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Advertising Psychology

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Andreea Dicu (slide design)
Carmen Neghina

Probably my best presentation so far. An insider's view into advertising.

Published in: Technology, Education, Business
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Advertising Psychology

  1. Andreea Dicu Alexandra Musat Carmen Neghina Psycho-economics PsychologyAdvertising
  2. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 2
  3. Agenda 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 3 Advertising revealed Advertising tactics Elaboration Likelihood Model Communication Model/Techniques 1) Who say? 2) What? 3) By what means? 4) To whom? Methods of measuring advertising effects Trends and future developments
  4. Advertising Revealed
  5. What do you think about advertising? Fun Deceptive Aggressive Hard Work Creative Innovative
  6. What is advertising in theory? Sponsor Paid form of communication Persuasive Mass Media Large Audience Non-Personal
  7. Definition of advertising “Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.” (Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003, p. 10) An advertising idea is a credible and provocative statement of substance about the brand’s main consumer benefit. 2/19/2015 7Advertising Psychology
  8. Major objectives Capture attention Arouse and hold interest Make a useful lasting impression 2/19/2015 8Advertising Psychology
  9. Effects of advertising 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 9 Cognitive • awareness / recognition of the ad, brand, or product/service • memory about the ad, brand, or product/service Affective • Interest • product liking • positive emotional response to an ad • emotional bonding Conative • purchase consideration • buying the product
  10. Unique Selling Proposition A motivating idea, uniquely associated with a particular brand, which is to be registered in the mind of the consumer The U.S.P. is about uniqueness must sell must make a proposition 2/19/2015 10Advertising Psychology
  11. Unique Selling Proposition In best cases our brand or product is unique in itself or is determined to be something unique for a special target group Can you give examples? Coca cola Porsche Rolex 2/19/2015 11Advertising Psychology
  12. Unique Selling Proposition 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 12 Unique Advertising that promises a unique benefit, or a benefit that is perceived as distinct and/or superior Selling Significant and relevant to consumers - persuasive enough to incite action Proposition A clear, compelling consumer benefit that is delivered by the product
  13. Unique Selling Proposition 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 13 Unique taste, shape, color, different flavors Selling Bottles, cans & kegs Proposition The Beck‘s experience
  14. Brand Wheel 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 14 What the brand is / what the brand looks like: Physical/functional characteristics of the brand Rational advantage for me. What the brand does: The results of using the brand. Psychological advantage of using the brand: How the brand makes me feel about myself / how others feel about me, using the brand If the brand were a person: How would it be? Brand Essence: The core of the brand. The sum of characteristics in the wheel. Brand Essence
  15. Brand Wheel 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 15 DRIVING EXCELLENCE German, Masculine, Luxury, Expensive, well-engineered. Quality, Performance, Roadholding, Heritage, Bssssssing! Sports performance in luxury comfort, Best of both worlds. Is what it does Wise heads on young shoulders A passionate driver Serious but not serious-minded, charismatic, outgoing, joie de vivre, half german, half human. The steel fist in a velvet glove Brand Essence
  16. Advertising Tactics
  17. A framework of psychological meaning 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 17 Stimulus e.g. TV ad Billboard Image ad Tangible Attributes e.g. size color brightness music Data driven e.g. sight touch sound Intangible Attributes e.g. modern fun exciting Concept Driven e.g. cognitive associations cognitive abstractions Psychological Meaning Individual characteristics e.g. attitudes perceptual selectivity personality Social characteristics e.g. gender social class marital status occupation Situational characteristics e.g. time to make decision number of available choices Attribute Bundle Perceptual Mode Context
  18. Consumers that are motivated and able to process the message will devote more thought to the message contained in advertisement “elaboration” Attitude change depends on the quality of the arguments Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) Implies two routes to persuasion: Central route to persuasion Peripheral route to persuasion 2/19/2015 18Advertising Psychology Consumers that are not motivated and/or unable to process the message will switch to a less involved and elaborate processing of information Attitude change depends on the peripheral cues
  19. Examples of peripheral cues celebrity attractive source sources with high credibility expert sources humor erotic stimuli 2/19/2015 19Advertising Psychology
  20. Elaboration Likelihood Model Motivation to process the message can be influenced by personal relevance of the product need for cognition (a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful analytic activity) personal responsibility Ability to process the message can be influenced by distraction prior knowledge intelligence message comprehensibility 2/19/2015 20Advertising Psychology
  21. Elaboration Likelihood Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 21 Central route to persuasion Peripheral route to persuasion •relatively enduring / shows a greater temporal persistence •more predictive of behavior •shows a greater resistance to counter- persuasion • less enduring / relatively temporary • unpredictive of behavior • shows a greater susceptibility to counter- persuasion Attitudechange Consequences of elaboration
  22. Communication Model Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  23. Communication Model Source characteristics 1) Credibility Lower credibility sources - when the receiver’s thoughts about the product are favorable Higher credibility sources – when the receiver’s thoughts are negative Profession has a greater effect upon perceived credibility than the spokesperson 2) Attractiveness 3) Gender 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 23 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  24. Communication Model Source characteristics 1) Credibility 2) Attractiveness For low involvement products – coffee, perfume Attractive models do not enhance recall, but facilitate ad recognition 3) Gender 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 24 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  25. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 25 Credibility Attractiveness Source Gender
  26. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 26 Credibility Attractiveness Source Gender
