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  1. 1. HRM 116 – ASIAN CUISINE 1 REPORTER: PRECIOUS GRACE O. ALTUBAR CHINESE CUISINE OVERVIEW  Located in Southeast Asia along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, China is the world's third largest country, after Russia and Canada. With an area of 9.6 million square kilometers and a coastline of 18,000 kilometers, its shape on the map is like a rooster.  The Chinese themselves call their country Zhongguo, which means “Central Country” or “Middle Kingdom.”  Chinese cuisine culture also called Chinese food culture is an important part of China culture in the aspect of cooking and leisure.  Chinese society greatly valued gastronomy and developed an extensive study of the subject based on its traditional medical beliefs.  General Principals of Chinese Medicinal Cooking is to balance the qi, Yin and Yang, and the body fluids and the five taste (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter, and salty)  Yin foods are considered "cool," larger, have less salt, have potassium, and/or grow above soil.  Yang foods are "warm" or "hot," smaller, have more sodium, and/or grow below the soil.  Chinese cuisine, rich and colorful, has, as its main features diversified color, aromatic flavor, and excellent taste. With these three characteristics, it is not only tasty but also a work of art for people to appreciate.  Currently, Chinese food is easily found in every corner of the world, and it has become an impressive and influential symbol of Chinese culture.  Chinese food, in general, is healthy and nutritious. STAPLE FOODS RICE - It is a major staple food for people from rice farming areas in southern China. Steamed rice, usually white rice, is the most commonly eaten form. Rice is also used to produce beers, wine and vinegars. Rice is one of the most popular foods in China and is used in many dishes. Glutinous rice ("sticky rice") is a variety of rice used in many specialty Chinese dishes. NOODLES - are an essential ingredient and staple in Chinese cuisine. Chinese noodles comes dry or fresh in a variety of sizes, shapes and textures and are often served in soups or fried as toppings. Shou Mian (壽麵, literally noodles of longevity), are symbolic of long life and good health according to Chinese tradition. SOYBEANS - Tofu is made of soybeans and is another popular food product that supplies protein.Other products such as soy milk, soy paste, soy oil, and fermented soy sauce are also important in Chinese cooking. WHEAT - In wheat-farming areas in Northern China, people largely rely on flour-based food, such as noodles, breads, jiaozi (Chinese dumplings), and mantou (steamed buns). VEGETABLES • bok choy (Chinese cabbage) • Chinese spinach (dao-mieu) • on choy ( water spinach) • yu choy • bitter melon • Chinese broccoli or gailan (guy-lahn) • bean sprouts • pea vine tips • Watercress • Celery • Carrots • fresh mustard greens • (Western) broccoli HERBS AND SEASONINGS • fresh ginger root • garlic • scallion • white pepper • sesame oil • Dried
  2. 2. • Chinese Mushrooms • dried baby shrimps • dried tangerine peel • dried Sichuan chillies. • Oyster sauce • clear rice vinegar • chili • Chinkiang black rice vinegar • fish sauce • fermented tofu (furu) • Hoisin sauce • ground bean sauce • yellow bean sauce CHINESE COOKING METHODS • Cook/boil (Zhu) • fry or shallow fry (JianPan) • Stir-fry (Chao) • Steam (Zheng) • Deep fry (Zha) • tossing salad in its dressing (Ban/Lao) • Zhuo • Roasting (Kao) • Baking usually in foil or paper (Ju) • Normal baking or toasting process (Hong) • Braising (Shao) • Double-boil (Dun) • Marinate (Yan) CHINESE COOKING UTENSILS • Wok 炒锅 • Steamer 蒸锅 • Spatula 锅铲 • Frying Spoon 煎铲 • Long Chopsticks 长筷子 • Cleaver 菜刀 • Chopping Knife 斩刀 • Chopping Boards 切菜板 • Sizzling Platter 铁板拼盘 • Clay Pot 瓦煲 CHINA’S EIGHT RECOGNIZED CULINARY STYLES 1. Guangdong Cuisine (Cantonese Food/Yue Cuisine): sweeter, favoring braising and stewing, adding various sauces. 