Prof. Preeti BhaskarSymbiosis Centre for Management Studies, Noida
The process of getting things done, by othersefficiently and effectively in order to achieveorganizational goalsAccording to Mary Parker Follett Management isthe “art of getting things done through people”
EFFICIENTLYUsing resources wisely andin a cost-effective wayEFFECTIVELYMaking the right decisions andsuccessfully implementing themAndAnd
Achieving pre-determined goalsEnsuring Maximum Utilization of resourcesOvercoming CompetitionEnsuring integration with changing environmentFulfilling social responsibilitiesCoordination
Management as an artManagement as a ScienceManagement as a Profession
Existence of theoretical knowledgePersonalized ApplicationBased on Practice and Creativity
Systematic body of knowledgePrinciples based on experimentUniversal validity
Well defined body of knowledgeRestricted EntryProfessional AssociationEthical code of conductService motive
Fayol divided business activities into six categoriesTechnical activitiesCommercial activitiesFinancial activitiesSecurity activitiesAccounting activitiesManagerial activities
TOP LEVELMANAGEMNTMIDDLE LEVELMANAGEMNTSUPERVISORY/LOWER LEVELMANAGEMNT
Responsible for providing the overall direction ofan organizationDevelop goals and strategies for entireorganizationSpend most of their time planning and leadingCommunicate with key stakeholders—stockholders, unions, governmental agencies,etc., company policiesUse of multicultural and strategic actioncompetencies to lead firm is crucial
They execute the plans of the organization in accordancewith the policies and directives of the top management.They make plans for the sub-units of the organization.They participate in employment & training of lower levelmanagement.They interpret and explain policies from top levelmanagement to lower level.They are responsible for coordinating the activities within thedivision or department.It also sends important reports and other important data totop level management.They evaluate performance of junior managers.They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managerstowards better performance.
Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities.They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity ofproduction.They are also entrusted with the responsibility ofmaintaining good relation in the organization.They help to solve the grievances of the workers.They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc forgetting the things done.They prepare periodical reports about the performance ofthe workers.They ensure discipline in the enterprise.
Includes defining goals, establishing strategy,and developing plans to coordinate activities- :STRATEGIC PLANNINGTACTICAL PLANNING.OPERATIONAL PLANNING.
Strategic planning involves analyzing competitiveopportunities and threats, as well as the strengthsand weaknesses of the organization, and thendetermining how to position the organization tocompete effectively in their environment.Strategic planning has a long time frame, often threeyears or more. Strategic planning generally includesthe entire organization and includes formulation ofobjectives.
Tactical planning is intermediate-range planningthat is designed to develop relatively concrete andspecific means to implement the strategic plan.Middle-level managers often engage in tacticalplanning. Tactical planning often has a one- tothree-year time horizon.
Operational planning is short-range planning thatis designed to develop specific action steps thatsupport the strategic and tactical plans.Operational planning usually has a very short timehorizon, from one week to one year
Includes determining what tasks to be done, whois to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped,who reports to whom, and where decisions are tobe made-:Identification of activities.Classification of grouping of activities.Assignment of duties.Delegation of authority and creation ofresponsibility.Coordinating authority and responsibility
Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms ofsearching, choose the person and giving the right place).Recruitment, selection & placement.Training & development.Remuneration.Performance appraisal.Promotions & transfer.
It is that part of managerial function which actuatesthe organizational methods to work efficiently forachievement of organizational purposesSupervisionMotivationLeadershipCommunication
Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates bytheir superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work &workers.Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging thesub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative,monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for thispurpose.Leadership- may be defined as a process by which managerguides and influences the work of subordinates in desireddirection.Communications- is the process of passing information,experience, opinion etc. from one person to another. It is abridge of understanding.
It implies measurement of accomplishment againstthe standards and correction of deviation if any toensure achievement of organizational goals.Establishment of standard performance.Measurement of actual performance.Comparison of actual performance with the standardsand finding out deviation if any.Corrective action.
Ability of an individual to analyze complexsituations and to rationally process and interpretavailable information.For e.g.: Idea generation and analytical process ofinformation.
A persons’ knowledge and ability to make effectiveuse of any process or technique constitutes histechnical skills.For e.g: Engineer, accountant, data entry operator,lawyer, doctor etc.
An individuals’ ability to cooperate with othermembers of the organization and work effectivelyin teams.For e.g.: Interpersonal relationships, solvingpeople’s problem and acceptance of otheremployees.
Figurehead-performs routine duties of a legal orsocial natureLeader- give direct commands and orders tosubordinates and make decisionsLiaison-coordinate between differentdepartments and establish alliances betweendifferent organizations
Monitor- evaluate the performance of managersin different functionsDisseminator-communicate to employees theorganization’s vision and purposeSpokesperson- give a speech to inform the localcommunity about the organization’s futureintentions
Entrepreneur- commit organization resources to developinnovative goods and servicesDisturbance handler- to take corrective action to deal withunexpected problems facing the organization from theexternal as well as internal environmentResource allocator- allocate existing resources amongdifferent functions and departmentsNegotiator- work with suppliers, distributors and laborunions
Basis Administration ManagementMeaning It is concerned with formulation ofbroad objectives, plans & policiesManagement is an art of getting thingsdone through others by directing theirefforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals.Nature of work Primarily related to the determinationof objectives and laying down thepoliciesTo give practical shape to the policies toachieve pre determined objectivesScope Important decision are taken andwider than managementDecision are taken within the limits laiddown by the administrationLevel of function Administrative function are performedby top level managersManagerial functions are performed bymiddle and lower level managersEffect of external andinternal factorsAdministrative decision are affected byoutside factors like social, political andlegal etc.Management process are affected byinternal factors like policies objectives etc.Consideration Owners who are called administratorsare given profitsManagers are given salary for theirservicesSkills Conceptual skills Technical and Human skills