Basics Of Grant Writing from Precise Edit


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1-day grant writing course from Precise Edit, experts in preparing winning funding proposals. This presentation shows how we help clients get funded--and how we can help you.

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Basics Of Grant Writing from Precise Edit

  1. 1. Basics of Grant Writing David Bowman Precise Edit [email_address] 888-474-4393 This is the presentation from Precise Edit’s 1-day grant writing class. It provides an overview of the process we use to develop and prepare winning grant proposals for our clients. When you are seeking expert grant writing assistance, contact Precise Edit. As an experienced grant writer, reviewer, and coordinator, I understand how to develop and prepare proposals that get noticed and funded. –David Bowman, Owner of Precise Edit
  2. 2. Introductions and Motivations <ul><li>Why are you here? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you want to learn grant writing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your experience with grant writing? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Session Overview <ul><li>Grants overview </li></ul><ul><li>Overall process for grants development </li></ul><ul><li>Grant development process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing evaluation plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing a strong implementation plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building the budget </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging and submitting </li></ul>
  4. 4. What grants do and don’t do <ul><li>What grants do: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide funds to address specific needs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide funds to initiate new programs </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to future revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Address shortfalls for critical services </li></ul><ul><li>What grants don’t do: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide complete budget flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Create cash pools </li></ul><ul><li>Help you plan </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Last forever </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure success </li></ul>
  5. 5. Winning characteristics Clear and significant needs Clear connection to grantor intentions Clear connection to strategic plan and mission Strong plan to address needs Evidence of organization capacity Justifiable evaluation plan Sufficient and necessary budget Firm leadership support Reasonable sustainability plan
  6. 6. Irrelevant elements Good intentions Your emotions and feelings Parity Belief that you deserve their money Religious / Philosophical beliefs *
  7. 7. 2 Approaches Find Funding Determine need <ul><li>Identify available grants and funding, and then figure out what to do with it (weak) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify needs, and then find funding to address needs (strong) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overall process 8. Begin writing! 7. Establish a plan for sustainability 6. Create necessary and sufficient budget 5. Plan methodology to attain a successful evaluation 4. Develop evaluation process to meet grantor requirements and intentions (formative and summative) 3. Determine desired outcomes 2. Find grant funding opportunities, review carefully 1. Identify and quantify needs (determine the problem)
  9. 9. 1. Identify needs (task 1) <ul><li>*What need are you trying to address? </li></ul><ul><li>*How do you know that this need exists? </li></ul><ul><li>(This begins the process of making a case for funding) </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1. Identify needs <ul><li>Scenario Planning What would the organization look like if the vision were fully implemented? What are people doing? What effect does it have on others? </li></ul><ul><li>Finding major needs (sample strategies): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Nominal Group Technique, verify with research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic Data Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pareto Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histogram </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Identify needs <ul><li>Nominal Group Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove duplicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote for 3 – 5 top items (depending on number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counts votes per item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank according to the number of votes, most votes = top priority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative finding, verify with data </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1. Identify needs <ul><li>Pareto Diagram </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1. Identify needs <ul><li>Control Charts </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1. Identify needs <ul><li>Histogram </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1. Identify causes (task 2) <ul><li>* Why does this need exist? </li></ul><ul><li>*How do you know? </li></ul><ul><li>(This begins the planning process for your methodology) </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1. Identify causes <ul><li>Once you know the problems, find the causes </li></ul><ul><li>Sample processes for identifying causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat / Loss Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Does not typically apply to grants seeking research dollars) </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1. Identify causes <ul><li>Cause and Effect Diagram </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1. Stating the need <ul><li>Tips for persuasion: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is, not what isn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Quantify, quantify, quantify </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid “preaching” words (e.g., should, ought) and judging words (e.g., good, bad, necessary, sufficient) </li></ul><ul><li>Connect assessment (what is) to effects (what happens) </li></ul>Failed grant: Children in ABC school don’t have enough play time, so we should develop after school programs to allow them to be children and keep healthy. Winning grant: Children at ABC school are permitted 15 minutes of play time each day, less than the 45 to 60 minutes recommended by doctors to help children learn socialization skills and develop strong muscles and bones.