2. Sichuan Cuisine (Chuan Cuisine): spicy and bold, using lots of chili, garlic, ginger and peanuts. 3. Shandong Cuisine (Lu Cuisine): salty and crispy, favoring braising and seafood. 4. Fujian Cuisine (Min Cuisine): lighter, with a sweet and sour taste, using ingredients from the sea and the mountains. 5. Jiangsu Cuisine (Su Cuisine): fresh, salty and sweet, favoring soups and precise cooking techniques. 6. Hunan Cuisine (Xiang Cuisine): quite spicy, favors sautéing, stir-frying, steaming and smoking. 7. Anhui Cuisine (Hui Cuisine): uses many wild plants and animals as ingredients, favoring stewing and more oil. 8. Zhejiang Cuisine (Zhe Cuisine): mellow, uses freshwater fish, seafood and bamboo shoots, and a wide variety of cooking methods. CHINESE NEWYEAR FOOD 1. Fish 鱼 Yú /yoo/ Lucky Sayings for Eating Fish: 年年有余 (/nyen-nyen yo-yoo/): May you always get more than you wish for 鱼跃龙门 (/yoo-ywair long-mnn/): A fish leaping over the dragon gate — implying successful passing a competitive examination. 2. Chinese Dumplings 饺子 Jiǎozi Lucky Saying for Eating Dumpling- 招财进宝 (/jaoww-tseye jin-baoww/): 'Bringing in wealth and treasure' — a felicitous wish to make money and amass of a fortune. 3. Spring Rolls 春卷 Chūnjuǎn Lucky Saying for Eating Spring Rolls - 黄金万两 (hwung-jin wan-lyang/): 'A ton of gold' (because the fried spring rolls are gold in color they look like gold bar) — a wish for prosperity.
  3. 3. 4. Niángāo (Glutinous Rice Cake) 年糕 Lucky Saying for Eating Niangao - 年年高 (niánnián gāo /nyen-nyen gaoww/): Getting higher year by year, can imply children's height, business, study, work, etc. APPETIZER • DUMPLINGS • SPRING ROLL • FRIED JUMBO SHRIMP SOUP • CHINESE CHICKEN AND SWEET CORN SOUP • HOT AND SOUR SOUP • EGG DROP SOUP • WONTON SOUP DESSERTS • DOFU FA (SOYBEAN JELLY) • CANDIED BANANA FRITTERS • MANGO PUDDING BEVERAGES TEA • Chrysanthemum tea - The first and most traditional of the teas covered in this article is the refreshing chrysanthemum tea, with its nice floral aroma. • Milk tea - this treat has a smooth creamy feel and bitter aftertaste can be found all over China in various combinations of flavors. One popular form is bubble milk tea, which has tapioca bubbles in the bottom and is often sweetened with various fruit flavors. • Wang Lao Ji tea — commonly referred to by expats simply as “the tea in the red cans”, this is one of the most popular brands of tea Fruity Drinks • Plum juice — made from Chinese plums and sweetened with a bit of sugar, it's the Chinese drink of choice for relief on sweltering summer days. • Arctic Ocean Orange Soda (Beijing) — This refreshing, naturally flavored orange soda • Mai Dong (脉动) Sports Drink — This sports drink in a blue bottle comes in a number of fruit flavors and is China's version of an enhanced fitness water Alcoholic Beverages • Qingdao —it is the most popular Chinese beer domestically and worldwide, it is a highly drinkable beer whether you're looking for a single happy hour drink or enjoying a night on the town. • Baijiu — China's national liquor. Ranging from 40 to a whopping 60% alcohol by volume content, it's a drink you won't soon forget, though the same thing may not be said of a night of baijiu consumption. CHINESE TABLE MANNERS AND DINING ETIQUETTE SEATING ARRANGMENT • The seating arrangement is probably the most important part of Chinese dining etiquette. • Dining etiquette in ancient times was enacted according to a four-tier social strata: 1. the imperial court, 2. local authorities, 3. trade associations and 4. farmers and workers. • Modern dining etiquette has been simplified to: 1. master of the banquet and 2. guests. • The seat of honor, reserved for the master of the banquet or the guest with highest status, is the one in the center facing east or facing the entrance. • If round tables are used, the seat facing the entrance is the seat of honor. • In a grand banquet of many tables, the table of honor is the one furthest from the entrance.
