 8 bit MC, if 8 bits of data is transmitted at a time in 8 line it is calledparallel communication. If the 8 bits are transmitted one bit at time in one line it is called serialcommunication. UART is a device used for converting parallel to serial and vice versa. 8051 MC has two lines for performing serial communication. TXD pin for transmitting data andRXD pin for receiving data. Serial communication can be used to communicate with computer, GSMMODEM, GPS etc. Serial communication is performed for long distance communication with cheap cost. 8051 MC operates on TTL logic that is 0 to 5v; so in order to communicate with other serial devicesit should also be compatible in voltage that is 0 to 5v. A GSM modem & GPS are TTL compatible devices sothey can be directly interfaced with 8051 MC. Serial communications with computer cannot be directlyperformed since a computer operates on different voltage logic called RS232 (RS- Recommended Standard).It has operating voltage of -3 to –25 to logic 1 and +3 to +25 for logic 0 and the port used for communicationis called serial port. If we connect a 8051 directly to the serial port it may damage our MC so in order formaking voltage compatibility we are using a voltage converter IC called MAX232. It converts RS232 logicto TTL logic and vice versa. It operates on +5v. In order to obtain high voltage for RS 232 logic, voltage doublers circuits are used. The capacitorsare used for voltage doubling. In order to transmit data to PC, RXD pin of MC is connected to pin number 10 or 11 of max 232IC, the output pin 7 or 14 is connected RX, pin2 of the serial port and vice versa for transmitting. Theconnector used for connecting serial data bus to the computer is called „DB9‟ connector (DB- data Bus). Weare using a connection called null modem connection in which only three pins are used such as RXD [Pin2],TXD [pin3] & GND [pin5].
LCD- LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY: LCD stands for liquid crystal display, it is a output device used for displaying alphanumericcharacters. It is a 16-pin device, which is, separated in to 8 data lines, 3 control lines, 2 power supply lines, 2lines for back light and last line for contrast adjusting. LCD as a in built memory which is used to store datawhich as to be displayed which can also be read back. The LCD is differentiated based on lines present, fore.g. 1X16, 2X16, 4X16 etc. The 1X16 means that the LCD as 1 line with 16 characters can be displayed andsimilarly for other displays. A LCD has two registers named command register and data register. The data register is used todisplay data in LCD, for e.g. to display data “one” in LCD the data‟s should be written in the data register.There are different types of commands like „clear screen, cursor blink, start data from first line, start datafrom second line (each command is represented by its own hex code) etc., which should be written in thecommand register. In order to display the data “one”, it‟s corresponding ASCII values should be written inthe data register.Control lines: VCC & led+ 8 data lines 8051 LCD Preset Contrast 3 control lines pin
Pin Description:PIN Symbol Level I/O function Function(4-bit mode) Function(8-bit mode)1 Vss - - Powersuppiy(gnd) Powersuppiy(gnd)2 VCC - - Powersuppiy(+5V) Powersuppiy(+5V)3 vee - - Contract adjust Contract adjust4 Rs 0/1 I 0=instruction 1 = data 0=instruction 1 = data5 R/W 0/1 I 0 = Write to 1=Read from 0 = Write to 1=Read from LCD LCD6 E 1-0 I Enable signal Enable signal7 D0 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 0 (LSB)8 D2 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 19 D3 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 210 D4 0/1 I/O not used Data bus line 311 D5 0/1 I/O Data bus line 0 (LSB) and 4 Data bus line 412 D6 0/1 I/O Data bus line 1 and 5 Data bus line 513 D7 0/1 I/O Data bus line 2 and 6 Data bus line 614 D8 0/1 I/O Data bus line 3 and 7 (MSB) Data bus line 7 A LCD has only one data bus for both data and command. So in order to differentiate between dataand register a control line called RS (register select) is used. If RS is given the value „1‟ the data is given tothe LCD, else if RS is given „0‟ the command is given to the LCD. R/W (read/write) is a control line, which is used to inform LCD that a data is written to or read fromLCD. For example if R/W is given the value „1‟ it means that the data is read from LCD and if R/W is „0‟ then the data is written to the LCD. E(enable) is a control line, which is used to inform LCD that a data orcommand is present in the data bus of LCD.CONCLUSION: ATM is the most exciting development in communications ever. Its development is a risk thatoffers big rewards; ATM has the potential to be the technology that provides huge bandwidths at lowcost if the hurdles can be overcome.