Career Planning & Succession Planning
Prof. Preeti Bhaskar
Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies
( Constituent of Symbiosis International University, Pune )
Role of Training & Development in Career Development
Meaning and definition
Steps in Succession Planning
Importance of Succession Planning
A Career can be defined as a sequence of positions, roles
or jobs held by one person over a relatively long time span.
How do people choose careers?
“Career planning consists of activities
and actions that you take to achieve
your individual career goals”
A career path is the sequential pattern of
jobs that form.
Career goals are the future positions
that an individual strives to reach as part
of a career.
How important is career planning?
The top management
view as a
as a retention
views a career
as a path to
Objective of career planning
Typical entry-level Employee Expectation vs. Reality
“I will have much freedom to work
as I please”
“Most of my work projects will fun.”
“I will receive lot of helpful
feedback from my boss”
“If I do well at work, I will get good
raises and promotions”
“I can apply the latest technique
that I learned at school”
“I will be able to balance my
personal needs and work life”
“My boss tells me what to do and
how to do it.”
“I have much boring, routine
“Money and promotions are
limited and factors other than
“People resist new ideas that I
“My job and personal goals often
1. Self Assessment
2. Academic/ Career
3. Relevant /Practical
4. Job Search
The first step in the Career Planning Model involves
gathering information about yourself to assist in making a
decision about a career. You should develop an
understanding of self including values, interests, aptitudes,
abilities, personal traits, and desired life style, and become
aware of the interrelationship between self and occupational
The second step allows individuals to investigate the
world of work in greater depth, narrow a general
occupational direction into a specific one through an
informed decision making process, and declare a major.
In Step III individuals evaluate occupational choices and
gain practical experience through internships,
cooperative education, relevant summer employment,
volunteer work and campus activities. In addition, more
specific decisions about occupational choices are
An initial occupational choice is made in Step IV. Individuals
prepare for and begin conducting a job search
Issue in Career Planning
Dual Family Careers:
The proportion of women in professional occupations has increased dramatically in the recent years.
Low Ceiling Careers:
Some highly specialized jobs have little room for advancement in career terms.
Career opportunities for certain jobs or categories sometimes decrease due to technological and economic changes.
Employees move through different career stages and their career needs change as they move from one stage to another.
The demands of a fast changing economy have been forcing organization to restructure and reorganize themselves.
Employees reach a plateau in their career when they feel that there in nothing else left to achieve.
Elderly parents, school going kids, a sick relative or family member, are some of the many family issues that change the career
path of an employee.
Career development is essential to implement career plan. Career
development consists of personal improvements undertaken by the
individual employee, training, development and educational
programmes provided by the organization and various institutes.
The most important aspect of career development is that every
employee must accept his/her responsibility for development.
Various career development actions prove useful if an employee is
committed to career development.
Process of Career Planning & Development
Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for achieving goals.
Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment.
Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term.
Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities.
Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitude etc., and in
terms of qualifications, experience and training received etc.
Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization.
Analysis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitudes etc.
Steps involved in Career Development System
There are four steps in establishing a career development system. They are:
1. Needs: -Defining the present system i.e. this step involves in the conducting a needs assessment as in a
Establish roles and responsibilities of employees, managers, and the organization.
Identify needs; establish target groups.
Establish cultural parameters; determine organizational receptivity, support, and commitment to career development.
Assess existing HR Programme or structure; consider possible links to a career development programme.
Determine prior attempts at solving the problem or need.
Establish the mission or philosophy of the programme.
Design and implement needs assessment to confirm the data or collect more data.
Establish indicators or criteria of success.
Steps involved in Career Development System
2. Vision: -The needs of the career system must be linked with the interventions. An
ideal career development system known as the vision links the needs with the
Create a long-term philosophy.
Establish the vision or objectives of the programme.
Design interventions for employees, managers, and the organization.
Organize and make available career information needed to support the
3. Action Plan: -An action plan should be formulated in order to achieve the
vision. The support of the top management should be obtained in this process.
Assess the plan and obtain support from top management
Create a pilot programme
Assess resources and competencies.
Establish an advisory group.
Involve advisory group in data gathering, programme design, implementation,
evaluation and monitoring
Results: -Career development programme should be integrated with the
organization’s on-going employee training and management development
programmes. The programme should be evaluated from time to time in order to revise
Create long-term formalized approaches.
Publicize the programme.