  27. Communication Model Source characteristics 1) Credibility 2) Attractiveness 3) Gender Gender of models should match the image of the product held by users Any role depiction should be realistic and natural rather than stereotypical and false 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 27 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  28. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 28 Credibility Attractiveness Source Gender
  29. Communication Model Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  30. Communication Model Message appeal - the overall style of the advertising 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 30 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Rational appeal? One- vs. two- sided and comparative appeals? Emotional appeal?
  31. Communication Model The MAC Model Memory only – most of the choices we make are determined by habit Memory plus affect – most of the conscious choices that make us pause are determined by affect Memory plus affect plus cognition – some ads make us think, as well as do some decision 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 31 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Ads Competitors for attention Perceptualfilters Memory Affect Cognition
  32. Communication Model The MAC Model Consider a major purchase choice you made in the past. Did you use some rational basis to create a consideration set, or did you just fall in love with it when you saw it? 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 32 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  33. Communication Model The role of emotion Coca-Cola – “Have a Coke smile” Pepsi-Cola – “Get that Pepsi feeling” General Motors – “Get that great GM feeling” AT&T – “Reach out and touch someone” Saab – “One car you can buy where your emotions aren’t compromised by your intellect” 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 33 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  34. Communication Model The role of emotion 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 34 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? A Typology of Emotional Content Positive Negative Pleasure Joy Friendliness Sadness Loneliness Arousal Vitality Liveliness Overstimulation Dominance Competence Self-fulfillment Futility
  35. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 35 Pleasure Message appeal
  36. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 36 Arousal Vitality Message appeal Liveliness
  37. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 37 Dominance Message appeal
  38. Communication Model Fear appeals as arousal Optimal range of tension Point of inflection where increasing tension activates anxiety –> negative feelings 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 38 Audio-Visual Print Energy generation Anxiety & Energy generation Threshold Tension No picture Picture Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  39. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 39 Fear Message appeal
  40. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 40 Fear Message appeal
  41. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 41 Fear Message appeal
  42. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 42 Fear Message appeal
  43. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 43 Fear Message appeal
  44. Communication model Humor appeal "Trying to figure out why something is funny is like dissecting a frog. You'll come up with answers, but the frog always dies.“ Mark Twain One of the most common techniques, but hard to realize The belief that humor can increase advertising effectiveness has led to its unprecedented popularity However, it can work for you or it can work against you! Peripheral cue - drawing attention to the ad 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 44 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  45. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 45 Humor Message appeal
  46. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 46 Humor Message appeal
  47. Communication Model Subliminal Messages the use of hidden or otherwise imperceptible stimuli to manipulate viewers or listeners to behave in ways they otherwise would not. The Vicary “Eat Popcorn/Drink Coke” Study Below threshold Subjective threshold Objective threshold 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 47 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  48. Communication Model Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  49. Communication Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 49 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Copy theme Visual reprezeantations Music
  50. Communication Model 1) Copy theme 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 50 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Surface level Text Underlying level Text Different ads using the same kinds of techniques (characters, jingles) Signification system structured around connatative signified
  51. Communication Model 1) Copy theme Use of figurative language and rhetorical devices 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 51 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Metaphor • used in creating brand identity • Beetle (small and quick) • Mustang (very fast) Slogans • reinforce the recognizability of a brand name • Joint the Pepsi generation Imperative forms • this creates the effect of advice coming from an unseen authoritative source • Trust your senses Formulas • create the effect of making meaningless statements sound truthful • A Volkswagen is a Volkswagen
  52. Communication Model 2) Visual representations „What visual images express can only be approximated by words, but never fully captured by them. Words represent an artificially imposed intellectual system removed from primal feeling; images plunge us into the depth of experience itself.“ (Barry, 75) 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 52 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  53. Communication Model 2) Visual representations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 53 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Attracting Attention • Violating reality • Surrealism and visual metaphor • Visual parodies • Direct eye gaze Eliciting Emotion • Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status • Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  54. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 54 Violating reality Attracting attention
  55. Communication Model 2) Visual representations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 55 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Attracting Attention • Violating reality • Surrealism and visual metaphor • Visual parodies • Direct eye gaze Eliciting Emotion • Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status • Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  56. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 56 Visual Metaphor Attracting attention
  57. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 57 Visual Metaphor Attracting attention
  58. Communication Model 2) Visual representations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 58 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Attracting Attention • Violating reality • Surrealism and visual metaphor • Visual parodies • Direct eye gaze Eliciting Emotion • Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status • Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  59. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 59 Visual parodies Attracting attention
