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Instructional Approaches
MS. PREETI BHASKAR
ASSISTANTPROFESSOR
ICFAIBUSINESSSCHOOL,DEHRADUN
Instructional strategies
Instructional strategies are the techniques
used by educators plus learning and
development professionals to instruct and
teach students and train workers.
10 Best instructional strategies.
Micro-learning
Spaced Repetition
Gamification
Prizing instructional strategies
Peer Learning
Mobile Learning
Just in Time training (JITT)
Integrated translation
Interactivity
Leaderboards
https://www.edapp.com/blog/instructional-strategies/
Delivery
Method
Type of Training Suggested
On-the-job
coaching
Technical training
Skills training
Managerial training
Safety training
Mentor
Technical training
Skills training
Managerial training
Safety training
Brown bag
lunch
Quality training
Soft skills training
Professional training
Safety training
Web-based
Technical training
Quality training
Skills training
Soft skills training
Professional training
Team training
Managerial training
Safety training
Job
shadowing
Technical training
Quality training
Skills training
Safety training
Job swapping
Technical training
Quality training
Skills training
Professional training
Team training
Managerial training
Safety training
Vestibule
training
Technical training
Quality training
Skills training
Soft skills training
Professional training
Team training
Managerial training
Safety training
Traditional Training Methods
Traditional training methods
• Require an instructor or facilitator
• Involve face-to-face interactions
TRADITIONALTRAINING METHODS
Group
Buildin
g
Metho
ds
Presentati
on
Methods
Hands
on
Metho
ds

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Instructional Approaches.pptx

  • 1. Instructional Approaches MS. PREETI BHASKAR ASSISTANTPROFESSOR ICFAIBUSINESSSCHOOL,DEHRADUN
  • 2. Instructional strategies Instructional strategies are the techniques used by educators plus learning and development professionals to instruct and teach students and train workers.
  • 3. 10 Best instructional strategies. Micro-learning Spaced Repetition Gamification Prizing instructional strategies Peer Learning Mobile Learning Just in Time training (JITT) Integrated translation Interactivity Leaderboards https://www.edapp.com/blog/instructional-strategies/
  • 4. Delivery Method Type of Training Suggested On-the-job coaching Technical training Skills training Managerial training Safety training Mentor Technical training Skills training Managerial training Safety training Brown bag lunch Quality training Soft skills training Professional training Safety training Web-based Technical training Quality training Skills training Soft skills training Professional training Team training Managerial training Safety training Job shadowing Technical training Quality training Skills training Safety training Job swapping Technical training Quality training Skills training Professional training Team training Managerial training Safety training Vestibule training Technical training Quality training Skills training Soft skills training Professional training Team training Managerial training Safety training
  • 5. Traditional Training Methods Traditional training methods • Require an instructor or facilitator • Involve face-to-face interactions
  • 9. Standard Lectures Team Teaching Guest Lectures Panels Student Presentations
  • 10. Standard Lectures Team Teaching Guest Lectures Panels Student Presentations
  • 16. Technology-Based Training Methods New technologies have made it possible to: • Reduce costs associated with delivering training • Increase effectiveness of the learning environment • Help training contribute to business goals
  • 17. New Technologies Used for Training
  • 20. Four Components of Instructional Framework 1. Instructional Models • Represent the broadest level of instructionalpractices • Present a philosophical orientation to instruction • Used to select and structure teaching strategies,methods, skills, and learner activities • 4 Instructional Models: • Information Processing • Personal • Social Interaction • Behavioral
  • 21. Four Components of Instructional Framework 2. Instructional Strategies • Determine the approach taken by an instructor to achieve learning objectives • 5 categories: o Direct o Indirect o Interactive Experiential o Independent Study
  • 22. Four Components of Instructional Framework 3. Instructional Methods • Used by an instructor to create learning environments • Specify nature of learning activities o Direct o Indirect o Interactive Experiential o Independent Study
  • 23. • Represent the most specific instructional behaviors • Examples: questioning, discussing, explaining, demonstrating, planning, and structuring Four Components of Instructional Framework 4. Instructional Skills
  • 25. • Instructor must focus on: ▫ Curriculum ▫ Prior experiences and knowledge of learners ▫ Learners’ interests ▫ Learners’ learning styles ▫ Developmental levels of learners • Employ variety of strategies to meet learning objectives How to Choose Instructional Strategies
  • 26. • Highly teacher-directed and usually deductive • Effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills • Includes instructional methods such as: ▫ lecture ▫ didactic questioning ▫ explicit teaching ▫ practice and drill ▫ demonstrations 1. Direct Instruction Direct Instruction 2
  • 27. Example Direct Instruction Method Lecture Purpose/Description • Presentation and clarification of information, usually to a large group. • Lectures are more effective when designed to spark group discussion and when main ideas are demonstrated with visual aids. Type Mostly Instructor-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. Can you develop interest in the lecture? 2. Are there appropriate audio-visual support systems? 3. Can you pose questions in your lectures? 4. How can visual aids be incorporated in order to make the lecture more effective? 5. How can the lecture used to spark discussion?
