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career planning & succession planning

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career planning & succession planning

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career planning & succession planning

  1. 1. Career Planning & Succession Planning Prof. Preeti Bhaskar Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies ( Constituent of Symbiosis International University, Pune )
  2. 2. Career Planning Career Stages Career Development Career Anchors Role of Training & Development in Career Development Succession Planning Meaning and definition Steps in Succession Planning Importance of Succession Planning
  3. 3. Career A Career can be defined as a sequence of positions, roles or jobs held by one person over a relatively long time span.
  4. 4. How do people choose careers? Interest Self-image Personality Family background Social background Qualification
  5. 5. Career Planning “Career planning consists of activities and actions that you take to achieve your individual career goals” A career path is the sequential pattern of jobs that form. Career goals are the future positions that an individual strives to reach as part of a career.
  6. 6. How important is career planning? The top management view as a tool for succession planning The manager sees career planning as a retention And motivational tool A typical Employee views a career planning program as a path to upward mobility Win-Win situation for all
  7. 7. Objective of career planning Attract and retrain talent by offering better career growth Use HR effectively and achieve greater productivity Reduce employee turnover Improve morale and motivation Better succession planning
  8. 8. Typical entry-level Employee Expectation vs. Reality Expectation “I will have much freedom to work as I please” “Most of my work projects will fun.” “I will receive lot of helpful feedback from my boss” “If I do well at work, I will get good raises and promotions” “I can apply the latest technique that I learned at school” “I will be able to balance my personal needs and work life” Reality “My boss tells me what to do and how to do it.” “I have much boring, routine work” “Money and promotions are limited and factors other than performance count” “People resist new ideas that I suggest” “My job and personal goals often conflict”
  9. 9. Career Planning Process
  10. 10. 1. Self Assessment 2. Academic/ Career options 3. Relevant /Practical Experience 4. Job Search Career planning process
  11. 11. Self-Assessment The first step in the Career Planning Model involves gathering information about yourself to assist in making a decision about a career. You should develop an understanding of self including values, interests, aptitudes, abilities, personal traits, and desired life style, and become aware of the interrelationship between self and occupational choice
  12. 12. Academic/Career Options The second step allows individuals to investigate the world of work in greater depth, narrow a general occupational direction into a specific one through an informed decision making process, and declare a major.
  13. 13. Relevant/Practical Experience In Step III individuals evaluate occupational choices and gain practical experience through internships, cooperative education, relevant summer employment, volunteer work and campus activities. In addition, more specific decisions about occupational choices are made.
  14. 14. Job Search An initial occupational choice is made in Step IV. Individuals prepare for and begin conducting a job search
  15. 15. Issue in Career Planning Dual Family Careers: The proportion of women in professional occupations has increased dramatically in the recent years. Low Ceiling Careers: Some highly specialized jobs have little room for advancement in career terms. Declining Opportunities: Career opportunities for certain jobs or categories sometimes decrease due to technological and economic changes. Career Stages: Employees move through different career stages and their career needs change as they move from one stage to another. Restructuring: The demands of a fast changing economy have been forcing organization to restructure and reorganize themselves. Career Plateaus: Employees reach a plateau in their career when they feel that there in nothing else left to achieve. Work-family Issues: Elderly parents, school going kids, a sick relative or family member, are some of the many family issues that change the career path of an employee.
  16. 16. Career development is essential to implement career plan. Career development consists of personal improvements undertaken by the individual employee, training, development and educational programmes provided by the organization and various institutes. The most important aspect of career development is that every employee must accept his/her responsibility for development. Various career development actions prove useful if an employee is committed to career development. Career Development
  17. 17. Process of Career Planning & Development Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for achieving goals. Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment. Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term. Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities. Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitude etc., and in terms of qualifications, experience and training received etc. Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization. Analysis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitudes etc.
  18. 18. Steps involved in Career Development System There are four steps in establishing a career development system. They are: 1. Needs: -Defining the present system i.e. this step involves in the conducting a needs assessment as in a training programme. Establish roles and responsibilities of employees, managers, and the organization. Identify needs; establish target groups. Establish cultural parameters; determine organizational receptivity, support, and commitment to career development. Assess existing HR Programme or structure; consider possible links to a career development programme. Determine prior attempts at solving the problem or need. Establish the mission or philosophy of the programme. Design and implement needs assessment to confirm the data or collect more data. Establish indicators or criteria of success.
  19. 19. Steps involved in Career Development System 2. Vision: -The needs of the career system must be linked with the interventions. An ideal career development system known as the vision links the needs with the interventions. Create a long-term philosophy. Establish the vision or objectives of the programme. Design interventions for employees, managers, and the organization. Organize and make available career information needed to support the programme.
