Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness V 2.0

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A talk by Niharika Sachdeva at JIIT, Noida

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Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness V 2.0

  1. 1. Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness V 2.0 NWIS, JIIT, 2015 Ponnurangam Kumaraguru (“PK”), Niharika Sachdeva December 23, 2015
  2. 2. precog.iiitd.edu.in Who am I?  Ph.D. student at CERC@IIIT-Delhi  TCS (TATA Consultancy Services) Ph.D. fellow  Done work in computer mediated communication and usable security  Research interests - Usable security and privacy - Collaboration and communication - Human computer interaction 2
  3. 3. precog.iiitd.edu.in Teachers OSM program 3
  4. 4. precog.iiitd.edu.in
  5. 5. precog.iiitd.edu.in 5
  6. 6. precog.iiitd.edu.in Suported by 6
  7. 7. precog.iiitd.edu.in Dr. Alan F. Westin - Inspiration 7 “The right to be left alone.” Dr. Westin was cited as one of the first scholars to recognize the threats of modern technology and as one of the first to present a measured philosophy in a debate often charged with emotion and ideology. Washington Post
  8. 8. precog.iiitd.edu.in Young Girls Arrested 8
  9. 9. precog.iiitd.edu.in Class XI Student Jailed 9 Family: Just SHARED it and not Posted it!
  10. 10. precog.iiitd.edu.in Blackmailing Teens 10
  11. 11. precog.iiitd.edu.in Why study Privacy perceptions?  Bring citizens’ concerns about privacy protection issues on the table  Understand information gaps prevalent among citizens  Authorities are relatively unknown to most of the citizens’ views 11
  12. 12. precog.iiitd.edu.in Released on Nov 22, 2012 12
  13. 13. precog.iiitd.edu.in Motivation for this research 13  Understand the privacy status may help in decision making in India - Government policies - Industry plans  Positioning India in the global map of privacy discussions - Empirical data
  14. 14. precog.iiitd.edu.in 14 20 Interviews 4 FGDs 10,427 Surveys Methodology 18 months!
  15. 15. 0.08 7.73 0.14 7.10 1.10 6.88 0.28 8.14 1.96 8.58 0.52 0.21 0.74 3.19 9.38 0.35 0.03 0.04 0.25 2.94 11.29 0.02 8.57 0.05 9.39 9.53 0.21 0.17 9.390.48 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.08 Sample
  16. 16. precog.iiitd.edu.in Demographics Gender (N= 10,232) Male 67.57 Female 32.43 16 Age (N=10,350) <18 1.54 18-24 21.31 25-29 32.20 30-39 25.90 40-49 14.09 50-64 4.46 65+ 0.50 Age
  17. 17. precog.iiitd.edu.in Topics of Study  General privacy  Mobile phones  Internet and social media  Financial privacy  Government privacy 17
  18. 18. precog.iiitd.edu.in Mobile Privacy (Q14) 18 Strongly agree Agree Total Mobile service providers give reasonable protection for the information they collect (N = 10,379) Phone conversations can be tapped by mobile service providers in national interest (N = 10,363) Mobile service providers can share the customer’s information with government organization when required, even without informing the customers (N = 10,366)
  19. 19. precog.iiitd.edu.in Mobile Privacy (Q14) 19 Strongly agree Agree Total Mobile service providers give reasonable protection for the information they collect (N = 10,379) 13.52 49.69 63.21 Phone conversations can be tapped by mobile service providers in national interest (N = 10,363) Mobile service providers can share the customer’s information with government organization when required, even without informing the customers (N = 10,366)
  20. 20. precog.iiitd.edu.in Mobile Privacy (Q14) 20 Strongly agree Agree Total Mobile service providers give reasonable protection for the information they collect (N = 10,379) 13.52 49.69 63.21 Phone conversations can be tapped by mobile service providers in national interest (N = 10,363) 20.64 47.53 68.71 Mobile service providers can share the customer’s information with government organization when required, even without informing the customers (N = 10,366) 20.01 47.40 67.41
  21. 21. precog.iiitd.edu.in Mobile privacy  What information is stored in mobile phone  60% store ‘videos, photographs’, 30% store PAN and ID number, and 26% store credit card, ATM, and PIN numbers (Q12, N = 5,925)  63% mentioned privacy as the main reason for not storing personal information on their mobile phones (Q12, N = 5,925) 21
  22. 22. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media What do you feel about privacy of your personal information on your OSN? 22 Q42, N = 6,855 It is not a concern at all Since I have specified my privacy settings, my data is secure from a privacy breach Even though, I have specified my privacy settings, I am concerned about privacy of my data It is a concern, but I still share personal information It is a concern; hence I do not share personal data on OSN
  23. 23. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media What do you feel about privacy of your personal information on your OSN? 23 Q42, N = 6,855 It is not a concern at all Since I have specified my privacy settings, my data is secure from a privacy breach 42.13 Even though, I have specified my privacy settings, I am concerned about privacy of my data It is a concern, but I still share personal information It is a concern; hence I do not share personal data on OSN