  • 28. • Learner-centered strategy • Role of instructor shifts from lecturer/director to that of • facilitator, supporter, and resource person • Seeks a high level of learner involvement in: • ▫ observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data,forming • hypotheses • Includes instructional methods such as: • ▫ reflective discussion • ▫ concept formation • ▫ concept attainment • ▫ problem solving • ▫ guided inquiry 2. Indirect Instruction 28
  • 29. Example Method Inquiry Purpose/Description • Toinvolve learners in conveying content. • It promotes understanding and clarification of concepts, ideas, and feelings. • Reflective discussions encourage learners to think and talk about what they have observed, heard or read. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method: 1. Do you want learners to be actively involved in the activity? 2. How much time is available? 3. Is there time to clarify differences? Is there time for conclusions and follow up? 4. Do you have to listen to all interactions/conversations taking place? 5. Is divergent thinking a desirable end? 6. Would other strategies work better or just as well? 7. How much control do you need? 8. Can interest be aroused and maintained? 2
  • 30. • Learner-centered strategy • Relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants • Allows learners to learn from peers and instructors to: ▫ develop social skills and abilities ▫ organize their thoughts ▫ to develop rational arguments • Includes a range of interactive instructional methods, such as: ▫ whole-class discussions ▫ small group discussions or projects ▫ learner pairs or groups working on assignments together 3. Interactive Instruction
  • 31. Example Method Small-group Discussion Purpose/Description • Toexplore a problem or an area of study, engage in discussion and/or hands-on tasks in order to investigate problems, and find solutions/reach conclusions •It requires active participation in questioning events and in putting several factors together (conceptualizing) to explore a hypothesis or theory. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. Does the content/subject require active learning in concept development? 2. How much teacher guidance can you provide? 3. Which questions are more effective and most productive? 4. How can enough information be gained in order to allow for the formation of hypotheses? 5. What will be learned about the inquire process?