  4. 4. • Guests are seated according to their status and degree of relationship to the master of the banquet. DINING ETIQUETTE • As a guest at a meal, one should be particular about one’s appearance and determine whether to bring small gifts or good wine, according the degree of relationship with the master of the banquet. • It is important to attend and be punctual. • If the guest of honor or most senior member is not seated, other people are not allowed to be seated. If he hasn’t eaten, others should not begin to eat. • When making toasts, the first toast is made from the seat of honor and continuing down the order of prominence. • When eating a meal in China, people are expected to (according to Chinese customs) behave in a civilized manner, pay attention to table manners and practice good dining habits. • Let older people eat first, or if you hear an elder say "let's eat", you can start to eat. You should not steal a march on the elders. • You should pick up your bowl with your thumb on the mouth of the bowl, first finger, middle finger the third finger supporting the bottom of the bowl and palm empty. If you don’t pick up your bowl, bend over the table, and eat facing your bowl, it will be regarded as bad table manners. Moreover, it will have the consequence of compressing the stomach and restricting digestion. CHINESE TABLE MANNERS • Chinese manners don't consist of slurping food down as quickly as possible, and shouting loudly! • When helping yourself to the dishes, you should take food first from the plates in front of you rather than those in the middle of the table or in front of others. • When finding your favorite dish, you should not gobble it up as quickly as possible or put the plate in front of yourself and proceed to eat like a horse. • You should try to refill your bowl with rice yourself and take the initiative to fill the bowls of elders with rice and food from the dishes. • Concentrate on the meal and your companions. Watching television, using your phone, or carrying on some other activity while having a meal is considered a bad habit. • It is not good manners to pick up too much food at a time. You should behave elegantly. When taking food, don’t nudge or push against your neighbor. Don’t let the food splash or let soup or sauce drip onto the table. • When eating, you should close your mouth to chew food well before you swallow it, which is not only a requirement of etiquette, but also better for digestion. • When removing bones or other inedible parts of the meal from your mouth, use chopsticks or a hand to take them and put them on a side plate (or the table) in front of you, instead of spitting them directly onto the table or the ground. • If there is food around your mouth, use a tissue or a napkin to wipe it, instead of licking it with your tongue. When chewing food, don’t make noises. • If you want to cough or sneeze, use your hand or a handkerchief to cover your mouth and turn away. If you find something unpleasant in your mouth when chewing or phlegm in the throat, you should leave the dinner table to spit it out. RULES AND CONVENTIONS RELATING TO CHOPSTICKS: • Chopsticks are called "Kuaizi" in Chinese which resembles the pronunciation of other two words, soon and son. Therefore, it is a tradition in some areas to give chopsticks as a gift to newly-married couples, wishing them to have a baby soon. • Do not stick chopsticks vertically into your food when not using them, especially not into rice, as this will make Chinese people think of funerals. At funerals joss sticks (sticks of incense) are stuck into the rice that is put onto the ancestor altar. • Do not wave your chopsticks around in the air too much or play with them. • Do not stab or skewer food with your chopsticks. • Pick food up by exerting sufficient inward pressure on the chopsticks to grasp the food securely and move it smoothly to your mouth or bowl. • To separate a piece of food into two pieces, exert controlled pressure on the chopsticks while moving them apart from each other. This needs much practice.
  5. 5. • Some consider it unhygienic to use the chopsticks that have been near (or in) one’s mouth to pick food from the central dishes. Serving spoons or chopsticks can be provided, and in this case you will need remember to alternate between using the serving chopsticks to move food to your bowl and your personal chopsticks for transferring the food to your mouth. • Some restaurants in China have forks available and all will have spoons. If you are not used to chopsticks, you can ask the restaurant staff to provide you with a fork or spoon. -Xièxiè 谢谢-