  20. 20. 3. Action Plan: -An action plan should be formulated in order to achieve the vision. The support of the top management should be obtained in this process. Assess the plan and obtain support from top management Create a pilot programme Assess resources and competencies. Establish an advisory group. Involve advisory group in data gathering, programme design, implementation, evaluation and monitoring
  21. 21. Results: -Career development programme should be integrated with the organization’s on-going employee training and management development programmes. The programme should be evaluated from time to time in order to revise the programme. Create long-term formalized approaches. Publicize the programme. Evaluate and redesign the programme and its components.
  22. 22. LG takes up career planning for employees In an innovative way to beat attrition, which has hit 30 per cent across the industrial sector, LG Electronics India is taking up a 5- year programme to nurture the career of its white-collared employees. The company has made the programme mandatory for its white- collared employees that number about 1,900. "In this initiative all our employees will have to undergo an assessment by experts who would help them identify their weak points. During the course of the next five years they would be given thorough training in those areas. "The senior employees will be assessed on the basis of their vision and leadership abilities. The young people will be assessed as per their functional capabilities,"
  23. 23. Dell supports your growth: Career development programs Dell provides programs to power your career growth and development. Our programs help team members emerge as leaders through mentorship, encouragement, and opportunities that are just the right blend of rewards and challenges. We invest in our people and have developed a series of special programs that enables you to pursue a career that fulfills your ambitions and potential. From one-on-one meetings with mentors to regular 360-degree feedback and routine check-ins with a long-term career plan, these programs give you ample opportunity to carve your own path toward leadership. Dell supports your career from the beginning by providing higher education
  24. 24. Career-Impacted Life Stages a. Growth Stage: The growth stage is roughly from birth to age 14 and is a period during which an individual develops a self-concept by identifying and interacting with other people. Basically, during this stage an individual establishes his or her identity. b. Exploration Stage: The exploration stage is the period roughly from ages 15 to 24, during which an individual seriously explores various occupational alternatives. The person attempts to match these occupational alternatives with his or her own interests and abilities resulting from education, leisure activities, and work. c. Establishment Stage: The establishment stage is roughly from ages 25 to 44 and is the primary part of most people’s work lives. Hopefully, during this period, a suitable occupation is found and the person engages in those activities that help earn a permanent career. During this period, the individual is continually testing personal capabilities and ambitions against those of the initial occupational choice. d. Maintenance Stage: Between the ages of 45 to 65, many people move from the stabilization sub stage into the maintenance stage. During maintenance, the individual has usually created a place in the work world, and most efforts are directed at maintaining the career gains earned. e. Decline Stage: As retirement becomes an inevitable reality, in the decline stage, there is frequently a period of adjustment, where many begin to accept reduced levels of power and responsibility.
  25. 25. Advantages of Career Planning and Development For Individuals: 1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of various career opportunities, his priorities etc. 2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles, preferences, family environment, scope for self-development etc. 3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted. 4. Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction. 5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of belongingness and loyalty to the organization. 6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization. This will lower employee turnover. 7. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities and further employee turnover. 8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.
  26. 26. For Organizations: - A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness of human resource management. More specifically, the advantages of career planning and development for an organization include: i. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human resources with required skill, knowledge and talent. ii. The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled and talent employees. iii. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to backward communities get opportunities for growth and development. iv. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as such minimizes employee frustration. v. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural diversity. vi. Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.
  27. 27. “IF YOU ARE PLANNING FOR ONE YEAR, GROW RICE; IF YOU ARE PLANNING FOR TWENTY YEARS, GROW TREES; IF YOU ARE PLANNING FOR CENTURIES,GROW PEOPLE”
  28. 28. Career Anchors Career anchors are the basic attitudinal characteristics that guide people throughout their careers. Autonomy/Indep endence: Security/Stabilit y: Technical/Functi onal Competence: General Management: Entrepreneurial Creativity: Service: Pure Challenge
  29. 29. Autonomy/Independence: They want to be self reliant and do not like to be bossed over. They excel as entrepreneurs, professors, consultants, professionals and free-lancers. Security/Stability: Individuals who desire security and stability want to be free from any anxiety of uncertainty or insecurity. Technical/Functional Competence: Those with a technical/functional competence anchor exhibit strong inclination to develop something which they can call their own. General Management: They have good planning, organizing, managing and controlling skills. They enjoy responsibility and revel in uncertainty. Entrepreneurial Creativity: They enjoy jobs where they are given enough freedom to create and are not bound by organizational framework. Example: artists, free-lancers, entrepreneurs and innovators. Service: Service drives individuals to take up jobs in not-for-profit service organizations. The worthwhile causes they pursue can range from environmental protection to poverty alleviation. Pure Challenge: People with this career anchor just love solving difficult problems.
  30. 30. Employees Leave – They always do Preparation for that day is Succession Planning
  31. 31. Succession Management The integrated approach to workforce recruitment, development, and retention to ensure that the organization has candidates whose present and future potential contribute to their individual success and the success of the organization.
