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Unit- 5. Measuring results and Behaviors

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Unit- 5. Measuring results and Behaviors

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Unit- 5. Measuring results and Behaviors

  1. 1. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at MEASURING RESULTS AND BEHAVIORS Prof. Preeti Bhaskar Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, NOIDA
  2. 2. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Measuring Results: Key questions • Where should each individual focus efforts? • What are the expected objectives? • How do we know how well the results were achieved? Key Accountabilities Expected Objectives Performance Standards Statements of important and measurable outcomes Broad areas of a job for which employee is responsible for producing results Yardstick used to evaluate how well employees have achieved objectives
  3. 3. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at How to Determine Accountabilities? Collect information about job with the help of Job Description.() Job description provides information on the task performed. Task can be grouped into clusters of Task based on their relatedness. Determine the relative degree of importance of task or cluster of tasks • % of employee’s time spent performing task • Impact on unit’s mission if performed inadequately • Consequences of error
  4. 4. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Determining Objectives Purpose: • to identify Limited number of Highly important results that When achieved will have a dramatic impact on overall organization success •After objective are set employee should receive the feedback on their progress towards attaining the objective. •Rewards should be allocated to those employees who have reached their objective
  5. 5. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Characteristics of Good Objectives • Specific and Clear • Challenging • Agreed Upon • Significant • Prioritized • Bound by Time • Achievable • Fully Communicated • Flexible • Limited in Number
  6. 6. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Determining Performance Standards Standards refer to aspects of performance objectives, such as: • Quality – How well the objective is achieved • Quantity – How much, how many, how often, at what cost • Time – Due dates, schedule, cycle times, how quickly
  7. 7. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Standards must include: • A verb • A due date • Some type of indicator – Quality and/or – Quantity Reduce overtime from 150 hours/months to 50 hours/month by December 1,2014 at a cost not to exceed 1,20,000 Verb Due date Indicator
  8. 8. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Characteristics of Good Performance Standards • Related to Position • Concrete, Specific, Measurable • Practical to Measure • Meaningful • Realistic and Achievable • Reviewed Regularly
  9. 9. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Accountabilities, Objectives, and Standards Job Title: Graduate Associate, Sourcing & Procurement
  10. 10. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Accountabilities:  Provide analytical support for sourcing projects impacting business units. Successful analytical support will ensure that project decisions are made on well-researched reasons. Poorly made project decisions may delay client deliverables or damage the Disney brand. (20% of time)  Benchmark current pricing models and develop new approaches to pricing/buying various products and services that yield creative and business advantages. This is extremely important to the continued sustainability of Disney, and will be critical to capture new portions of the market share. Incorrectly identifying pricing models would be crushing to the Disney business and would directly impact the bottom line. (30% of time)
  11. 11. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Cont.  Assist in the development of spend profiles, key stakeholder lists, savings opportunities where existing contracts are leveraged, savings opportunities in commodity areas that have not been sourced, and sourcing and procurement strategy. Will play a small role in these extremely important activities. Successfully developing spend profiles, identifying key stakeholders, identifying savings opportunities, and developing a successful business strategy are keys to the financial stability of Disney. (50% of time)
  12. 12. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Objectives: : • Develop spend profiles, key stakeholder lists, and a sourcing and procurement strategy. These tasks need to be completed by July 1, 2004. Identifying savings opportunities where existing contracts are leveraged and identifying savings opportunities in commodity areas that have not been sourced are ongoing tasks. Report weekly on savings identified. • Benchmark current pricing models and develop new approaches to pricing/buying various products and services that yield creative and business advantages. Benchmarking project due by August 1, 2008. Developing new approaches to pricing is an ongoing project. Turn in bi-weekly reports on new findings to your manager by COB every other Friday. • Provide analytical support for sourcing projects impacting business units. Ongoing project where information must be delivered inside
  13. 13. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Performance Standards:: • Identified savings opportunities where existing contracts were leveraged and identified commodity areas that have not been sourced on a weekly basis for total savings of 5% over previous quarter spending. • Benchmarked current pricing models by August 1, 2008 in 80 hours or less of time billed. • Submitted new approaches to pricing/buying various products and services on a weekly basis resulting in at least two new pricing approaches being adapted by the company by September 1, 2008. • Provided ongoing analytical support for sourcing projects as rated by monthly project evaluations conducted by the relevant project managers and communicate0d to your manager on a monthly basis.