  19. 19. 1. Stating the need (task 3) <ul><li>30-second elevator speech: </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly state need in terms of causes and effects </li></ul><ul><li>Simple language </li></ul><ul><li>1 sentence limit </li></ul><ul><li>Write, review, revise </li></ul><ul><li>* Write your need statement and share </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. Finding funding <ul><li>Now that you know your needs and causes, it’s time to find funding </li></ul><ul><li>Two major types of grantors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each has advantages and disadvantages </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2. Finding funding: foundations <ul><li>Generally give only to 501(c)(3) organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Open deadlines for accepting proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Broad areas of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-year awards </li></ul><ul><li>Funds distributed on award or schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Expect other support, but not by formula </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions made by trustees </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions may be subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships affect decision-making </li></ul>
  22. 22. 2. Finding funding: foundations <ul><li>Other types of support beyond cash </li></ul><ul><li>Event sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>In-kind support of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative / management support </li></ul>
  23. 23. 2. Finding funding: foundations <ul><li>Resources for finding foundation grant information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Foundation Center: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grantsmanship Center (members only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>990-PF tax returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web searches for key words related to need, foundation, giving, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where do other similar projects get funded? </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Finding funding: federal <ul><li>Short notice, short timeline (be ready!) </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of recipients (non-profit, faith based, university, for profit, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific deadlines for proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Funding targeted at specific programs </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-year awards </li></ul><ul><li>May require specific matching percentage </li></ul><ul><li>Reimbursement process </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed and scored by panel </li></ul><ul><li>Rigorous process, data and research/literature driven </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships affect decision-making </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2. Finding funding: federal <ul><li>Resources for finding federal grant information </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal register (generally incomplete) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where do similar projects receive funding? </li></ul>
  26. 26. 2. Finding funding: steps <ul><li>Identify potential grantor </li></ul><ul><li>Receive / download Request for Proposal (RFP) or Request for Application (RFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Review carefully for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eligibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Award size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment with needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submission requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicate with contact agent </li></ul><ul><li>Read other funded proposals, study programs and proposals </li></ul>
  27. 27. 2. Finding funding: look for . . . <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible recipients </li></ul><ul><li>Required partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Funding period </li></ul><ul><li>Floor and ceiling award levels </li></ul><ul><li>Submission timelines and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Number of awards </li></ul><ul><li>Special requirements </li></ul>Overall: The better the match between the grantors purpose and your funding need, the better the chance of success.
  28. 28. 3. Determine objectives <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you want to accomplish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will demonstrate that you have accomplished your goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives are changed conditions, resulting in goal </li></ul>GOAL Objective Objective Objective
  29. 29. 3. Determine objectives <ul><li>Objectives are SMART </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S pecific: detailed description of what will be accomplished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M easurable: observable, countable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A chievable: possible with organization’s capacity in specified time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ealistic: valid, can be accomplished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ime-based: accomplished by stated time </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 3. Determine objectives <ul><li>What’s wrong with this objective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community members will have access to Web-based medical advice, information, and services that enhance their general well being </li></ul></ul>Specific? ___ Measurable? ___ Achievable? ___ Realistic? ___ Time-based? ___ Within 1 year, 95% of all households in Fairbanks will be registered with MediWeb to receive Internet-based medical advice, information, and services.
  31. 31. 3. Determine objectives <ul><li>What’s wrong with this objective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of elementary school children who attend school hungry will decrease. </li></ul></ul>Specific? ___ Measurable? ___ Achievable? ___ Realistic? ___ Time-based? ___ The number of elementary school children who attend school without having breakfast will decrease by 85% by the end of the 2010 – 2011 school year.
  32. 32. 3. Determine objectives <ul><li>Two types of objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process: actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome: results </li></ul></ul>Process Objectives: Processes and actions Methods to reach goal Implementation strategies What you are doing Begs the question “What for?” Outcome Objectives: Results of methods Changed conditions What recipients are doing Answers the question “What for?”
