PREJI.M.P, UGC- NET
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Recruitment is a process of
searching for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs.
Recruitment refers to the process of
selecting -----a qualified person for a job.
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The recruitment and selection is the major
function of the human resource department
Recruitment process involves a systematic
procedure from sourcing the candidates to
arranging and conducting the interviews and
it requires many resources and time.
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A general recruitment
process is as follows:
Identifying the vacancy:
The recruitment process begins with the
human resource department receiving
requests for recruitment from any
department of the company.These contain:
• Posts to be filled
• Number of persons
• Duties to be performed
• Qualifications required
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Preparing the job description and Job
Locating and developing the sources of required
number and type of employees (Advertising etc).
Short-listing and identifying the prospective
employee with required characteristics.
Arranging the interviews with the selected
Conducting the interview and decision making
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Objectives of recruitment
It reviews the list of objectives of the
company and tries to achieve them by
promoting the company in the minds of
It forecasts how many people will be required
in the company.
It enables the company to advertise itself and
attract talented people.
It provides opportunities to procure human
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Process of Employment Process
Prepare job description and person specification
Advertising the vacancy
Managing the response
Conducting interview and decision making
The recruitment process is immediately followed by
the selection process
the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the
decision and the appointment formalities.
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Every organisation has the option of choosing the
candidates for its recruitment processes from two
kinds of sources:
internal and external sources.
The sources within the organisation itself (like
transfer of employees from one department to
other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the
internal sources of recruitment.
Recruitment candidates from all the other sources
(like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the
external sources of recruitment.
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Companies can give promotion to existing
employees. This method of recruitment saves
a lot of time, money and efforts because the
company does not have to train the existing
Since the employee has already worked with
the company. He is familiar with the working
culture and working style.
It is a method of encouraging efficient
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This method is used by government
departments to select employees for higher
level posts. The advertisement is put up on
the notice board of the department.
People who are interested must send their
application to the HR department and appear
for the exam.
Successful candidates are given the higher
level job. The method ensures proper
selection and impartiality.
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Many companies adopt transfer as a method
The idea is to select talented personnel from
other branches of the company and transfer
them to branches where there is shortage of
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Many companies call back personnel who
have already retired from the organization.
This is a temporary measure. The method is
beneficial because it gives a sense of pride to
the retired when he is called back and helps
the organization to reduce recruitment,
selection and training cost.
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In this method vacancies in a particular
branch are advertised in the notice board.
People who are interested are asked to apply
for the job.
The method helps in obtaining people who
are ready to shift to another branch of the
same company and it is also beneficial to
people who want to shift to another branch.
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Networking with Employees
In this method Superiors/ Supervisors are
asked to recommend people for jobs.
Since the employee is aware of the working
conditions inside the company he will suggest
people who can adjust to the situation and
those employees who are performing over
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The movement of employees from one job to
another either vertically or laterally within an
Internal mobility is a cluster comprising
of promotion, transfer and separations.
Such movements may take place between
positions in specific areas, departments,
divisions or establishments for employers
with multiple establishments
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Advantages of internal recruitment
Internal methods are time saving.
No separate induction program is required.
The method increases loyalty and reduces
This method is less expensive.
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Disadvantages of internal recruitment
There is no opportunity to get new talent in
The method involves selecting people from
those available in the company so there is
limited scope for selection.
There are chances of partiality.
Chances of employee discontent are very
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Externalmethods/sources of recruitment
External sources of recruitment refer to
methods of recruitment to obtain people
from outside the company. These methods
News paper advertisement
Walk in interview
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Companies may give a contract to
employment agencies that search, interview
and obtain the required number of people.
The method can be used to obtain lower level
and middle level staff.
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When companies are in search of fresh
graduates or new talent they opt for campus
Companies approach colleges, management
or technical institutes, make a presentation
about the company and the job and invite
Interested candidates who have applied are
made to go through a series of selection test
and interview before final selection.
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News paper advertisement
This is one of the oldest and most popular
methods of recruitment. Advertisements for
the job are given in leading news papers; the
details of the job and salary are also
Candidates are given a contact address where
their applications must be sent and are asked
to send their applications within a specified
time limit. The method has maximum reach
and most preferred among all other methods
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Internet advertisement :-
With increasing importance to internet,
companies and candidates have started using
the internet as medium of advertisement and
search for jobs.
There are various job sites like naukri.com
and monster.com etc. candidates can also
post their profiles on these sites. This method
is growing in popularity.
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Walk in interview
Another method of recruitment which is
gaining importance is the walk in interview
An advertisement about the location and
time of walk in interview is given in the news
Candidates require to directly appearing for
the interview and have to bring a copy of
their C.V. with them.
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Advantages of external
There is influx of new talent in the method.
The method encourages more and more
There is lesser chance of partiality through
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Disadvantages of external recruitment
The method is costly because it involves
recruitment cost, selection, training cost.
The method is time consuming.
The method reduces loyalty to the company.
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When all that is through, the aspirants will be
shortlisted based on merit and worth.