  • 32. • Learner-centered, inductive, and activity-oriented strategy • Emphasis on the learning process rather than the product • Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learning to other contexts are critical factors • It can be viewed as a cycle consisting of 5 phases: ▫ experiencing ▫ sharing ▫ analyzing ▫ inferring ▫ applying • It includes instructional methods, such as: ▫ surveys, ▫ role-play, ▫ simulations, ▫ field trips, ▫ observations, ▫ modelbuilding, ▫ experiments 4. Experiential Learning
  • 33. Example Method Surveys Purpose/Description Togather large amounts of information from groups of people. A sample (group of people) is selected and then a number of questions are asked of each person. Information is collected, results are put together and conclusions are formed. The survey and results are then presented in an appropriate format. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. Is divergent thinking a desirable end? 2. What questions will be asked during the survey? 3. Who will be surveyed? 4. How will the information be recorded? 5. What is the most appropriate way to analyze and present the data collected? 3
  • 34. • Encourages learners to take responsibility for planning and pacing their own learning • Helps learners become self-sufficient and responsible citizens by enhancing individual potential • Initiated by learners or instructors and focuses on planned independent study by learners under the guidance or supervision of an instructor • Includes instructional methods purposefully provided to foster the development of individual learner initiative, self-reliance, and self- improvement, such as: ▫ learning contracts, research projects, reports, and essays. 5. Independent Study 3
  • 35. Example Method Learning Contracts Purpose/Description • Tocommunicate plans of intended learning objectives developed by the learner alone or in conjunction with the teacher. • Learners agree to complete assignments, or they may, with teacher approval, select their own topics of study, and assume major part of the responsibility for forming objectives, developing and selecting activities, and securing materials needed to complete the activities. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. What work do you wish to include in the contract? 2. What books or other resources are available to the learner? 3. How long will it take to develop a detailed plan, to gather resources, and to finish the assignment? 4. What criteria will you use to evaluate the work produced? 3
  • 37. Questions to Determine Choice and Appropriateness of a Strategy • What knowledge, skill, or attitude needs to be learned? • How much preparation time is available? • Would other strategies work better or just as well? • How much control do you need? • Can interest be aroused and maintained? 3
  • 38. What is Internal Training? Internal training methods involve the use of company’s own resources and expertise to develop and deliver the specific type of training. It is cost-effective, informal, and brings improvement in the existing training methods and employee communication. Furthermore, it facilitates employees in understanding and following their trainers easily due to workplace familiarity.
  • 39. • Internal training is a cost-effective, encouraged, effective method for training employees. Whether the training is provided on the job, from informal or formal coaches and mentors, or in internal seminars, brown bag lunches, or conferences, internal training has the potential to positively impact employee learning and development. https://www.thebalancecareers.com/tap-the-power-of-internal-training-1919298
  • 40. Internal, on-the-job training includes such activities as: • Invite the employee to contribute to the department or company-wide decisions and planning. • Provide the employee with access to a higher level, more strategic, planning meetings. • Provide more information by including the employee on specific mailing lists, in company briefings, and in your confidence. • Enable the employee to establish goals, priorities, and measurements. • Assign the responsibility of teaching machine operation, quality standards, production standards, and safety practices to employees who train new employees or employees who are new to the work area. • Assign supervisory or team leader responsibilities, or function as an assistant lead while learning. • Assign the employee to head up projects or teams, or function as an assistant lead while learning. • Enable the employee to spend more time with his or her boss in a coaching / mentoringrelationship. Set goals for employee development as a team. • Provide the opportunity for the employee to cross-train in other roles and responsibilities.
  • 41. Mentoring and Coaching • Mentoring, coaching, and field trips, both inside and outside the company, help employees develop their skills and knowledge. Employees who "teach others" most effectively incorporate the knowledge and skills themselves. • Assign the employee a formal mentor from within his or her work group. The more experienced employee has the responsibility to help the employee learn the skills necessary to succeed in their job. • Sponsor a "take a coworker to work" day, as one of my clients did. Employees applied to participate and spent the day learning about another job function within the company. As an example, a developer spent the day learning about public relations. Human Resources sponsored a debriefing lunch to gather the employees' takeaways, explore their learning, and improve the experience for the future. • Encourage employees to seek out informal mentors on their own in areas of needed development and interest.