  33. 33. 3. Determine objectives <ul><li>Process or Outcome? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization will distribute health information to 150 families living in poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Park areas will be seeded with low-water consumption grasses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A minimum of 150 men will attend the clinic for diabetes testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer than 10 bear attacks will occur in the park. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The price of gasoline will drop to lower than $2.00 per gallon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will subsidize first-time house-buyers up to 30% of the principal. </li></ul></ul>When describing objectives in the introduction, statement of need, and anticipated outcomes, stick to outcome objectives. Use process objectives in methodology and in the formative evaluation.
  34. 34. 3. Determine objectives (task 4) <ul><li>*State your goal </li></ul><ul><li>*Develop, write, share at least one outcome objective for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Remember SMART: </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Time-based </li></ul>
  35. 35. 4. Develop evaluation plan <ul><li>Evaluation: the process by which you determine success or necessary modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative </li></ul></ul>Project start Project End Project Period Summative Evaluation Summative Evaluation Summative Evaluation Goal Formative Evaluation Formative Evaluation Formative Evaluation
  36. 36. 4. Develop evaluation plan <ul><li>Summative evaluation based on outcome objectives </li></ul><ul><li>How will you measure your outcome objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Common tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking forms and log sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billing records and balance sheet / revenue records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you define success in terms of your objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will data be collected and analyzed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What processes and tools do you need to collect data? </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 4. Develop evaluation plan <ul><li>Formative evaluation based on process objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators of progress towards goal </li></ul><ul><li>Central questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can you measure that shows how that process objectives are being met? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are your benchmarks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What tools and processes do you need to indicate progress towards goal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the timeline for data collection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will collect and analyze data? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. 4. Develop evaluation plan <ul><li>Create an evaluation matrix </li></ul>                                                  tools process to measure time to accomplish level required for success Process objectives Formative Assessment     Level required for success Process for measuring Indicators of success OBJECTIVE: Write the outcome objective here
  39. 39. 4. Develop evaluation plan <ul><li>Sample matrix </li></ul>sign-in sheet collect attendance records 9 months 250 men sign-in sheet collect attendance records 6 months 150 men Men attend pre-screening workshop phone survey contact men, ask if aware 9 months 268 men phone survey contact men, ask if aware 6 months 150 men phone survey contact men, ask if aware 3 months 100 men Notification of screenings tools process to measure time to accomplish level required for success Process objectives Formative Assessment     Level required for success: A minimum of 215 (80% of total population) men are screened Process for measuring: Names are matched to tests, counted Indicators of success: clinic billing records show testing for men OBJECTIVE: 80% of men are screened for diabetes within 1 year
  40. 40. 5. Plan methodology <ul><li>Methodology guided by evaluation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Central question: What do you need to do to have a successful evaluation? (consider your formative evaluation) </li></ul>
  41. 41. 5. Plan methodology <ul><li>Sample timeline </li></ul>Start 6 months 9 months 12 months 150 men notified 268 men notified Radio advertisements ongoing throughout project period Presentations at community events Notification of screenings Direct mail to all households Direct mail to all households
  42. 42. 5. Plan methodology <ul><li>Planning tool: Systematic Diagram </li></ul>
  43. 43. 5. Plan methodology <ul><li>Identify responsible persons for implementation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Identify monitors / supervisors / etc. </li></ul>
  44. 44. 5. Plan methodology <ul><li>Create the management / methodology matrix * </li></ul>      d. action 3.d.       c. action 3.c       b. action 3.b.       a. action 3.a. 3. What is the third objective?             c. action 2.c.       b. action 2.b.       a. action 2.a. 2. What is the second objective?           d. action 1.d.       c. action 1.c.       b. action 1.b. When is this completed When does this start?   Whose job is it? a. action 1.a. 1. What is the first objective?       Task complete Task begin Responsible person Action Objective Goal: What is the first goal?