The shortlisted candidates may be titled for
an interview on an allotted day.
The candidates may be examined for their
talent and aptitude in the relevant areas by
the experts concerned.
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ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT
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RECRUITMENT Vs SELECTION.
Both recruitment and selection are the two
phases of the employment process
Recruitment is the
process of searching
the candidates for
stimulating them to
apply for jobs in the
selection involves the
series of steps by which
the candidates are
screened for choosing
the most suitable
persons for vacant
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The basic purpose of
recruitment is to create
a pool of candidates to
enable the selection of
best candidates for the
The basic purpose of
selection process is to
choose the right
candidate to fill the
various positions in the
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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging
more and more employees to apply WHEREAS
selection is a negative process as it involves rejection
of the unsuitable candidates.
Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources
of human resources WHEREAS selection is
concerned with selecting the most suitable
candidate through various interviews and tests.
There is no contract of recruitment established in
recruitment WHEREAS selection process results in a
contract of service between the employer and the
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Recruitment is the process of identifying and
receiving human resource from the labour
market for given vacant positions
Selection is the process of choosing from the
eligible human resource.
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Selection can be defined as process of
choosing the right person for the right job.
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RESUME JOB SPECIFICATION
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Contacting is getting in touch with the
shortlisted candidates about
Time , date and venue of written test/ interview
Such contact can be made over telephone,
email or letter
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TYPES OF SELECTION / TESTING
Different selection tests are adopted by
different organization depending upon their
It is a way to ensure that a candidate has
knowledge, skills and aptitude and to ensure
that candidate is competent enough for the
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Aptitude tests are test which assess the
potential and ability of a candidate. It enables
to find out whether the candidate is suitable
for the job.
Aptitude tests measure candidates abilities
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Work Sample Test
These evaluate skills.
A cook may be asked to prepare three- course
menu, a server to lay out a table cover.
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It evaluates oral communication and stress.
The stress is created by making the candidate
pick a topic and speak instantly.
Topic can be deliberately vague to create the
pressure. In stress, even a simple topic can be
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In this test the emotional ability or the
emotional quotient is tested.
This test judges the ability to
work in a group,
inter personal skills,
ability to understand
judge motivation levels.
This test is becoming very popular now days.
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Performance test :-
This test judges and evaluates the acquired
knowledge and experience of the individual
and candidates speed and accuracy in
performing a job.
It is used to test the performance of typist,
data entry operators etc
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TESTING BASED ON Interviews
Directed or Structured
Undirected or Unstructured Interview
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The questions are so framed to solicit an
answer – either “YES” or “ NO”
Eg: are you presently employed?
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Un Directed or Un Structured
The candidate is obliged to give an expanded
explanation and the intention is to make the
candidates talk more.
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Panel interview includes all those involved in
the hiring decision.
They meet together to question a candidate
from their respective perspectives and later
discuss the candidature and give their
decision then and there.
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These are normally held at the final stage or
for senior appointments.
The board consists of senior members of the
organization who brings collective
experiences to ascertain the candidate’s
suitability for the organization.
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The candidates who have successfully cleared
the interview are asked to take a medical
This medical exam may be arranged by the
The organization may have a tie up with the
hospital or the candidate may be asked to get
a certificate from a registered doctor.
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BACK GROUND CHECKS
COMMON BACK GROUND CHECKS INCLUDES
Verification of academic credentials
Verification of prior employment
Discussions with personal references
Criminal background checks
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Will send cleverly designed questionnaires
seeking opinions on performance of the
candidates to all referees. They will compare
the ratings of the various referees.
This approach makes good sense as past
performance and is a strong predictor of
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Initial job offer/ Offer Letter
Candidates who successfully clear the
medical exam are given an initial job offer by
the company stating the details regarding
salary, terms of employment, employment
bond if any etc.
The candidate is given some time to think
over the offer and to accept or reject.
It shows the intent of an organisation to
provide the employment to a candidate in
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It consists of
Date of Joining
Salary and Benefits
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Candidates who are happy with the offer
send their acceptance within a specified time
limit to show that they are ready to work with
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Letter of appointment/final job
Candidates who send their acceptance are
given the letter of appointment. The letter
will state the name of the job.
The salary and other benefits, number of
medical leaves and casual leaves, details of
employment bond if any etc.
It will also state the date on which the
employee is required to start duty in the
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To Sum up- Appointment
letter briefs about
Salary and benefits
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Joining formalities and follow
Copies of original certificates
Copies of references
Issue of an Identity Card
Information to accounts for the payment of salary
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On the date of joining the employee is
introduced to the company along with the
newly recruited through an elaborate
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Contents of induction programme
Provide information about following…
Brief history and operations of the company.
Company’s organizational structure.
Benefits & services of the company.
Terms & conditions of service including wages,
working hours, holiday’s etc…
Opportunities for training promotions, transfers etc..
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To give basic introduction
To welcome employee in an
To make them familiar
with working culture.
To understand the goals &
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