  60. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 60 Visual parodies Attracting attention
  61. Communication Model 2) Visual representations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 61 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Attracting Attention • Violating reality • Surrealism and visual metaphor • Visual parodies • Direct eye gaze Eliciting Emotion • Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status • Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  62. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 62 Direct eye gaze Attracting attention
  63. Communication Model 2) Visual representations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 63 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Attracting Attention • Violating reality • Surrealism and visual metaphor • Visual parodies • Direct eye gaze Eliciting Emotion • Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status • Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  64. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 64 Vertical camera Angle, Power, and Status Eliciting Emotion
  65. Communication Model 2) Visual representations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 65 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Attracting Attention • Violating reality • Surrealism and visual metaphor • Visual parodies • Direct eye gaze Eliciting Emotion • Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status • Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  66. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 66 Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience Eliciting Emotion
  67. Communication Model 3) Music Attention gaining value Ability to engage a listener’s attention through speed and loudness Role in advertising – attract and hold attention However, can be act as a distractive factor Message congruence The extent to which purely instrumental music conveys meanings (feelings, images, thoughts) that are congruent with those evoked by ad messages 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 67 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  68. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 68
  69. Communication Model Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?
  70. Targeting Cultures Language Communication Style Symbols Cultural Values Communication Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 70 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Linguistics Cultural Suitability
  71. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 71 Linguistics Targeting Cultures
  72. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 72 Cultural Suitability Targeting Cultures
  73. Targeting Cultures Language Communication Style Symbols Cultural Values Communication Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 73 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Explicit Implicit
  74. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 74 Explicit Targeting Cultures
  75. Targeting Cultures Language Communication Style Symbols Cultural Values Communication Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 75 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Colors Numbers
  76. Colors and cultures 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 76
  77. Targeting Cultures Language Communication Style Symbols Cultural Values Communication Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 77 Who? Says what? By what means? To whom? Religion Individualism Masculinity
  78. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 78 Religion Targeting Cultures
  79. Communication Model 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 79 Targeting Cultures US Melting Point
  80. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 80
  81. Respond to: Themselves reflected in images Fierce sarcasm/ Imagination, Creativity Stupid / Smart Messages Deconstructed Paradigms Style Luxury Goods and Mass Market Targeting Generations 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 81 GEN-X (24-35) “US“ “I“ “ALL“ Respond to: Cues of achievement / Status / Heroes Iconic Authority Heroes / Trailbrazers The things that are earned Comfort „I‘ve earned it luxury“ Perks Anti-Aging Respond to: New Ideas Companies with a Philosophy „Multi-Sensory“ Experiences Multi Generational Models Fun / Learning Parents as their Heroes Interesting People Senses of Community BABY BOOMERS (36-54) GEN-Y (6-23)
  82. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 82 Baby Boomers Targeting Generations
  83. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 83 Gen X Targeting Generations
  84. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 84 Gen Y Targeting Generations
  85. Communication Model „The consumer is not an idiot, she‘s your wife.“ - David Ogilvy „I heard another one: She‘s not an idiot, she‘s your boss!“ - David Lubars, BBDO West 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 85 Targeting Genders
  86. Communication Model What do women want? 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 86 Targeting Genders
  87. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 87 What Do Women Want? Respect Individuality Stress Relief Connection Relationship
  88. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 88 Respect? Targeting Genders
  89. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 89 Dove Pro-Age Campaign Individuality Targeting Genders
  90. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 90 Stress Relief Targeting Genders
  91. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 91 Connection Targeting Genders
  92. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 92 Relationship Targeting Genders
  93. Measuring Effectiveness 2/19/2015Advertising Psychology 93
  94. Why? "Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, and the trouble is I don't know which half. “ - John Wanamaker 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 94
  95. Traditional measures of effectiveness 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 95 Effectiveness Attitudes towards the ad Brand / Product / Ad recall Purchase Intentions Involvement
  96. Dillemma Some commercials succeed at being memorable without managing to persuade viewers, while other are persuasive without being memorable - David. W. Stewart, David H. Furse 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 96
  97. Best practice 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 97 Strategy or copy developement Copy refinement Below the surface exploration Disaster checks
  98. Future Trends in Advertising 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 98
  99. Mass is back in business Goal: reach a mass audience
  100. Future trends 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 100 Future Trends Screen saturation Gender reversal Brand guards Real social networks
  101. 2/19/2015 Advertising Psychology 101 Questions? Thoughts? Applause?
  102. Thank you for your attention!

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