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  2. 2. CONTENTS 1) Introduction to automation 2) Industrial Automation 3) History of automation 4) Components of Industrial Automation 5) What is PLC 6) Components of PLC 7) PLC Programming Fundamentals 8) Applications of PLC 9) Advantages and Disadvantages 10) SCADA-Definition and Components 11) Features of SCADA 12) Application of SCADA 13) Future scope of automation 14) Conclusion 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION Automation= “Auto”(self) + “Matos”(moving) •A step beyond mechanisation • Use of computers to control the particular process with minimal human involvement •Increases the efficiency and productivity of the system •Time taken for a process is less BEFORE AFTER 3
  4. 4. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION Use of control systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to replace a human being Industrial automation = process + automation 4
  6. 6. 6 COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION 1. Sensors : Examples- temperature, pressure, velocity 2. Actuators: Examples- Relays, magnets, servomotors 3. Automation computers: microcontrollers,plc ,personal computers 4. Automation software system: Set of all programs necessary for the execution of automation tasks. PLC actuators sensors
  7. 7. 7 WHAT IS PLC? • PLC - programmable logic controller • Conceived by Dick Morley in 1968 • A special form of microprocessor-based controller that uses a programmable memory to store instructions and to implement functions • Can be programmed by non-specialists • The automation of many different processes, such as controlling machines or factory assembly lines, is done through the use of these small computers . • Designed for (logic) control and regulation tasks. Continued....
  9. 9. 9 COMPONENTS OF PLC 1.The CPU :Contains Microprocessor which interprets the input signals and carries out the control actions, according to the program stored in its memory The CPU consists of following blocks :  Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU),  Internal memory of CPU  Internal timers ,counters . 2.Memory: Used to store programs, data and information in PLC >ROM and RAM are the types of memory used. 3.Input modules: receives data from field devices, and sends it to processor. Ex. Of i/p field devices: digital-Switches, Pushbuttons. analog-LVDT,RTD 4.Output module: Receives command from the processor and give it to the output field devices. Ex. Of o/p field devices: digital: lamps, relay. analog: motor spring, position of valve
  10. 10. 10 COMPONENTS OF PLC 5.Power supply: Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC components. 6.Programming device: The programming terminal is used for programming the PLC and monitoring/sequencing PLCs operation.
  11. 11. 11 PLC OPERATION  CHECK INPUT STATUS First the PLC takes a look at each I/O to determine if it is on or off.  EXECUTE PROGRAM Next the PLC executes the program one instruction at a time.  UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs .It updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step. For example
  12. 12. PLC PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS AND EXAMPLES Software used :RSLOGIX 500 (for micrologix Allen Bradley PLC) RSLOGIX 5000( for control logics and compact logic PLCs) Ladder Diagram is the most used programming language which has been specified by IEC 1131-3 which is the international standard for programmable controller programming languages. >Developed to mimic relay logic Basics : RUNGES RAIL RAIL • vertical lines represent the power rails between which circuits are connected. •The power flow is taken to be from the left-hand vertical across a rung • Each rung defines one operation. • A ladder diagram is read from left to right and from top to bottom, 1. RAIL AND RUNG 12
  13. 13. 13 BASICS: 2.CONTACTS- a. XIO:Examine if open-It acts like a Normally closed push button b. XIC:Examine if closed-It acts like a Normally open push button 3. RELAY COILS- The Output Energize (OTE) instruction looks and operates like a relay coil. >When set to 1 ,energizes the output. 13 (CONTACT) (CONTACT) COILS Continued…
  14. 14. 14 INSTRUCTION ADDRESSING To complete the entry of an instruction, addressing is needed..which will indicate what input is connected to what input device, same for the output. Let’s first understand the memory system: Two fundamental types :- Program and Data files Contains number of locations, numbered from 0 to 999. > For the input ‘I:’ and output ’O:’ files, these locations are converted to physical locations on the PLC using rack and slot numbers. Continued....
  15. 15. 15 INSTRUCTION ADDRESSING Example-1 I:3/12 O:2/3 O:0 O:1 O:2 O:3 O:4 O:5 O:6 O:7 This is a o:2/3
  16. 16. 16 BASICS: TIMER COIL : When its coil is energized, must wait for a fixed length of time before closing its contact or must close its contact for some time only. STATUS BITS: TT(timer timing),DN(done) TYPES: 1.TON(TIMER ON DELAY) 2.TOFF(TIMER OFF DELAY) 3.RTO(RETENTIVE TIMER ON) EXAMPLE: I:2/3 PLC O:5/1 O:5/2 TT =1 when rung =1, remain set until rung=0/DN bit=1 DN=0 until preset value=accumulated value ,remain set until rung=0.
  17. 17. BASICS: COUNTER COIL : Counting is critical in industrial application. >Primary Counter Types: >UP Counters - PLC sense how many finished products leaving the machine >Down Counters - PLC sense how many parts are left >Up/Down Counters - PLC monitors an automated storage system to track how many are coming and how many are leaving to determine total number in stock >Choice used depend on the task I:2/1 I:2/3 O:5/1 O:5/2
  18. 18. 18 APPLICATION  Manufacturing / Machining  Food / Beverage Textile Industry  Travel Industry  Aerospace  Printing Industry EXAMPLE-RO PLANT
  19. 19. 19 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • PLC Devices Are Proprietary • Initial Costs Are High •There's Too Much Work Required In Connecting Wires • Unemployment Rate Increases
  20. 20. 20 SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. It generally refers to an industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. SCADA The major function of SCADA is for acquiring data from remote devices such as valves, pumps, transmitters etc. and providing overall control This provides process control locally so that these devices turn on and off at the right time, supporting the control strategy. Softwares used:WONDERWARE INTOUCH ALLEN BRADLEY- RSVIEW32
  22. 22. 22 Features of SCADA ALARMS TRENDS SCRIPTS
  23. 23. 23 APPLICATION 1.MANUFACTURING 2.Food industry 3.Telecom and information technology 4.Wastewater treatment ONCE AND NOW.....
  24. 24. 24 FUTURE SCOPE OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION >It will generate explosive growth with : >MEMS and NANOTECHNOLOGY >Machine to machine networking (M2M) >Wireless technology CONCLUSION Automation has many advantages over human operators. Improves the economy of industries, society and humanity. SCADA and PLC are the most important automation tools. SCADA is used for controlling and monitoring activities. PLC is used for automating things.
  25. 25. 25 1. Hugh Jack, Automated Manufacturing Systems PLCs (Second Draft), page number-16 to 28, Hugh Jack, 1993-2001 2. Kevin Collins, PLC Programming for Industrial Automation, page number-5 to 18, Kevin Collins 3.Bentley systems, The fundamentals of SCADA,page number-1 to 18 ,Bentley systems,2004 4. W.Bolton, Programmable Logic Controllers, page number-12 to 80, Elsevier Newnes, 1996 5. industrial-automation 6. 7. 8. 9. industrial-automation 10. REFERENCES
  26. 26. 26 THANK YOU! ANY QUERIES??