  24. 24. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media What do you feel about privacy of your personal information on your OSN? 24 Q42, N = 6,855 It is not a concern at all 19.30 Since I have specified my privacy settings, my data is secure from a privacy breach 42.13 Even though, I have specified my privacy settings, I am concerned about privacy of my data 23.84 It is a concern, but I still share personal information 8.02 It is a concern; hence I do not share personal data on OSN 6.71
  25. 25. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media Reading privacy policy while creating an account (Q39, Q40, Q51) 25 e-commerce (N=7,814) email (N=7,836) OSN (N=6,890) Yes, I do I browse through it Never Don’t remember
  26. 26. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media Reading privacy policy while creating an account (Q39, Q40, Q51) 26 e-commerce (N=7,814) email (N=7,836) OSN (N=6,890) Yes, I do 34.00 34.48 46.33 I browse through it Never Don’t remember
  27. 27. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media Reading privacy policy while creating an account (Q39, Q40, Q51) 27 e-commerce (N=7,814) email (N=7,836) OSN (N=6,890) Yes, I do 34.00 34.48 46.33 I browse through it 33.91 31.20 27.45 Never 24.29 27.63 18.3 Don’t remember 6.99 6.29 7.92
  28. 28. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media If you receive a friendship request on your most frequently used OSN, which of the following people will you add as friends? 28 Q43, N = 6,929 Person of opposite gender People from my hometown Person with nice profile picture Strangers (people you do not know) Somebody, whom you do not know or recognize but have mutual / common friends with Anyone
  29. 29. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media If you receive a friendship request on your most frequently used OSN, which of the following people will you add as friends? 29 Q43, N = 6,929 Person of opposite gender People from my hometown Person with nice profile picture 10.12 Strangers (people you do not know) Somebody, whom you do not know or recognize but have mutual / common friends with Anyone
  30. 30. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media If you receive a friendship request on your most frequently used OSN, which of the following people will you add as friends? 30 Q43, N = 6,929 Person of opposite gender 19.51 People from my hometown Person with nice profile picture 10.12 Strangers (people you do not know) Somebody, whom you do not know or recognize but have mutual / common friends with Anyone 2.99
  31. 31. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media If you receive a friendship request on your most frequently used OSN, which of the following people will you add as friends? 31 Q43, N = 6,929 Person of opposite gender 19.51 People from my hometown 27.39 Person with nice profile picture 10.12 Strangers (people you do not know) 4.99 Somebody, whom you do not know or recognize but have mutual / common friends with 8.31 Anyone 2.99
  32. 32. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media  If you receive a friendship request on your most frequently used OSN, which of the following people will you add as friends? 32 Female Male Total Difference Person of opposite gender 4.68 14.46 19.14 -9.78 People from my hometown 7.16 19.73 26.89 -12.57 Person with nice profile picture 2.02 7.94 9.96 -5.92 Strangers (people you do not know) 1 3.85 4.85 -2.85 Somebody, whom you do not know or recognize but have mutual / common friends with 2.28 5.93 8.21 -3.65 Anyone 0.75 2.21 2.96 -1.46
  33. 33. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media Do you think it is possible for somebody to steal your identity on your social network website i.e. create a profile with your name, pictures and details? 33 Q50, N = 6,882 Yes, it is possible, but it has never happened to me Yes, it is possible, and it has happened to me No, it is not possible Don’t know
  34. 34. precog.iiitd.edu.in Internet & Social Media Do you think it is possible for somebody to steal your identity on your social network website i.e. create a profile with your name, pictures and details? 34 Q50, N = 6,882 Yes, it is possible, but it has never happened to me 60.39 Yes, it is possible, and it has happened to me 24.03 No, it is not possible 10.07 Don’t know 5.51
  35. 35. precog.iiitd.edu.in Government Do we have privacy laws in India that protect Indian citizens’ privacy? 35 Response (N=10,380) Yes No Not sure
  36. 36. precog.iiitd.edu.in Government Do we have privacy laws in India that protect Indian citizens’ privacy? 36 Response (N=10,380) Yes 49.02 No 27.37 Not sure 23.61
  37. 37. precog.iiitd.edu.in Online data sharing  What are your privacy concerns while exchanging / saving personal information through email services? 37 Female Male Difference I have no concerns; 13.66 21.73 -8.08 I believe that the privacy of my data is maintained 41.72 40.03 1.69 I am concerned, but I do not have a choice 22.88 21.92 0.96 I am concerned so I don't save/exchange 17.15 13.29 3.86 Don’t know 4.59 3.03 1.57 Total 100 100