  45. 45. 5. Plan methodology <ul><li>Overall considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear, logical steps to accomplish goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious connections between actions and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary and sufficient actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified responsible persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievable timelines and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it simple! </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. 6. Build the budget <ul><li>Common considerations for the budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient and necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifiable per needs and plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draws on other supports (e.g., in-kind, matching) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-supplanting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budget describes the implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Often reviewed after the introduction, before implementation plan </li></ul>
  47. 47. 6. Build the budget <ul><li>Budget components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget cost detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget justification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-kind / matching commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major budget items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel costs (salaries, wages, benefits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated fees (e.g., licenses, rent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect costs </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. 6. Build the budget <ul><li>Budget request detail </li></ul><ul><li>List all budget items, formula for cost, cost </li></ul>Expense item Total cost Computer equipment 2 desktop computers Dell Inspiron @ $1,200 per $2,400 1 Wireless router Netware K @ $55 $55 TOTAL $2,455
  49. 49. 6. Build the budget <ul><li>Budget narrative </li></ul><ul><li>In your own words, why do you need to spend money on these things, people, etc.? </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Currently, the office only has 3 computers, which are currently being used by existing full-time office staff. The 3 new computers will be used by personnel acquired to manage this project. Two computers will be provided through grant funds; one computer will be provided by the organization as an in-kind match. </li></ul>
  50. 50. 6. Build the budget <ul><li>Budget overview </li></ul>$2,455 $780 $1,200 $4,435 TOTAL   - $780   - $780 Internet connection $55   -   - $55 Wireless router $2,400   - $1,200 $3,600 Computers Grant request In-kind match Cost match Total cost Budget item
  51. 51. 7. Sustainability plan <ul><li>Central questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the project continue once the grant funding period ends? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are next target goals following grant period? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically discussed during implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Common approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program generates revenue and savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization assumes costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program integrated into existing operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrong (but common) approach: Seek more grant funding; continuation funding </li></ul><ul><li>If the project is valuable, grantors generally don’t want it to end </li></ul>
  52. 52. Drafting the Plan <ul><li>Statement of need: 1 sentence, quantify, connect assessment to effect </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>2 outcome objectives Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-based </li></ul><ul><li>2 process objectives per outcome objective Your actions </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks for implementation Timelines for partial and complete success </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability plan </li></ul>
  53. 53. Appendices <ul><li>Are appendices allowed? Are any required? </li></ul><ul><li>Common appendices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial statements (audited) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I.R.S. designation letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R é sum é s </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Building your proposal <ul><li>Select coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble development team </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with grantor contact </li></ul><ul><li>Select grant writer </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate research, partner tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Develop components </li></ul><ul><li>Grant writer writes the grant </li></ul><ul><li>Team reviews, writer revises </li></ul><ul><li>External review and analysis, revise </li></ul><ul><li>Get necessary approvals </li></ul><ul><li>Package and submit </li></ul>Create a development timeline 2 weeks to 2 months
  55. 55. Writing recommendations <ul><li>Simplify language (limited phrases and clauses) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to understand language </li></ul><ul><li>Confident vs. Tentative language </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stating the obvious </li></ul>
  56. 56. Writing recommendations Fix this: In our proposal, we would like to address, by way of the strategies described later, the most pressing need of our constituents, the people of Santa Fe who support our organization, which is for free access to green spaces used by families and children, whether together or separately, for games, cookouts, and other family-friendly activities. Possible revision: Santa Feans greatest problem is the lack of green space. By increasing green space, Santa Feans will have the opportunity to enjoy family friendly activities. tentative obvious Compli-cated Unneces-sary Unneces- sary redundant
  57. 57. Writing recommendations <ul><li>Use the S – V – O sentence structure for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity and conciseness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the rhetorical subject and action as the main subject and verb </li></ul><ul><li>Use the active voice </li></ul>
  58. 58. Powerful sentence structure <ul><li>Basic concept: Write like people think. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning: Who did what to whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Writing application: Subject + Verb + Object </li></ul><ul><li>Simple examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ John kissed Mary.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The old man on the bench read his newspaper.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When I saw her, I tossed my cookie.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Although I tried to woo her, she preferred John.” </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Powerful sentence structure <ul><li>Extending this concept 1: Place the main verb as closely to the subject as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor: The old man, who had been sitting at the same bench for as many years as I could remember, never speaking, always watching the cars as they raced by, read his newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: The old man read his newspaper, sitting at the same bench where he had sat for as many years as I could remember, never speaking, always watching the cars go by. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Powerful sentence structure <ul><li>Extending this concept 2: Limit the subject-verb units in a sentence and keep them separate. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor: The old man, who had been sitting at the same bench for as many years as I could remember, never speaking, always watching the cars as they raced by, read his newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: The old man sat on the bench reading his newspaper. For as many years as I could remember, he had sat there, never speaking, watching the cars go by. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Powerful sentence structure <ul><li>Extending this concept 3: Break complicated sentences into simpler, shorter sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor: Once the business opened, which occurred after much effort, expense, and planning, the owner, a long-term veteran of new business ventures, some successful and others not, found, to his dismay, though not to his surprise, that he was unable to acquire the necessary workforce to keep his business open every day. </li></ul>How would you fix this sentence?
