The Narmada Dam Project, is a project
involving the construction of a series of
large hydroelectric dams on the Narmada
River in India. Sardar Sarovar Project
(SSP) is the largest multipurpose project
in it. The project was first conceived of in
the 1940s by the country's first prime
minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. The project
only took form in 1979 as part of a
development scheme to increase irrigation
and produce hydroelectricity. Of the 30
large dams planned on river Narmada,
Sardar Sarovar is the largest. With a
proposed height of 136.5 m, it's also high
on discord between the planners and the
Narmada Bachao Andolan. The multipurpose project will irrigate more than
18,000 square kilometers - most of it in
drought prone areas like - Kutch and
Narmada Bachao Andolan is the
voice of hundreds of thousands
of indigenous people and peasants
who are losing their land and
livelihoods to large dams on the
Narmada River. The nonviolent
satyagraha (insistence on truth)
of the displaced people for their
rehabilitation has spanned two
centralized development programs
and envisioning alternatives. The
movement has won policy changes
in World Bank and other multilateral funding agencies.
The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of
construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the
decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate
stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to
first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process.
The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but
finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to
proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to
monitor the progress of resettlement pari passu with the raising of the
height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA)
in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this
document, given in the year 2000 after seven years of deliberations,
has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged
benefits. The court's final line of the order states, "Every endeavour
shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as
The Narmada dam's benefits include provision of drinking
water, power generation and irrigation facilities. However, the
campaign led by the NBA activists has held up the project's
completion, and the NBA supporters have attacked on local
people who accepted compensation for moving.[ Others have
argued that the Narmada Dam protesters are little more than
environmental extremists who use pseudoscientific agitprop to
scuttle the development of the region and that the dam will
provide agricultural benefits to millions of poor in India.[ There
had also been instances when the NBA activists turned violent
and attacked rehabilitation officer from Narmada Valley
Development Authority (NVDA) and caused damage to the
Sustainability is based on a simple principle: Everything that we need for
our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our
natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions
under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that
permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and
Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate access to potable
water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or
unacceptable levels of toxins or suspended solids. Drinking or using such
water in food preparation leads to widespread acute and chronic illnesses
and is a major cause of death and misery in many countries. Reduction
of waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries.
Water has always been an important and life-sustaining drink to humans
and is essential to the survival of most other organisms.
According to latest report by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB),
55 percent of the wells in India have registered declining trend of
ground water level. Surprisingly, wells in Delhi and Andhra Pradesh
have registered highest declining trend of ground water level during
While 85 percent of wells in Delhi registered a decline in ground water
level, 74 percent of wells in Andhra Pradesh registered a decline in
ground water level during 2007-2012.
Sadly, groundwater that accounts for over 65 percent of irrigation
water and 85 percent of drinking water supplies lies in a critical
state. The report by CGWB further suggested that at majority of the
locations in India, water level has declined at the rate of 1 meter/
To curb down the over exploitation of ground water level, it is
important to adopt proper usage of rain water harvesting. In order to
bring a change CSE provides technical assistance and knowledge to
people for initiating rain water harvesting projects.
For many, it is simply saving water.
Something as easy to do as buying a
water efficient appliance or turning
off the tap when brushing your teeth.
But water conservation is more
complex than that. It also involves
changing the way people think about
water use. It involves developing a new
way of doing business where water
conservation is central to planning. It
also involves encouraging the
development and use of best
practices, as well as rewarding
Rainwater harvesting is
the accumulation and
deposition of rainwater
for reuse before it
reaches the aquifer.
Uses include water for
for livestock, water for
irrigation and indoor
heating for houses etc..
In many places the water
collected is just
redirected to a deep pit
with percolation. The
harvested water can be
used as drinking water as
well as for storage and
other purpose like
Rainwater harvesting provides an independent water supply
during regional water restrictions and in developed countries
is often used to supplement the main supply. It provides
water when there is a drought, prevents flooding of lowlying areas, replenishes the ground water level, and enables
dug wells and bore wells to yield in a sustained manner. It
also helps in the availability of clean water by reducing the
salinity and the presence of iron salts.
