1
Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some
significant decisions may take place through consens...
The Narmada is India's largest westward-flowing
river and is of immense religious and cultural
importance to the people li...
Narmada Bachao Andolan was initiated by Medha Patkar
along with other colleagues. Medha Patkar is a graduate
in social wor...
The decade-long struggle in the Narmada valley has
resulted in suspension of the work on the Sardar
Sarovar dam project th...
Water conservation is a practice in which people,
companies, and governments attempt to reduce
their water usage. The goal...
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of
rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifier. Uses
includ...
1. High Initial investment Costs - The main cost of a rainwater
collection system generally occurs during the initial cons...
The International Committee of the National
Geographic Channel defines watershed on the
basis of the criterion that the ef...
"Sustainable development is
development that meets the needs of
the present, without compromising the
ability of future ge...
Groundwater is a key component of the water
resources for human use and development. It is an
integral part of the Hydrolo...
Energy and water use are closely intertwined.
Most power plants generate power by boiling
water to produce steam that spin...
Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned
into electricity. This is called hydroelectric power or hydro...
The tide moves a huge amount of
water twice each day, and harnessing it
could provide a great deal of energy around 20% of...
The Water Resources Management Division is responsible for
water resources management as per provisions of the
Environment...
Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably
simple process that utilizes very basic physical,
biological, and chemica...
Secondary treatment uses biological processes to remove
most of the remaining contaminants. Many operators of WRC's
consid...
It is important because about 75 percent of earth is
covered in water. It sounds like a lot, but only 1
percent of that is...
Recycled water can satisfy most water demands, as long as it
is adequately treated to ensure water quality appropriate for...
Hard water is any water containing an appreciable
quantity of dissolved minerals. Soft water is treated
water in which the...
The hardness of water can be either
•temporary or
•permanent
Temporary hardness can be removed simply by
boiling the water...
Temporary hardness is caused by calcium and/or
magnesium hydrogencarbonate. These are formed as
carbonated rain water pass...
Skin and hair are affected by hard water
Hard water doesn’t rinse as well as soft water, and a
greater amount of shampoo a...
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Devyani ppt

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  • In January 2000, a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders organised a successful four day general strike in the city. The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. The police resorted to brutal repression when the agitation was started again in February. Another strike followed in April and the government imposed martial law. But the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government concede to all the demands of the protesters. The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. This came to be known as Bolivia’s water war.
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  • Devyani ppt

    1. 1. 1
    2. 2. Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. But that would be an exception. Defining moments of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power. These moments come when the country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute. The resolution has to come from outside, from the people. 2
    3. 3. The Narmada is India's largest westward-flowing river and is of immense religious and cultural importance to the people living on its banks. It is also the subject of the largest river development project in the world, the Narmada Valley Project, which envisages the construction of thirty large and hundreds of small dams along its length. The Save the Narmada Movement (Narmada Bachao Andolan, NBA) is the people's movement that has mobilised itself against this development since the mid- and late-1980s. It has succeeded in generating a debate across the sub-continent which has encapsulated the conflict between two opposing styles of development: one massively destructive of . people and the environment in the quest for largescale industrialisation; the other consisting of replicable small-scale decentralised, democractic and ecologically sustainable options and activities harmoniously integrated with both local communities and nature. 3
    4. 4. Narmada Bachao Andolan was initiated by Medha Patkar along with other colleagues. Medha Patkar is a graduate in social work, who moved to live among the tribals of the Narmada Valley in the mid-1980s and alerted them to the fate that awaited them with the dams. Having founded NBA, she remains one of its main catalysts, strategists and mobilisers. During the Narmada struggle, Patkar has faced repression and has been arrested several times, She also undertook many Satyagrahas (pledge for truth) and long fasts. In a confrontation between NBA supporters and pro-dam forces in 1991, her 21-day fast brought her close to death. Baba Amte, (1914-2008), was one of India's most respected social and moral leaders. Most of his life he devoted to the care and rehabilitation of leprosy patients. His community of a few thousand patients at Anandwan has done much to dispel prejudice against the victims of leprosy. In 1990 he left Anandwan with the words: "I am leaving to live along the Narmada... Narmada will linger on the lips of the nation as a symbol of all struggles against social injustice." 4
    5. 5. The decade-long struggle in the Narmada valley has resulted in suspension of the work on the Sardar Sarovar dam project through the movement as well as the Supreme Court's intervention. NBA questioned and compelled the World Bank that supported the dam with a US$ 450 million loan to review the Sardar Sarovar project. NBA has also exposed fraud in the environment compliance reports and massive corruption in the rehabilitation leading to a judicial inquiry. Even if the wall is complete (122 m high in 2009), the further erection of 17 m high radial gates was not permitted, due to non-compliance on rehabilitation and environmental measures. There are more than 200,000 people in the submergence area of this single dam with the best of agriculture and horticulture and all community life going on with temples, mosques, trees, schools, dispensaries, Government buildings etc. 5
