Chapter one


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Chapter one

  1. 1. Chapter One<br />Meghan Preissing<br />Sped 413/513<br />MSUM<br />January 14, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Foundations of Special Education<br />The Law<br />Public Law 94-142, IDEA, NCLB, Section 504, and ADA<br />Research<br />Evidence-based instruction practices<br />Teachers<br />The individuals responsible for the learning environment of the students<br />Parents<br />The parents of students serviced in special education play a vital role in education decisions for their child.<br />Students<br />Individuals with disabilities rights <br />
  3. 3. Public Law 94-142<br />Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act (EAHCA)<br />Required states to provide student’s with disabilities a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)<br />This act also provided funding to the states to expand and improve their special education programs<br />This was passed in 1975<br />
  4. 4. IDEA<br />Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) is the new name for PL 94- 142<br />IDEA includes many regulations for states that PL 94-142 did not<br />Important elements of IDEA<br />Students must be educated in the Least Restrictive Environment(LRE)<br />LRE – giving special Ed. students as much exposure to the general classroom and general curriculum appropriate for their individual needs <br />Requires schools to develop individual education plans (IEP) for special education students<br />Established procedural safeguards to protect the rights of parents and students<br />
  5. 5. IDEA 2004<br />IDEA 2004 is the most recent authorization of IDEA<br />IDEA 2004 emphasizes<br />Student and teacher accountability<br /> the use of Response to Intervention <br />Greater inclusion of students with disabilities into the general education classroom<br />
  6. 6. NCLB<br />No Child Left Behind Act passed in 2001<br />Changed general and special education<br />Increased accountability by testing students to ensure they were meeting statewide standards in reading and math<br />Allows parents and students to choose different schools if their current school is not meeting annual yearly progress <br />Required higher qualifications of teachers<br />Gave schools greater flexibility in the use of education funds<br />Put greater emphasis on reading by increasing the use of research based instruction<br />
  7. 7. NCLB and IDEA<br />NCLB and IDEA (2004) were both created to increase the success of schools in America<br />These changes resulted in a standards based education system <br />Teachers and school districts teaching to ensure all children reach content standards and performance standards<br />
  8. 8. IDEA and NCLB<br />These two laws also changed education by emphasizing the following<br />Inclusion<br />Response to Intervention<br />Multi tiered instruction<br />Universal Design for Learning<br />Differentiated Instruction<br />Evidence –Based Practice<br />Diversity <br />Empowerment<br />
  9. 9. Inclusion<br />“Inclusion does not refer to a physical space; it refers to a condition or state of being.” (Polloway, Patton, & Serna, 2008).<br /> Inclusion is a right of students with disabilities<br />Students with disabilities are given the opportunity to feel like they belong to a group<br />Individuals with disabilities are given access to general classroom, school activities, and respect by their peers<br />
  10. 10. Response to Intervention (RTI)and Multi tiered instruction<br />Students are taught using research based instruction<br />This instruction is set up into three tiers <br />Tier one - High quality core instruction<br />Tier two – High quality targeted supplemental instruction<br />Tier three – High quality intensive instruction<br />Learners are identified as learning disabled after they have responded unsuccessfully to multiple instruction interventions (RTI)<br />
  11. 11. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) <br /> UDL is used so students with different needs can all learn, be challenged, and feel success while being taught together<br />Activities and assessments are flexible to meet the needs of the students and their individual goals<br />Accommodations and modifications are established prior to lesson implementation so many students can learn simultaneously<br />
  12. 12. Differentiated Instruction<br /> UDL and differentiated instruction when used together have the potential to make learning a positive experience for a variety of students<br />Differentiated instruction involves making the challenge appropriate for students of different abilities<br />Differentiated instruction also involves teaching using different types of instruction designed for different types of intelligences<br />
  13. 13. Evidence – based practice<br />Researchers and teachers coming together to create repeatable educational methods<br />Research and education have not always aligned because of different perspectives but, now there is more emphasis on the importance of them intertwining<br />Teachers who use proven instructional methods increase the success of their students<br />Researchers who design tests to meet the needs of teachers and students increase the success of students<br />
  14. 14. Diversity and Empowerment<br />Educators must be aware of the diverse needs of their students<br />Students are diverse in many ways<br />Behavior<br />Culture<br />Race<br />Setting<br />Economic status<br />Sexual orientation<br />Intellect<br />Development<br />Physical ability<br />Teachers must empower their students by raising their confidence and determination<br />Teachers can empower students by teaching them these skills<br />Decision making<br />Problem solving<br />Independent living<br />Goal setting<br />Self-understanding<br />Leadership<br />Self-advocacy<br />Locus of control<br />
  15. 15. ADA and Section 504<br />Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 are two civil rights acts that protect students with disabilities as well <br />These acts ensure that those with disabilities have access to public buildings and programs that receive federal funding<br />Students who do not qualify for special education services under IDEA may receive assistance through Section 504<br />
  16. 16. Special Education<br />Parents, teachers, and students come together to provide proper instruction and tools to give students with disabilities a meaningful life as independent as possible<br />