• Makes use of a natural resource and reduces
flooding, storm water , erosion, and contamination of
surface water with pesticides, sediment, metals, and
• Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no
chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved
salts and minerals from the soil.
• Home systems can be relatively simple to install and
operate and it may reduce your water bill.
• Promotes both water and energy conservation.
• No filtration system required for landscape irrigation.
In the state of Tamil Nadu, rainwater harvesting was made
compulsory for every building to avoid ground water depletion
Chennai saw a 50 percent rise in water level in five years and the
water quality significantly improved.
In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting has traditionally been practiced
by the people of the Thar Desert.
At present, in Pune rainwater harvesting is compulsory for any new
society to be registered.
An attempt has been made at Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IISc,
Bangalore to harvest rainwater using upper surface of a solar still,
which was used for water distillation
There are good opportunities for Rainwater harvesting in
Kerala because Kerala is located in a geographical area with
two rainy seasons
Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can
pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is
monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and
other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water
is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in
water, and by the formation of lime scale in kettles and water
heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is
commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects. Water's
hardness is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in
the water. Multivalent cations are cations (positively charged metal
complexes) with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have
the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and
Mg2+. These ions enter a water supply by leaching from minerals within
an aquifer. Common calcium-containing minerals are calcite and gypsum.
A common magnesium mineral is dolomite(which also contains calcium)
Temporary hardness is a type of
water hardness caused by the
of dissolved bicarbonate
mineral (calcium bicarbonate and
magnesium bicarbonate). When
dissolved these minerals yield
magnesium cations(Ca2+, Mg2+)
and carbonate and
bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3). The presence of the metal
cations makes the water hard.
However, this "temporary"
hardness can be reduced either
by boiling the water, or by the
addition of lime (calcium
hydroxide) through the
softening process of lime
Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral
content) that cannot be removed by boiling.
When this is the case, it is usually caused by
the presence of calcium sulfate
and/or magnesium sulfates in the water,
which do not precipitate out as
the temperature increases. Ions causing
permanent hardness of water can be
removed using a water softener, or ion
Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium
Hardness + Magnesium Hardness
The calcium and magnesium hardness is the
concentration of calcium and magnesium ions
expressed as equivalent of calcium
Total permanent water hardness expressed
as equivalent of CaCO3 can be calculated with
the following formula: Total Permanent
Hardness (CaCO3) = 2.5(Ca2+) + 4.1(Mg2+)
With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of
producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by
forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium
stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap:
2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca
Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale", are composed
mainly of calcium carbonate(CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide(Mg(OH)2), and calcium
sulfate(CaSO4). Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on
the inside surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers
The presence of ions in an electrolyte, in this case, hard water, can also lead to galvanic
corrosion, in which one metal will preferentially corrode when in contact with another type of
metal, when both are in contact with an electrolyte
The water that lathers readily with
soaps are called soft water. It describes
type of water that contain few or no
minerals like calcium(Ca) or
magnesium(Mg) ions. The term is usually
relative to hard water, which does
contain significant amounts of such ions.
Soft Water mostly comes from peat or
igneous rock sources, such as granite but
may also come from sandstone sources,
since such sedimentary rocks are usually
low in calcium and magnesium.
However, soft water does have negative
side effects and can be bad for the
heart. Thus it should be drunk in
moderation if at all.
What is energy?
Energy is the capacity to do work and transfer heat. Work is performed
when an object or substance is moved over some distance. Energy is needed
to carry out processes, such as boiling water or burning candles. Energy is
also the heat that flows from a hot object or substance to a cold one, when
they come in contact. A clear example of this is the fact that water heats up
when you put in a water boiler device.
Energy has many forms, such as light, heat, electricity, chemical energy
(stored in chemical bonds) and mechanical energy (moving matter, such as
All energy forms are divided up between two main kinds of energy. The first
main kind of energy is kinetic energy, the energy of motion and action. Heat
is a total of kinetic energy of atoms, ions or molecules. When these chemical
compounds are in motion due to kinetic energy they will warm up. You cannot
always detect heat that originates from kinetic energy, because sometimes
the heat of a substance can rise without an additional rise in temperature.