  38. 38. precog.iiitd.edu.in Friendship requests on OSN  If you receive a friendship request on your most frequently used OSN, which of the following people will you add as friends? (Normalized results) 38 Female Male Difference Person of opposite gender 14.09 22.20 -8.11 People from my hometown 21.57 30.29 -8.72 Person with nice profile picture 6.09 12.19 -6.1 Strangers (people you do not know) 3 5.92 -2.91 Somebody, whom you do not know or recognize but have mutual / common friends with 6.87 9.11 -2.23 Anyone 2.26 3.39 -1.13
  39. 39. precog.iiitd.edu.in Females more phone savvy  Q11) What is the personal information which you don’t mind storing in your mobile phone? 39 Female Male Difference Business related information (meeting details) 24.44 24.81 -0.38 Credit card number(s) / ATM card number(s) / PIN number(s) 32.66 23.16 9.5 Information e.g. date of birth, PAN number, ID number, account number 34.01 28.77 5.24 Password(s) 30.29 22.33 7.96 Videos, photographs, etc. 60.59 66.67 -6.08
  40. 40. precog.iiitd.edu.in Female trust mobile service providers  Q17. While exchanging information on mobile phone, what according to you, is the extent of confidentiality provided by the mobile service provider for information being exchanged? 40 Female Male Difference Very high 15.55 9.54 6.02 High 35.66 38.51 -2.85 Neutral 26.01 23.86 2.14 Low 9.47 9.69 -0.22 Very low 1.35 1.85 -0.49 I don't know 11.96 16.55 -4.59 Total 100 100
  41. 41. precog.iiitd.edu.in Females more Conscious  Gender based privacy analysis 41
  42. 42. precog.iiitd.edu.in 18-24  Q2. Which of the following information is personal to you, that you would NOT like to share? (Choose all that apply) 42 25-29 18-24 Difference Email address 4.1 12.18 -8.08 Family details 9.75 26.64 -16.89 Landline number 8.27 18.05 -9.78 Marital status 3.68 6.77 -3.09 Mobile number 11.68 26.91 -15.23 Pictures and videos featuring self 13.73 37.18 -23.45 Physical details e.g. height, weight, eye colour 7.24 11.41 -4.17
  43. 43. precog.iiitd.edu.in 25-29  Q2. Which of the following information is personal to you, that you would NOT like to share? (Choose all that apply) 43 25-29 18-24 Difference Annual house hold income 54.1 38.64 15.46 Passport number 72.27 45.86 26.41 Passwords 92.52 78.45 14.07 Personal income 66.6 41.59 25.01
  44. 44. precog.iiitd.edu.in 18-24 more worried about Public place privacy  Q5. Imagine you are walking through a shopping mall, where you observe a camera capturing the movements of people in the shops, what would be your reaction? 44 25-29 18-24 Difference I would not change my actions 47.12 42.38 4.74 I would try to avoid the camera 31.14 18.84 12.3 I would never go to the shopping mall again 11.29 6.09 5.2 If at all, a camera captures my movements, I would be curious to know the reasons for capturing the video 10.17 30.7 -20.53
  45. 45. precog.iiitd.edu.in 25-29 more concerned about OSN privacy  Q42. What do you feel about privacy of your personal information on your OSN? 45 25-29 18-24 It is not a concern at all 23.62 11.8 11.82 Since I have specified my privacy settings, my data is secure from a privacy breach 44.47 40.45 4.02 Even though, I have specified my privacy settings, I am concerned about privacy of my data 20.55 29.08 -8.53 It is a concern, but I still share personal information 8.16 7.64 0.52 It is a concern; hence I do not share personal data on OSN 3.2 11.03 -7.83 Total 100 100
  46. 46. precog.iiitd.edu.in Takeaways!  Awareness about privacy issues has increased  Awareness of financial privacy is high  Many misconceptions about privacy  Service providers are reliable  Awareness of privacy in OSN is more than e- commerce  Trust in Government has reduced  Results can be used to build better policies and technologies 46
  47. 47. precog.iiitd.edu.in Bibliography 47  Kumaraguru, P., and Cranor, L. Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness. In Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET2005) (2005)  Kumaraguru, P., and Capkun, S. Home is safer than the cloud! privacy concerns for consumer cloud storage. In Proceeding of Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) (2011).  The world factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/in.html.  Bellman, S., Johnson, E. J., Kobrin, S. J., and Lohse, G. L. International Differences in Information privacy concerns: A global survey of consumers. The Information Society 20 (2004), 313 – 324.  Bhupta, M. Privacy on sale. India Today International.  Boni, M. D., and Prigmore, M. Cultural Aspects of Internet Privacy. In Proceedings of the UKAIS 2002 Conference (2002).  Celenet. Payment in India is going e-way. http://www.celent.com/reports/payments- india-going-e-way.  Cranor, L. F., Reagle, J., and Ackerman, M. S. Beyond Concern: Understanding Net Users’ Attitudes About Online Privacy. Tech. rep., Retrieved June 18, 2005, http://www.research.att.com/resources/trs/TRs/99/99.4/99.4.3/report.htm, September 25- 27, 1999.
  48. 48. precog.iiitd.edu.in Things to do 48  Check out our complete report on http://precog.iiitd.edu.in/research/privacyin dia/  Tweet as “http://bit.ly/privacyindia@ponguru #privacyindia12”  Ask your friends and family; let us know, if they agree with our results
  49. 49. 49 http://precog.iiitd.edu.in/research/privacyindia/ pk@iiitd.ac.in
  50. 50. Niharika Sachdeva PhD Research Scholar Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology New Delhi niharikas@iiitd.ac.in precog.iiitd.edu.in/people/niharika

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