Evaluate and redesign the programme and its components.
LG takes up career planning for
In an innovative way to beat attrition, which has hit 30 per cent
across the industrial sector, LG Electronics India is taking up a 5-
year programme to nurture the career of its white-collared
The company has made the programme mandatory for its white-
collared employees that number about 1,900.
"In this initiative all our employees will have to undergo an
assessment by experts who would help them identify their weak
points. During the course of the next five years they would be
given thorough training in those areas.
"The senior employees will be assessed on the basis of their
vision and leadership abilities. The young people will be assessed
as per their functional capabilities,"
Dell supports your growth:
Career development programs
Dell provides programs to power your career growth and development.
Our programs help team members emerge as leaders through
mentorship, encouragement, and opportunities that are just the right
blend of rewards and challenges.
We invest in our people and have developed a series of special
programs that enables you to pursue a career that fulfills your
ambitions and potential.
From one-on-one meetings with mentors to regular 360-degree
feedback and routine check-ins with a long-term career plan, these
programs give you ample opportunity to carve your own path toward
Dell supports your career from the beginning by providing higher
Career-Impacted Life Stages
a. Growth Stage: The growth stage is roughly from birth to age 14 and is a period during which an individual develops a
self-concept by identifying and interacting with other people. Basically, during this stage an individual establishes his or
b. Exploration Stage: The exploration stage is the period roughly from ages 15 to 24, during which an individual
seriously explores various occupational alternatives. The person attempts to match these occupational alternatives with
his or her own interests and abilities resulting from education, leisure activities, and work.
c. Establishment Stage: The establishment stage is roughly from ages 25 to 44 and is the primary part of most people’s
work lives. Hopefully, during this period, a suitable occupation is found and the person engages in those activities that
help earn a permanent career. During this period, the individual is continually testing personal capabilities and ambitions
against those of the initial occupational choice.
d. Maintenance Stage: Between the ages of 45 to 65, many people move from the stabilization sub stage into the
maintenance stage. During maintenance, the individual has usually created a place in the work world, and most efforts
are directed at maintaining the career gains earned.
e. Decline Stage: As retirement becomes an inevitable reality, in the decline stage, there is frequently a period of
adjustment, where many begin to accept reduced levels of power and responsibility.
Advantages of Career Planning and Development
1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of various career
opportunities, his priorities etc.
2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles, preferences, family
environment, scope for self-development etc.
3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.
4. Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up their morale and
also result in increased job satisfaction.
5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of belongingness
and loyalty to the organization.
6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization. This will
lower employee turnover.
7. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities and further
8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.
For Organizations: -
A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness of human resource management. More
specifically, the advantages of career planning and development for an organization include:
i. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human resources with required skill, knowledge and
ii. The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled and talent employees.
iii. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to backward communities get opportunities for
growth and development.
iv. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as such minimizes employee frustration.
v. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural diversity.
vi. Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.
“IF YOU ARE PLANNING FOR ONE YEAR, GROW RICE;
IF YOU ARE PLANNING FOR TWENTY YEARS, GROW TREES;
IF YOU ARE PLANNING FOR CENTURIES,GROW PEOPLE”
Career anchors are
the basic attitudinal
They want to be self reliant and do not like to be bossed over. They excel as entrepreneurs, professors,
consultants, professionals and free-lancers.
Individuals who desire security and stability want to be free from any anxiety of uncertainty or insecurity.
Those with a technical/functional competence anchor exhibit strong inclination to develop something which they
can call their own.
They have good planning, organizing, managing and controlling skills. They enjoy responsibility and revel in
They enjoy jobs where they are given enough freedom to create and are not bound by organizational
framework. Example: artists, free-lancers, entrepreneurs and innovators.
Service drives individuals to take up jobs in not-for-profit service organizations. The worthwhile causes they
pursue can range from environmental protection to poverty alleviation.
People with this career anchor just love solving difficult problems.
Employees Leave – They always do
Preparation for that day is Succession Planning
The integrated approach to workforce
recruitment, development, and retention to
ensure that the organization has candidates
whose present and future potential contribute to
their individual success and the success of the
Succession planning in an organization helps identify specific
individuals to fill future vacancies in key positions.
A succession plan is a plan for identifying who is currently in post
and who is available and qualified to take over in the event of
retirement, voluntary retirement, dismissal & sickness.
