SEMINARONSTRUCTURE OF ANTIBODYPRESENTED BYPREETI MADHARIAM.Sc. PREVIOUS (BIOTECHNOLOGY)
CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONHISTORYPROPERTIES OF ANTIBODYENZYMATIC EXPERIMENTS WITH ANTIBODYSTRUCTURE OF ANTIBODYTYPES OF ANTIBODYFUNCTIONS OF ANTIBODYCONCLUSIONREFERENCES
INTRODUCTION Antibodies are the antigens binding proteins presenton B cell membrane and secreted by plasma cells. Antibodies are active serum proteins formed inresponse to an antigen and react specifically withthat antigen.HISTORY Antibodies were contained in particular serum protein fractionscame from a classic experiment by A.Tiselius and E.A. Kabat in1939. Rodney Porter in 1962 proposed the basic structure of antibody.
PROPERTIES OF ANTIBODY Antibody is a glycoprotein. Antibody is a “Y” shaped molecules. Antibody is made up of four polypeptide chain. Antibody is heterodimeric structure. All antibodies are immunoglobulins ,but allimmunoglobulins may not be antibodies. Antibodies contain disulphide bonds.
ENZYMATIC EXPERIMENT WITH ANTIBODYB- marcaptoethanol
STRUCTURE OF ANTIBODYHingeregionAntibody DomainsVHVCFabFcDisulphideBondVC
TYPES OF ANTIBODY(PENTAMER)(DIMER)(MONOMER)(MONOMER)(MONOMER)Light chainHeavy chain
FUNCTIONS OF ANTIBODIES The main function of antibody is protect the body against antigen. The protective role is carried out into different ways-1. By Direct :-a) Precipitation : - Antibody combines with soluble antigensand form a lattice is known asprecipitation reaction.b) Agglutination :- The interaction between antibody and aparticulate antigens result in visibleclumping is known as agglutination.c) Opsonisation :- A process by which Phagocytotic cell isfacilated by deposition of opsonin isknown as opsonisation.
2. By Indirect :-a) Activation of complement system :- Complement is aset of plasma protein that is activated by bindingantigens.b) Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity(ADCC):-It is a form of lymphocytes mediated cytotoxicity inwhich an effector kills an antibody coated target cell.
CONCLUSIONAntibody is a glycoproteins which helps toimmune system. It has an antigen binding sitethrough which it is attached to the foreign particlesor antigens like bacteria, viruses etc and degradethem.
REFERENCES Kuby J. Antibodies: Structure and functions(pg. 76-101) Immunology 5th ed. Fatima D. Immunoglobulins (pg.81-99), Saraspublication Websites:www.qwickstep.comwww.biochemistry4all.comwww.dels-old.nas.eduwww.medicine.virginia.eduwww.goodpsych.com