    6. 6. Water conservation is a practice in which people, companies, and governments attempt to reduce their water usage. The goal may be to address an ongoing water shortage or to make lifestyle modifications to be more environmentally friendly. In the late 20th century, water usage emerged as a major issue, especially in the developing world, where many people do not have access to safe drinking water, and the question of conservation began to attract a great deal of attention. One of the most obvious reasons to practice water conservation is in a situation where water supplies are limited. An ongoing drought can restrict the supply, as can a change in water policy, especially in an area where people are dependent on water from other places. Desert regions, for example, rely on water that is shipped, trucked, or moved through aqueducts, so distant policy decisions can directly affect the amount that can be accessed in these areas. 6
    7. 7. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifier. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation. ADVANTAGES : • Makes use of a natural resource and reduces flooding, storm water , erosion, and contamination of surface water with pesticides, sediment, metals, and fertilizers. • Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts and minerals from the soil. • Home systems can be relatively simple to install and operate and it may reduce your water bill. 7
    8. 8. 1. High Initial investment Costs - The main cost of a rainwater collection system generally occurs during the initial construction phase and no benefit is derived until the system is completed. 2. Regular Maintenance - Regular maintenance, cleaning and repair will be required for the operation of a successful rainwater collection system. 3. Vulnerable Water Quality - The quality of rainwater can be affected by air pollution, insects, and dirt or organic matter. The type and kind of construction materials used can also adversely affect water quality. 4. Water Supply is Climate Dependent - Droughts or long periods of time with little or no rain can cause serious problems with your supply of water. 5. Storage Capacity Limits Supply - The supply of water from a rainwater collection system is not only limited by the amount of rainfall but also by the size of the collection area and your storage facilities. 8
    9. 9. The International Committee of the National Geographic Channel defines watershed on the basis of the criterion that the effect of overland flow rather than the effect of channel flow is a dominating factor affecting the peak runoff. On larger watersheds, the effect of channel flow or the basin storage effect becomes very pronounced so that such sensitivities are greatly suppressed. Planning and development of watersheds call for a rigorous understanding of the occurrence and movement of water in the surface and subsurface systems along with soil and nutrient losses in a watershed as the need arises for a proper watershed management of that area. In a country like India, where a lot of running water goes waste, it becomes very important to apply the technology of watershed management to solve its annual problems of droughts and floods. 9
    10. 10. "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." The concept of sustainable development can be interpreted in many different ways, but at its core is an approach to development that looks to balance different, and often competing, needs against an awareness of the environmental, social and economic limitations we face as a society. The longer we pursue unsustainable development, the more frequent and severe its consequences are likely to become, which is why we need to take action now. 10
    11. 11. Groundwater is a key component of the water resources for human use and development. It is an integral part of the Hydrological cycle and is valuable source of water supply. It is mainly governed by geological formations, the nature and extent of aquifer bodies, hydro geological properties and groundwater flow characteristics. Aquifers are quite sensitive to pollution and over-abstraction. There is indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater without simultaneous efforts of recharge. Consequently, the water table in many parts of India has been decreasing at an alarming rate. Due to deforestation, urbanization and absence of planned catchment management, much of rainwater goes untapped directly to the sea without recharging the groundwater. During monsoon, floods arise and cause havoc and in summer after runoff there develops widespread water scarcity. 11
    12. 12. Energy and water use are closely intertwined. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam that spins electricitygenerating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool that steam. Fuel production—coal mining, natural gas extraction, and growing crops for biofuels—also requires extensive water supplies, as does refining fuels for transportation. In places where energy production requires a large share of available water, or where water resources are scarce or stressed by competing pressures, the energy-water connection can turn into a collision—with dangerous implications for both. 12
    13. 13. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydroelectric power or hydropower. The most common type of hydroelectric power plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydroelectric power doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydroelectric power plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine. Another type of hydroelectric power plant - called a pumped storage plant - can even store power. The power is sent from a power grid into the electric generators. The generators then spin the turbines backward, which causes the turbines to pump water from a river or lower reservoir to an upper reservoir, where the power is stored. To use the power, the water is released from the upper reservoir back down into the river or lower reservoir. This spins the turbines forward, activating the generators to produce electricity. A small or micro-hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home, farm, or ranch. 13