The second main kind of energy is potential energy, energy that is stored and
potentially available for use. Before potential energy can be used it is
transferred into kinetic energy
Hydroelectric power is electricity that is supplied by generating energy
from falling or streaming water. Hydroelectric power is a so-called
renewable energy source. This means that the source, which provides the
energy, can be renewed. This is because, unlike non-renewable energy
sources such as crude oil, we will not run out of water fully. It can be
renewed after we have used it for energy generation.
Water, like many substances, contains two kinds of energy. The first
kind of energy is called kinetic energy. This is energy that is used
during the execution of processes, such as movement. Because of kinetic
energy water can flow and waves can exist.
But water can also contain potential energy. This is energy that is
stored in the water. Stored, but not used. This energy can become
useful when water starts to flow. It will be transferred to kinetic
energy and this will cause movement.
How is energy generated in a hydroelectric power plant?
Read more: http://www.lenntech.com/water-energy-faq.htm#ixzz2m6UsLqWd
A hydroelectric power plant consists of a high dam that is built across a large river
to create a reservoir, and a station where the process of energy conversion to
electricity takes place.
The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of
run-off of seasonal rain and snow in lakes, streams and rivers, during
the hydrological cycle. The run-off flows to dams downstream. The water falls
through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a turbine.
The turbine converts the energy of falling water into mechanical energy to drive
the generator. It turns a shaft, which rotates a number of magnets in the
generator. When the magnets pass copper coils a magnetic field is created, which
aids the production of electricity. Step-up transformers will than increase the
voltage of the electricity, to levels needed for the journey to communities. After
this process has taken place electricity is transferred to the communities through
transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers.
This is entirely not harmful, because no pollutants are added to the water while it
flows through the hydropower plant.
Production of electricity from waves
and tides is an option today. About
twice a day in high as well as low
tides, water flows in and out of
coasts and estuaries. This water can
spin turbines, in order to produce
electricity. But analysts have been
taking a closer look at this form of
energy supply and they believe that
tidal power can only make a tiny
contribution to the world's energy
supply, because of the few suitable
sites, the high construction costs
and the risk of equipment
destruction by saltwater corrosion.
However, there are a few areas with
the right conditions to produce tidal
power. France and Canada own the
largest tidal energy facilities right
Reclaimed water or recycled
water, is former waste
water (sewage) that is treated
to remove solids and certain
impurities, and used
landscaping irrigation or to
recharge groundwater aquifers.
The purpose of these processes
is sustainability and water
conservation, rather than
discharging the treated water
to surface waters such as rivers
and oceans. In some cases,
recycled water can be used for
stream flow augmentation to
benefit ecosystems and improve
Recycled water is filtered, treated and disinfected, and is suitable for a range of uses
All of our water reclamation plants produce Class C recycled water or better. This
water can be used for various purposes including irrigating sporting grounds, public
ovals, golf courses, crops and produce.
In the near future, Class A recycled water will be available for residential use.
Treatment of wastewater is actually a
remarkably simple process that utilizes very
basic physical, biological, and chemical
principles to remove contaminants from
water. Use of mechanical or physical systems
to treat wastewater is generally referred to as
primary treatment, and use of biological
processes to provide further treatment is
Raw sewage is 99.9% water. Large objects such
referred to as secondary treatment. Advanced as sticks and rags are removed from raw sewage
as it passes through bar screens.
secondary treatment usually involves applying
chemical systems in addition to biological ones,
such as injecting chlorine to disinfect the
water. In most of the United States,
wastewater receives both primary and
secondary treatment. Tertiary treatment
methods are sometimes used after primary and
secondary treatment to remove traces of
chemicals and dissolved solids. Tertiary
Next, wastewater is slowed so that settle able
treatment is expensive and not widely practiced organics settle to the bottom while fats, oils,
and greases float to the top.
except where necessary to remove industrial
IT IS USED FOR:
golf course irrigation
cooling water for power plants and oil
processing water for mills, plants