  32. 32. Succession Planning Succession planning in an organization helps identify specific individuals to fill future vacancies in key positions. A succession plan is a plan for identifying who is currently in post and who is available and qualified to take over in the event of retirement, voluntary retirement, dismissal & sickness. It helps in identifying human resource shortages and skill shortages before openings occur. Thereafter, it becomes easy to groom qualified candidates for future vacancies.
  33. 33. General Manager V. K. Garg A/2 Key Names given are replacement candidates A. Promotable now B. Needing development C. Not suitable to position 1. Superior performance 2. Above Average performance 3. Acceptable performance 4. Poor performance P A to General Manager L. Mathews B/1 Assistant General Manager R.K. Arora A/2 B.K. Nehru B/3 Division: HR Manager C.P. Thakur A/1 Division: Accounting & Taxation Manager A.T. Roy C/2 Division: Planning Manager A.N. Gupta A/1 K.P. Rao B/1 Technical Advisor N.R. Murthy B/3 Northern Region Manager L.C. Srivatsav A/2 A. Thapar C/4 Central Region Manager S.P. Kumar A/1 R. Pandey B/3 Southern Region Manager A. Subramanyam B/2 B.K. Menon B/1 Eastern Region Manager R. Krishna B/3 Succession
  34. 34. Need for succession planning The purpose of succession planning is to identify and develop people to replace current jobholders in key positions. Succession planning, compares assure a steady flow of internal talent to fill important vacancies. Succession planning encourages ‘hiring from within’ and creates a healthy environment where employees have careers and not merely jobs.
  35. 35. If qualified candidates are not available within the company, outsiders can be considered readily for possible openings. Complete dependence on succession from within or from outside is not desirable. Internal candidates require a ‘pat on the back’ when they do well. External candidates are needed for injecting fresh blood into the company. The absence of a succession plan can seriously hamper the growth prospects of an organization. Imagine the disastrous consequences when there is a sudden vacuum at the top level. There is no one to steer the ship.
  36. 36. Some of these reasons are given below: Superannuation: Employees retiring because they reach a certain age. Resignation: Employees leaving their current job to join a new job Promotion: Employees moving upward in the hierarchy of the organization. Diversification: Employees being redeployed to new activities. Creation of New Position: Employees getting placed in new positions at the same level.
  37. 37. Steps in succession planning Step 1: Identify critical positions Step 2: Identify competencies Step 3: Identify succession management strategies Step 4: Document and implement succession plans Step 5: Evaluate Effectiveness
  38. 38. Steps in succession planning Step 1: Identify critical positions Critical positions are the focus of succession planning efforts. Without these roles, the department or agency would be unable to effectively meet its business objectives. Workforce projection data or demographic analysis is essential in identifying risk areas. A risk assessment may also be conducted and compared to current and future vacancies to identify critical positions within your organization. Step 2: Identify competencies A clear understanding of capabilities needed for successful performance in key areas and critical positions is essential for guiding learning and development plans, setting clear performance expectations, and for assessing performance. By completing the process of competency or position profiling within your organization, current and future employees gain an understanding of the key responsibilities of the position including the qualifications and behavioural and technical competencies required to perform them successfully. Step 3: Identify succession management strategies Now that critical positions have been identified and have been profiled for competencies, the next step is to choose from a menu of several human resource strategies, including developing internal talent pools, onboarding and recruitment to address succession planning. Step 4: Document and implement succession plans Once strategies have been identified, the next step is to document the strategies in an action plan. The Succession Planning: Action Plan provides a mechanism for clearly defining timelines and roles and responsibilities. Step 5: Evaluate Effectiveness To ensure that the department or agency’s succession planning efforts are successful, it is important to systematically monitor workforce data, evaluate activities and make necessary adjustments.
  39. 39. Career Planning Succession Planning 1. Career planning is the process or activities offered by an organisation to the individuals or its employees to identify their strength, weaknesses, specific goals and the jobs they would like to occupy. Through career planning, the employees, individuals, identify and implement steps to attain their career goals. 1. Succession planning is the important process which involves identification of individuals or employees as the possible successors to the key or very senior positions in an organization which such position become vacant. Thus, in short, succession planning focuses on the identification of vacancies and locating probable successor. 2. In career planning, an organisation is concerned with strategic questions of career development. 2. In succession planning, the focus of attention is the persons who can occupy the vacant post. 3. Career Planning is a must for all managerial cadres and posts. 3. Succession planning is essential for all those who operate in key functional areas and also for key managerial cadres that are likely to become vacant. 4. Career Planning's basis is long term till the retirement of the employment contract. 4. Succession Planning is usually for 2 to 5 or 2 to 7 years period for an individual but it is a continuous exercise for an organisation. 5. The important objective of career planning is to explore the opportunities to enable the individual employees to grow and to develop and also to encourage or motivate them for self-development. 5. The important objective of succession planning is to identify the most suitable, potentially qualified, efficient, skilled and experienced employees or individuals to occupy or succeed to key positions when they become vacant.

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