  14. 14. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Measuring Behaviors: Overview • Identify competencies • Identify indicators • Choose measurement system
  15. 15. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Identify Competencies Measurable clusters of KSAs – Knowledge's – Skills – Abilities That are critical in determining how results will be achieved
  16. 16. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Types of Competencies Differentiating Threshold Distinguish between superior and average performance Needed to perform job at minimum Adequate standard
  17. 17. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at We don’t measure competency directly but we measure Indicators A competency can have several indicators. competency Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4
  18. 18. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Necessary Components for Describing Competencies • Definition • Description of specific behaviors – When competency demonstrated – When competency not demonstrated • Suggestions for developing the competency
  19. 19. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Measurement System to evaluate competencies Compares employees with pre-specified performance standard Choose Measurement System Comparative system Absolute system Compares employees with each other
  20. 20. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Types of Comparative Systems Simple rank order Alternation rank order Paired comparisons Forced distribution Advantages • Easy to explain • Straightforward • Better control for biases and errors found in absolute systems – Leniency – Severity – Central tendency Disadvantages • Rankings may not be specific enough for – Useful feedback – Protection from legal challenge • No information on relative distance between employees • Specific issues with forced distribution method
  21. 21. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Types of Absolute Systems Essays Behavior checklists Critical incidents Graphic rating scales
  22. 22. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Essays • Advantage: – Potential to provide detailed feedback • Disadvantages: – Unstructured and may lack detail – Depends on supervisor writing skill – Lack of quantitative information; difficult to use in personnel decisions
  23. 23. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Behavior checklists • Advantage: – Easy to use and understand • Disadvantage: – Scale points used are often arbitrary – Difficult to get detailed and useful feedback
  24. 24. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Critical incidents Two kinds of measurement – Report of specific employee behavior • Allows focus on specific behavior • Very time-consuming – Examples of behavior illustrative of core competencies • Easier to use • Describes behavior desired
  25. 25. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Graphic rating scales • Clear meaning for each response category • Consistent interpretation by outside readers • Supervisor and employee should have same understanding of rating
  26. 26. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Graphic rating scales: BARS improvement • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) – Use critical incidents as anchors – Involves multiple groups of employees in development • Identify important job elements • Describe critical incidents at various levels of performance • Check for inter-rater reliability
  27. 27. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at
  28. 28. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Measuring Performance • Several types of methods • Differ in terms of: – Practicality (time and effort) – Usefulness (quantifiable)
  29. 29. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Make a group of 5 students Creating BARS-Based Graphic Rating Scales for Evaluating Business Student Performance in Team Projects
  30. 30. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at In many universities, students are required to conduct Team Projects. Job Description for students-: • Work with team member to deliver project outcome on time and according to specification . • Complete all individual assignment to highest quality ,completing necessary background research , making analysis and preparing final documents. • Foster a good working environment
  31. 31. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Please do the following: 1. Generate a list of competencies for the position described. 2. Identify the list of critical behavioral indicators for each competency. 3. Generate critical incident (High ,average and poor performance for each behavioral indicator. 4. Create Graphic rating scales using BARS to measure each competency.