  62. 62. Powerful sentence structure <ul><li>Better: After much effort, expense, and planning, the owner opened his new business. He found that he was unable to acquire the necessary work force to keep his business open every day. As a veteran of new business ventures, he was dismayed but not surprised. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Effective subject placement <ul><li>Basic concept: Keep the rhetorical subject at the beginning of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of subject: Grammatical and rhetorical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical: The word in the subject’s place in a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical: The primary ACTOR of the main action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It seemed that I was wrong.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main action: “being wrong;” Rhetorical subject: “I” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised: “I was apparently wrong.” </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Effective subject placement <ul><li>Extending this concept 1: Avoid starting sentences with “it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: Use the rhetorical subject as the grammatical subject to prevent using 2 subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“It is unclear whether or not the dog has fleas.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical subject: whether or not the dog has fleas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised 1: “Whether or not the dog has fleas is unclear.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised 2: “We don’t know if the dog has fleas.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised 3: “The dog might or might not have fleas.” </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Effective subject placement <ul><li>Extending this concept 2: Avoid starting sentences with “there.” </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: Use the rhetorical subject as the grammatical subject to prevent using 2 subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“There is a good reason for doing this.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical subject: a good reason for doing this (?), we (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“A good reason for doing this exists.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“We have a good reason for doing this.” </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Effective subject placement <ul><li>Extending this concept 3: Avoid starting sentences with “there.” </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: Use the rhetorical subject as the grammatical subject to prevent using redundant placement. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“There is a dog in my bed.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical subject: dog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“A dog is in my bed.” </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Active vs. passive voice <ul><li>Active voice: The actor does something. Subject (actor) + verb + object </li></ul><ul><li>Simple example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“John ate the pie.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive Voice: Something is done by the actor. Subject (object) + verb + actor </li></ul><ul><li>Simple example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The pie was eaten by John.” </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Active vs. passive voice <ul><li>More samples (active or passive?): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“After the restaurant was closed, the equipment fell into disuse.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The equipment, which was used when purchased, was sold at a discount.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The financial projections prepared for us by the accountant showed that we had made steady growth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Our paper supply needed to be replenished.” </li></ul></ul>How would you fix the 2 passive sentences?
  69. 69. Packaging and submitting <ul><li>General packaging guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-inch margins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-sided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binder clips, not staples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black and white printing only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attend to page counts carefully-no exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics/charts: easy to understand in black and white </li></ul><ul><li>Know your deadlines, and submit early! </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic submissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have tech person handy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start early! Problems occur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inform of delivery, confirm of receipt </li></ul>
  70. 70. Packaging and submitting <ul><li>How many copies? See RFP/RFA </li></ul><ul><li>One original with original signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Review RFP/RFA requirements for </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><li>Number of copies </li></ul><ul><li>Page count for narrative and total </li></ul><ul><li>Anything else </li></ul>
  71. 71. You can do this! <ul><li>If your grant is not awarded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to grantor contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get reviewers’ feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recraft and resubmit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrate </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. You can do this! <ul><li>Final recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask lots of questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble a good team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get help when needed </li></ul></ul>The real work begins when the grant is awarded.
  73. 73. <ul><li>David Bowman </li></ul><ul><li>Owner and Chief Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Precise Edit </li></ul><ul><li>505-603-3411 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Best wishes!