It helps in identifying human resource shortages and skill
shortages before openings occur. Thereafter, it becomes easy to
groom qualified candidates for future vacancies.
V. K. Garg
Names given are replacement
A. Promotable now
B. Needing development
C. Not suitable to position
1. Superior performance
2. Above Average performance
3. Acceptable performance
4. Poor performance
P A to
Assistant General Manager
R.K. Arora A/2
B.K. Nehru B/3
C.P. Thakur A/1
A.T. Roy C/2
A.N. Gupta A/1
K.P. Rao B/1
N.R. Murthy B/3
L.C. Srivatsav A/2
A. Thapar C/4
S.P. Kumar A/1
R. Pandey B/3
Southern Region Manager
A. Subramanyam B/2
B.K. Menon B/1
R. Krishna B/3
Need for succession planning
The purpose of succession planning is to identify and develop people
to replace current jobholders in key positions.
Succession planning, compares assure a steady flow of internal
talent to fill important vacancies.
Succession planning encourages ‘hiring from within’ and creates a
healthy environment where employees have careers and not merely
If qualified candidates are not available within the company, outsiders can
be considered readily for possible openings. Complete dependence on
succession from within or from outside is not desirable. Internal
candidates require a ‘pat on the back’ when they do well. External
candidates are needed for injecting fresh blood into the company.
The absence of a succession plan can seriously hamper the growth
prospects of an organization. Imagine the disastrous consequences when
there is a sudden vacuum at the top level. There is no one to steer the
Some of these reasons are given below:
Superannuation: Employees retiring because they reach a certain
Resignation: Employees leaving their current job to join a new job
Promotion: Employees moving upward in the hierarchy of the
Diversification: Employees being redeployed to new activities.
Creation of New Position: Employees getting placed in new
positions at the same level.
Steps in succession planning
Step 1: Identify critical positions
Critical positions are the focus of succession planning efforts. Without these roles, the department or agency would be
unable to effectively meet its business objectives. Workforce projection data or demographic analysis is essential in
identifying risk areas. A risk assessment may also be conducted and compared to current and future vacancies to identify
critical positions within your organization.
Step 2: Identify competencies
A clear understanding of capabilities needed for successful performance in key areas and critical positions is essential for
guiding learning and development plans, setting clear performance expectations, and for assessing performance. By
completing the process of competency or position profiling within your organization, current and future employees gain an
understanding of the key responsibilities of the position including the qualifications and behavioural and technical
competencies required to perform them successfully.
Step 3: Identify succession management strategies
Now that critical positions have been identified and have been profiled for competencies, the next step is to choose from a
menu of several human resource strategies, including developing internal talent pools, onboarding and recruitment to
address succession planning.
Step 4: Document and implement succession plans
Once strategies have been identified, the next step is to document the strategies in an action plan. The Succession
Planning: Action Plan provides a mechanism for clearly defining timelines and roles and responsibilities.
Step 5: Evaluate Effectiveness
To ensure that the department or agency’s succession planning efforts are successful, it is important to systematically
monitor workforce data, evaluate activities and make necessary adjustments.
Career Planning Succession Planning
1. Career planning is the process or activities offered
by an organisation to the individuals or its employees to
identify their strength, weaknesses, specific goals and
the jobs they would like to occupy. Through career
planning, the employees, individuals, identify and
implement steps to attain their career goals.
1. Succession planning is the important process
which involves identification of individuals or
employees as the possible successors to the key or
very senior positions in an organization which such
position become vacant. Thus, in short, succession
planning focuses on the identification of vacancies
and locating probable successor.
2. In career planning, an organisation is concerned with
strategic questions of career development.
2. In succession planning, the focus of attention is
the persons who can occupy the vacant post.
3. Career Planning is a must for all managerial cadres
3. Succession planning is essential for all those who
operate in key functional areas and also for key
managerial cadres that are likely to become vacant.
4. Career Planning's basis is long term till the
retirement of the employment contract.
4. Succession Planning is usually for 2 to 5 or 2 to 7
years period for an individual but it is a continuous
exercise for an organisation.
5. The important objective of career planning is to
explore the opportunities to enable the individual
employees to grow and to develop and also to
encourage or motivate them for self-development.
5. The important objective of succession planning is
to identify the most suitable, potentially qualified,
efficient, skilled and experienced employees or
individuals to occupy or succeed to key positions
when they become vacant.