  32. 32. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Competencies: • Teamwork: Ability to work with a team to finish all project deliverables on time and according to instructions. Assists others as necessary and constantly seeks to further relationships with team members. Failure to develop teamwork will result in reduced team effectiveness due to lack of communication and cooperation between team members. • Business knowledge: Aware of current business trends and applies relevant business research skills to projects at hand. Always learning new skills, staying current on business news, and talking with business professionals. Failure to develop business knowledge will result in a decrease in the quality of work produced by the team. • Communication: Ability to articulate verbally or through written communication ideas on project deliverables. Use of correct grammar, professional presentation, and clear and concise messages characterize good communication. Failure to communicate well will result in the decreased performance of the team, because team members will no longer
  33. 33. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Behavioral Indicators • Teamwork – Friendly environment exists – Team members’ input is accepted – Offers to help other team members when necessary • Business knowledge – Student offers input when group is discussing business problems – Actively researches solutions presented – Reads business news sources on a daily basis to stay up-to- date on business trends • Communication – Clearly articulates points in meetings – Uses correct grammar and word usage in written communications – Professionally presents ideas and findings in project presentations
  34. 34. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Critical Incidents: Indicator High Performance Average Performance Poor Performance Student offers input when group is discussing business problems Continuously provides relevant input into group discussions Offers input on areas of expertise in group discussions Does not offer input into group discussions Actively researches solutions presented Researches practical and theoretical implications of decision Researches practical implications of decision Does not research implications of business decisions Reads business news sources on a daily basis to stay up-to-date on business trends Comments on a daily basis on the status of ongoing business developments of interest Comments on a weekly basis on the status of ongoing business developments of interest Does not comment on the status of ongoing business developments of interest Clearly articulates points in meetings Presents ideas in a clear and concise manner and ensures that team members understand point Presents ideas in a clear and concise manner Does not get point across in meetings, which results in arguments with other team members or mis- education of team members
  35. 35. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Indicator High Performance Average Performance Poor Performance Uses correct grammar and word usage in written communications Written communications are clear, free of spelling and grammatical mistakes Clear use of language in written reports Poor spelling and grammatical usage in written reports Professionally presents ideas and findings in project presentations Prepares presentation so ideas are communicated well and in a professional manner Minimally prepares for presentations, so communication is rushed or drags on Does not prepare for presentations Friendly environment exists Takes an interest in team members outside of project Talks to team members to complete tasks Withdrawn from team Team members’ input is accepted Supportive of other team members’ ideas Solicits, but does not support team members’ ideas Does not solicit input from other team members Offers to help other team members when necessary Volunteers for extra assignments so that team members can finish projects on time and to the highest standards Offers to help team members if deadline is approaching Does not offer to help team members
  36. 36. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Scales
  37. 37. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Teamwork: Ability to work in a team to finish all project deliverables on time and according to instructions. Assists others as necessary and constantly seeks to further relationships with team members. Failure to develop teamwork will result in reduced team effectiveness due to lack of communication and cooperation between team members. 5 Exceptional: Takes an interest in team members outside of project. 3 Competent: Talks to team members to complete tasks. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Withdrawn from team. 5 Exceptional: Supportive of other team members’ ideas. 3 Competent: Solicits, but may not support team members’ ideas. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Does not solicit input from other team members. 5 Exceptional: Volunteers for extra assignments so that team members can finish projects on time and to the highest standards. 3 Competent: Offers to help team members if deadline is approaching. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Does not offer to help team members.
  38. 38. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Business Knowledge: Aware of current business trends and applies relevant business research skills to projects at hand. Always learning new skills, staying current on business news, and talking with business professionals. Failure to develop business knowledge will result in a decrease in the quality of work produced by the team. 5 Exceptional: Continuously provides relevant input into group discussions. 3 Competent: Offers input on areas of expertise in group discussions. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Does not offer input into group discussions. 5 Exceptional: Researches practical and theoretical implications of decisions. 3 Competent: Researches practical implications of decisions. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Does not research implications of business decisions. 5 Exceptional: Comments on a daily basis on the status of ongoing business developments of interest. 3 Competent: Comments on a weekly basis on the status of ongoing business developments of interest. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Does not comment on the status of ongoing business developments of interest.
  39. 39. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Communication: Ability to articulate verbally or through written communication ideas on project deliverables. Use of correct grammar, professional presentation, and clear and concise messages characterize good communication. Failure to communicate well will result in the decreased performance of the team, because team members will not understand ideas expressed. 5 Exceptional: Presents ideas in a clear and concise manner and ensures that team members understand point. 3 Competent: Presents ideas in a clear and concise manner. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Does not get point across in meetings, resulting in arguments with other team members or miseducation of team members. 5 Exceptional: Written communication is clear, free of spelling and grammatical mistakes. 3 Competent: Clear use of language in written reports. 1 Major Improvement Needed: Poor spelling and grammatical usage in written reports. 5 Exceptional: Prepares presentation so ideas are communicated well and in a professional manner. 3 Competent: Minimally prepares for presentations, so communication is rushed or drags on.
  40. 40. Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at

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