  • 42. Internal Training Sessions • Internal training sessions and methods are effective. Especially if they offer employees new skills and ideas, internal training, reading, and meeting can replace much external training in organizations. Internal training is also cost effective and the training facilitator or resource remains available daily to participants following the training session. • Offer an internal training session. The facilitator can be an employee or a trainer or consultant with whom the organization has developed a relationship over time. This ensures that the trainer is cognizant of the organization's culture and needs. • Require employees to train other employees when they attend an external training seminar or conference; they can share the information learned at a seminar or training session. Offer the time at a department meeting, a brown bag lunch, or a scheduled training session to discuss the information or present the information learned externally to others. • Purchase relevant business books for employees. To compound the impact of reading, sponsor an employee book club during which employees discuss a current book and apply its concepts to your company. • Offer commonly-needed training and information on an Intranet, an internal company website. This works effectively for new employee orientation and gives new employees a source to check following the orientation, too. • Provide training by either knowledgeable employees or an outside expert in a brown bag lunch format. Employees eat lunch and gain knowledge about a valuable topic. Survey employees to determine interest or ask Human Resources staff to consolidate training needs from employee performance development plans (PDPs). • Sponsor an internal conference at which employees can learn new ideas and skills. You can mimic an external conference with lunch and all of the trappings of an external conference at a local conference center. Offer conference sessions taught by internal staff on topics of interest to their internal audience. Picture a real day-long conference and you'll see the opportunity to cross-train across departments, utilize the skills of internal employees, and tap the knowledge of informed resources such as your health insurance provider or your 401(k) source.
  • 43. Internal training Pros • Internal training sessions are easy to set up as you already have everyone and everything that you need. Because of this, it’s also quicker and cheaper to organize. • A senior team member training junior team members can help to build relationships and a team dynamic. The person conducting the training session may even learn something new from their junior team members. • Internal training sessions don’t just inform new hires or offer refreshers to older team members, though. They can also reinforce the tutor’s knowledge and help them to find any gaps in it. Discovering these gaps in their knowledge means that they won’t get caught out in the future and can improve their sales pitch. Cons • Internal knowledge has its limits. The longer we work for a company or with a particular person/team, the easier it is to fall into the trap of groupthink. • We’re also more likely to become isolated and stuck in our ways of doing things, which, long-term, can be detrimental. • In the age of technology, every industry is changing rapidly. Teams or companies that live in a silo risk falling behind their competitors, potentially damaging the brand and business by the use of old- fashioned techniques.
  • 44. What is External Training? External training is conducting by experts or influencers from outside of your company. They may be someone your company already has a relationship with – such as a supplier – who has been brought in to give more information on a product or feature, or an industry expert who can share the latest trends to help teams stay ahead of competitors.
  • 45. • Outsourced training will expose your organization to new ideas that were not previously considered. • External training allows for employees to be taken out of their comfort zone, essentially forcing them to find new solutions or approaches to completing projects.
  • 46. Pros • External training sessions break up groupthink and offer a fresh perspective on how things are done. This can have a dramatic effect on company culture and the way things are done moving forward (either in a positive or a negative way). • External training sessions also give teams the chance to learn from industry experts. The knowledge shared by people like Andrew & Pete or Janet Murray in their corporate training sessions can be invaluable. They help companies to snap out of their ‘tradition is the only way’ mentality and view things from a new angle. In ever- changing industries such as HR or marketing, this is vital for teams who want to stand out. It also future-proofs team’s and company’s knowledge because they’re learning from someone whose job it is to pay attention to industry trends. These tutors also have experience working with dozens – if not hundreds – of businesses, giving them more experience and helping them to pick up on patterns that they can share with training sessions. Cons • External training is more expensive than in- house training. • It can also take longer to organize. After all, the best people are busy. • Should you go for the online training option, sessions or courses are often limited to a certain number of slots, or only open for sign-ups a few weeks a year. This can be difficult if you’re looking for courses for employees to take part in and they’re not open when you need them
  • 48. Slide Internal VS External Training: Which One Is Best For You? • https://indepthresearch.org/blog/inhouse-vs-external-training-which- one-is-best-for-you/ • https://www.trainingcoursematerial.com/free-training-articles/human- resources-management/using-internal-vs-external-trainers • https://lddailyadvisor.blr.com/2018/02/internal-versus-external- trainers-best/ • https://www.hrzone.com/community-voice/blogs/microtek/employee- training-options-internal-vs-external