Post-modernism is a set of theories which
suggests that society is undergoing a radical series
of changes where modernism is either: coming to
an end or, being rejected by people or, changing
into a new order.
Postmodernism it is general the era that
Post modernism is well known since 1970 and 1980
Postmodernism itself is a wide ranging term which
applies to literature, art, economics, philosophy,
architecture as well as new and traditional media
Interpretation is everything with the concept of reality
constantly under scrutiny and the key suggestions that
these realities are social constructs which are open to
change, everything is subjective and there is no
finished work process, performance
interpretation against interpretation
It breaks down the distinction between culture and society
An emphasis on style at the expense of substance and
A breakdown of a distinction between high culture art and
Confusion over time and space
Decline of Meta narrative -make absolute universal and all-
embracing claims to knowledge and truth
Post modernism rejects the claims of any theory to absolute
knowledge, or of any social practice to universal validity.
A copy of a copy of a copy
There is no such thing as originality
The distinction between media and
reality has collapsed
Intertextuality is when one media text
Intertextuality mixes genres, forms,
conventions, media: it dissolves
boundaries between high and low art,
between serious and comic.
High Art Low Art/ Popular Culture
Fine art Advertising
Opera Pop music
Ballet Genre Films
Classical Music Television
Classical Literature Pulp fiction or Trashy Novels
Art Cinema Pornography
Treating ‘low art’ or ‘popular culture’ as if they where high art places
The visual and stylistic impact becomes more
important than the meaning message
Postmodernists claim that in a media-saturated world,
where we are constantly immersed in media, 24/7 – and on
the move, at work, at home – the distinction between
reality and the media representation of it becomes blurred
or even entirely invisible to us. In other words, we no
longer have any sense of the difference between real
things and images of them, or real experiences and
simulations of them. Media reality is the new reality.
The mass media…were once thought of as holding up a
mirror to, and thereby reflecting, a wider social reality.
Now that reality is only definable in terms of the surface
reflections of that mirror. It is no longer a question of
distortion since the term implies that there is a reality,
outside the surface simulations of the media, which can
be distorted, and this is basically what is at issue.
Postmodern media rejects the idea that any media product
or text is of any greater value than another. All judgements
of value are merely taste.
The distinction between media and reality has collapsed, and
we know live in a ‘reality’ defined by images and
representations – a state of simulacrum. Images refer to each
other and represent each other as reality rather than some
‘pure’ reality that exists before the image represents it – this
is the state of hyperreality.
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction-action film
Matrix Trilogy -Cyberpunk twist where the world is in fact a
simulated prison for humanity run by intelligent machine
Its world full of codes, copies and representations there is no
Your imaginary world becomes the real world.
The matrix world becomes peoples real world.
The machine overpowers human.
Movies like Spiderman, Batman do represent reality yet they
make us fell that its a real
The movie is set in 80 but shot in 2007. The movie is going back in times of 80s , its going back to
the culture, fashion, representation, settings. Its like misreading the 80’s. There is a confusion
of time and space.
Om shanti om song is breaking the conventions of a Bollywood song. A Bollywood song
always had an actor, actress and some dancers, but in this songs there is one actor and all the
big stars of bollywood dance together for a single song.
The title of OSO is from a famous song of Karz
There is a scene in OSO that attempts to parody that
famous scene of Mother India which is an immortal part
of the Indian “film tales” due to its repeated retellings. It
was this very scene in which Sunil Dutt saved Nargis
from a fire and they came closer after that. Shantipriya
plays the role that Nargis had played in her real life and
Om Prakash, the junior artist, plays the role of Sunil Dutt
after the “real” hero of the film refused to jump in the
fire that had gone wild.
Om Prakash has a habit of talking to his muse
Shantipriya, the “Dreamy Girl” of the eighties – a sure
reference to the “dream girl” Hema Malini of the same
The second half has songs that address completely the youth
amongst the contemporary audience. It flashes a completely
and shockingly new image of the real Shah Rukh with his well
sculpted body (and the six-packs abdomen) for the first time
on screen. Just after this song comes the picturisation of a
scene with Mohabbatman, a real and consciously attempted
absurdity in the genre that boasts of the technological feats
like Superman, Batman, Spiderman, Krrish and a host of
small screen super heroes like Shaktiman. It is the second
time in OSO that the hero is picturised flying.
The Simpsons follows a non linear narrative, creating
confusions over time and space. Every episode is a new start,
and ends with a narrative resolution. This is a very
postmodern trait, and is quite typical of these sorts of
comedy programs, for example Family Guy.
The Simpson, children never age or progress in school. In 17
years Maggie has not learned to walk or talk, and still uses
her dummy. The family are timeless as well as placeless. The
Simpsons are nowhere, living at no time, and representing no
specific family – but ironically they are every family
everywhere at any point in the postmodern era.
There is one episode, when homer tries to vote for Obama,
but the vote goes to Mcain, suggesting that the votes were
The video also shows a specially made "Fat Booth"
highlighting the rising problem of obesity in the united
states, making light of pressing social issues, It is questioning
the system and the way the Presidents, Mcain can be elected
even if he is so corrupted are elected the name homer is a
Greek poets name.
Overall ‘The Simpsons’ has a huge fan base and is the longest
running show in US history because it appeals to an audience
of all people regardless of age or personal beliefs. Its
postmodern context enables the viewer to take what they
want out of it and how much of it they want.
The kids obviously want cartoon and Homer getting hurt and
some jokes that may seem socially weird. The adults on the
other hand will get the far more complex jokes that talk about
politics and such.
Its anti-theoretical position is essentially a theoretical
The Postmodern direction to focus on the marginal is
itself an evaluative emphasis of precisely the sort that it
By adamantly rejecting modern criteria for assessing
theory, Postmodernists cannot argue that there are no
valid criteria for judgment.
Postmodernism criticizes the inconsistency of
modernism, but refuses to be held to norms of