    14. 14. The tide moves a huge amount of water twice each day, and harnessing it could provide a great deal of energy around 20% of Britain's needs. Although the energy supply is reliable and plentiful, converting it into useful electrical power is not easy. A huge dam (called a "barrage") is built across a river estuary. When the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the dam. The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine, or it can be used to push air through a pipe, which then turns a turbine. Large lock gates, like the ones used on canals, allow ships to pass. If one was built across the Severn Estuary, the tides at Weston-super-Mare would not go out nearly as far there'd be water to play in for most of the time. 14
    15. 15. The Water Resources Management Division is responsible for water resources management as per provisions of the Environmental Protection Act and the Water Resources Act. The Division has programs to protect, enhance, conserve, develop, control and effectively utilize the water resources of Newfoundland and Labrador. These activities include: Acts as a lead government agency in drinking water quality monitoring and reporting; Regulates public water and wastewater systems; Provides operator education, training and certification to water and wastewater operators; Manages groundwater resources; Manages allocation of water use and grants water rights; Regulates alterations of water bodies; Participates in environmental assessments; Operates and maintains hydrometric, climate and water quality networks; Conducts hydrological modelling studies and; Conducts water use studies for all sectors. 15
    16. 16. Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably simple process that utilizes very basic physical, biological, and chemical principles to remove contaminants from water. Use of mechanical or physical systems to treat wastewater is generally referred to as primary treatment, and use of biological processes to provide further treatment is referred to as secondary treatment. Advanced secondary treatment usually involves applying chemical systems in addition to biological ones, such as injecting chlorine to disinfect the water. In most of the United States, wastewater receives both primary and secondary treatment. Tertiary treatment methods are sometimes used after primary and secondary treatment to remove traces of chemicals and dissolved solids. Tertiary treatment is expensive and not widely practiced except where necessary to remove industrial contaminants. 16
    17. 17. Secondary treatment uses biological processes to remove most of the remaining contaminants. Many operators of WRC's consider themselves "bug farmers" since they are in the business of growing and harvesting a healthy population of microorganisms. Aeration Basins: Water flows into aeration basins where oxygen is mixed with the water. Bacterial microorganisms consume the organic material as food. They convert non-settleable solids to settleable solids and are later themselves captured in final clarifiers, ending up in wastewater biosolids. Final Clarifiers: Most of the solids that settle out in final clarifiers are thickened and digested, but some are returned to the aeration tank to reseed incoming water with hungry microorganisms. 17
    18. 18. It is important because about 75 percent of earth is covered in water. It sounds like a lot, but only 1 percent of that is freshwater, available for serving the water needs of more than 6.6 billion people in the world today. Because of drought and pollution, that 1 percent is slowly dwindling. To make matters worse, the world's population continues to grow, increasing the demand for water. In Southern California, more than 66 percent of our water supply is imported from outside of the region. With these statistics, we hope that you, too, will see the value and importance of recycled water. 18
    19. 19. Recycled water can satisfy most water demands, as long as it is adequately treated to ensure water quality appropriate for the use. In uses where there is a greater chance of human exposure to the water, more treatment is required. As for any water source that is not properly treated, health problems could arise from drinking or being exposed to recycled water if it contains diseasecausing organisms or other contaminants. Recycled water is most commonly used for nonpotable (not for drinking) purposes, such as agriculture, landscape, public parks, and golf course irrigation. Other nonpotable applications include cooling water for power plants and oil refineries, industrial process water for such facilities as paper mills and carpet dyers, toilet flushing, dust control, construction activities, concrete mixing, and artificial lakes. 19
    20. 20. Hard water is any water containing an appreciable quantity of dissolved minerals. Soft water is treated water in which the only cation (positively charged ion) is sodium. The minerals in water give it a characteristic taste. Some natural mineral waters are highly sought for their flavor and the health benefits they may confer. 20
    21. 21. The hardness of water can be either •temporary or •permanent Temporary hardness can be removed simply by boiling the water (see later). Permanent hardness cannot be removed by boiling but can often be removed by chemical treatment (see later). 21
    22. 22. Temporary hardness is caused by calcium and/or magnesium hydrogencarbonate. These are formed as carbonated rain water passes over rocks containing carbonate ions, for example H2O(l) + CO2(g) + CaCO3(s) Ca(HCO3)2(aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g) + MgCO3(s) Mg(HCO3)2(aq) Permanent hardness is caused by calcium and/or magnesium sulphate. These are formed as water passes over rocks containing sulphate ions, for example aq. + CaSO4(s) a2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) aq. + MgSO4(s) g2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) C M 22
    23. 23. Skin and hair are affected by hard water Hard water doesn’t rinse as well as soft water, and a greater amount of shampoo and soap is needed to clean. That means soap residues remain, leaving hair less shiny and skin susceptible to blemishes. Hard water is tough on plumbing Hard water can cause scale to build up on water heaters and pipes, limiting the water flow, reducing the life of the product and increasing operation costs and maintenance on water-using appliances. For example, water heaters last up to 50% longer and consume up to 29% less energy symptoms: Calcified bathroom fixtures and stained sinks Dry, itchy skin Dingy and worn clothing Dull, limp hair Spotted dishes, glasses and silverware Clogged pipes, water heaters and plumbing Soaps that won't lather well or rinse off 23

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